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• Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species,
ecosystem or biome.
• "Biodiversity" is most commonly used to replace the more clearly defined and
long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
• Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species, and
ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to
describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional three
levels at which biological variety has been identified:
• the species are classified into six different species based on iucn
1. normal species
2. endangered species
3. vulnerable species
4. rare species
5. endemic species
6. extinct species
Flora and fauna
• Flora and fauna refer to plant and wildlife, respectively.
• The indigenous plant and wildlife of a geographical region is often
referred to as that region’s flora and fauna.
• Both are collective terms, referring to groups of plant or wildlife
specific to a region or a time period.
• For example, the flora and fauna of a warm region may consist of
tropical to warm-temperate vegetation and exotic species of birds.
Depletion of natural resources
• Human use up the flora and fauna in different ways such as medicines , dyes, ,
food , fodder ,etc .
• The greatest damage inflicted on the indian forests was during the colonial
period . One of the most important reasons for this was construction of
railways . Ther have been lot of trees cut for the railway tracks which was
built in india .
• The other reasons also could be agriculture , commercial and scientific forestry
and mining activities
Types of forests
There are three different types of forest
• Reserve forest
• Protected forest
• Unclassed forest
If you look around you will be able to find unique type of plants
and animals in your area.
India is one of the richest bio diversity country in the world.
Flora and fauna : Over 81,000 species of fauna about 15,000
flowering plants are endemic.
International union of conservation of nature is an international
organisation dedicated to finding pragmatic solutions to our most
pressing environment challenges.
IUCN supports scientific research ,manages field projects
globally and brings governments and non –government
organizations , united nations together to develop and implement
IUCN CLASSIFIES NATURE AS FOLLOWS:
Normal Species: Whose population levels are considered to
normal for survival. e.g.: cattle, pine.
Endangered Species: These are the which are in the danger
of extinction survival of such organism make it difficult e.g.:
Indian rhino ,black buck.
Endemic Species: These are the species that are found only
in some particular areas isolated from geographical conditions
e.g.: Nicobar pigeon, wild pig.
Rare Species: Species with small population may move into endangered
category if the negative affecting them continues to operate. e.g.: hornbill,
Himalayan brown bear.
Extinct Species: These are the species are not found after the search is
known as extinct a species may be extinct from local region , country,
continent of such species are Asiatic cheetah, pink head duck.
The world fastest land mammal ,the cheetah is a unique and
specialized unique member of cat family and can move at the
speed of 112km/hr. its distinguishing marks are the long
teardrop shaped lines on each side of the nose from the
corner of its eyes to its mouth
In 20th century cheetah is nearly extinct due to loss in habitat
and prey. In India in 1952.
We have transformed nature into a
resource obtaining directly or indirectly
from the forest and wildlife-fuel wood
The damage inflicted on Indian forests
is the colonial period due to the
expansion of railways , agriculture,
commercial activities. Even after the
independence agricultural expansion
Between 1951 to 1980,accordind to forest
survey of India , over 26,200sq.km , of
forest area was converted into
agricultural land all over India .
Substantial parts of tribal parts ,
especially in the north and northern
eastern parts of the country is due to
shifting cultivation .
Large scale development projects have
also contributed to the loss of forests.
Narmada Sagar project in Madhya
Pradesh is an important factor.
Mining is another important factor.
The Buxa tiger reserve in west Bengal
is affected by dolomite mining.
Many foresters and
environmentalists hold the view that
the greatest degrading factors
behind depletion of forest resource
and grazing and fuel wood
• Habitat destruction , hunting , poaching , over exploitation, environmental pollution , forest
fires ,are other factors.
forest and wild
RESERVEDFORESTS PROTECTED FORESTS UNCLASSEDFORESTS
• More than half of the total
forests have been declared as
reserved forests. They are
regarded as the most valuable
as far the conservation of forest
resources are concerned
• Almost one third of the total
forest area is protected forest, as
declared by the forest
department. This forests land is
protected from any further
• These are other forests and
wastelands belonging to both
government and private
individuals and communities.
• Jammu and Kashmir,
Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal,
Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West
Bengal and Maharashtra have
large percentages of reserved
• Bihar, Haryana, Punjab,
Himachal Pradesh, Orissa and
Rajasthan have a bulk of it under
• All the North-Eastern states
and parts of Gujarat have very
high percentage of their forests
as unclassed forests managed
by local communities.
Government’s role in conservation of wildlife
Wildlife protection act 1972
Project Tiger 1972-73
Forest Protection Act 1980-88
Anti Poaching Agencies
State wildlife dept.
State forest dept.
Ministry of Environment and Forest
Army ( if applicable)
Border security Force and Coast guards
Wildlife Conservation Society.
• Nature worship is an age old tribal belief based on the premise that
all creations of nature have to be protected. Such belies have
preserved several virgin forests in pristine from called sacred groves.
• The Mundas and the Santhals of Chhota Nagpur region worship
Mahua (Bassi latifolia) and Kadamba(Anthocaphalus cadamba) trees
and the Tribals of Orissa and Bihar worship the Tamarind (Tamarindus
indica) and Mango (Mangifra indica) trees during weddings.
1. Chipko Movement – Early 1970 in GHARWAL HIMALAYAS Uttarakhand
2. Beej Bachao Andolan – 1980 Tehri in Uttarakhand
3. Navdanya- 1984 Started by an NGO to protect India's Biodiversity organic
farming and SEED SAVING
In India Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme furnishes a good example
for involving Local communities in the management and restoration of
degraded forests. The programme is been in formal since 1988 in ODISHA
when the state passed the first resolution for JFM