2. Learning disability
• Learning disability /LD is used to describe a
specific group of children, adolescents and
adults who have problems in learning. These
problems may be in the areas of reading,
writing, spelling and arithmetic.
4. Learning disability
• The term LD was first used by Dr. Samuel Krik,
While addressing a gathering of parents in
Chicago ( Hallahan and Cruickshank,1973).
• ACLD------Association for children with
• NJCLD-National Joint Committee on Learning
5. • All the underachievers are not learning
disabled. LD is not the mental retardation
because the IQ score may be very high range
in many cases. However it can occur along
with other handicapping conditions like
sensory impairment emotional and behavioral
disorders and mental retardation.
6. Stages of screening the child with LD
Poor Scholastic achievement
7. Definitions of Learning Disaability
• According to Kirk, “Learning disability refer to
retardation disorders or delayed development
in one or more of the processes of speech,
language, reading spelling ,writing or
arithmetic resulting from a possible cerebral
dysfunction and or emotional or behavior
disorders and not from mental retardation
,sensory deprivation or cultural or
8. Characteristics and Educational
• Functional disability
• Not as fast as normal children
• Discrepancy between achievement and
• It is a psychological processing disorder and
presumes a central nervous dysfunction.
• Intellectually average or above average.
• Difficulty for reading alphabets and slow reading.
9. Characteristics and Educational
• Difficulty of writing, missing letters and
misspelling the words.
• Speaks well but difficulty for completing a full
sentence without mistakes.
• Illegible and poor handwriting.
• Poor memory and thinking skills.
• Difficulty in dealing mathematics.
• Lack of focusing attention.
10. Characteristics and Educational
• Lack of motor co-ordination.
• Less time management and lack of
• Less emotional maturity.
• Hyperactivity and impulsivity
• Electro encephalographic irregularities
• Perceptual impairment
11. Why awareness and training is needed
to deal with People with LD
• To help them to overcome the specific
• To train them to manage
• Earlier detection helps to avoid Secondary social
and emotional difficulties both for the parents
• It will help the teachers to manage and should
have a good knowledge about the particular
13. Causes of Learning Disability
• Neurological damage, Prolonged labor , Premature birth and other birth
complications, Maternal and paternal age
• Cigarette smoking ,Use of drugs and alcohol addiction, Radiation
• Rubella, other maternal endocrine disorders and nutritional deficiencies., Genetic
• Maturational delay like slow maturation of languages skills, delayed motor
skills, right-left confusion etc.
• inadequate and inappropriate teaching
• emotionally unstable home life
17. Learning Disabilities can be broadly
classified into major categories:
• Disorders of Attention and Hyperactivity
• Reading Disabilities
• Writing Disabilities
• Arithmetic Disabilities
19. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity
• Short attention and lack of concentration are the
most obvious qualities in learning disabled
• ADHD disorders have an early onset , either in
childhood (below five years) or early
adolescence. It is typically characterized by a
short attention span, over-activity and
20. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity
A child may lack concentration because of various reasons:-
LD Poor eye sight/hearing loss
Emotional problems Stress
21. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity
• ADHD learners does not know how to respond to
incoming stimuli or produces incorrect response
or ignoring relevant features of a task or
responds in excessive activity.
• They will not analyze the problems to solve .They
will not think analytically. They will be choosing
the first action that flashes to their mind .
23. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity
• Individuals with this disorder often find
themselves in disciplinary trouble due to their
unthinking rather than a deliberately defined
breach of rules. They appear to be socially
uninhibited, often lack social reserve or
causation and are generally unpopular with their
• The diagnosis of ADHD is done using DSM- 4-
R Criteria for ADHD.
• (DSM - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
• A child to be diagnosed as hyperactive ,he or
she must exhibit at least eight of the 14
specified behaviors more often than children
of the same age.
26. Characteristics mentioned according
to DSM- ш- R are as follows:-
• Often shifts from one activity to other
• Often talks excessively
• Easily distracted by external stimuli
• Has difficulty playing quietly
• Often loses things necessary for tasks or
activities at school or at home
• Has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or
27. Treatment for ADHD
• Stimulant drugs can be used for those with
ADHD. They are Ritalin , Dexedrin , Cylert etc ;
they have some side effects like stomach ache
and poor appetite .These drugs help to
decrease impulsiveness and improve attention
span ,hand writing and ability to follow
• Help the child to master the skill of attention
through different strategies.
28. Reading Disabilities- DYSLEXIA
• Reading is the key factor of education.
• Dyslexia is the widely used term to describe a
child who is unable to read.
• It is a disorder manifested by difficulty in learning
to read despite conventional instruction,
adequate intelligence and socio-cultural
• The children with this disorder will fail to attain
skills of reading, writing and spelling.
29. Reading Disabilities- DYSLEXIA
Characteristics of dyslexic readers are:-
• Read slowly, omit or add words
• Often reversing letters, words or numbers
• Try to guess while reading
• Weak comprehension skill and poor in
• Has an average or above average intelligence
• Concepts are reversed
30. Writing Disability -Dysgraphia
• It is a neurological based disability in which a
person has difficulty in expressing thought on
paper and with writing associated with
problems in gripping and manipulating a
32. Writing Disability -Dysgraphia
Characteristics with dysgraphic individuals are:-
• Total no. of words and length of sentences is
• Errors in spelling, syntax, tense and
• Unable to dial abstract themes and ideas.
33. Arithmetic Disability (Dyscalculia)
• It is described as an important factor in
arithmetic disabilities that is developmental
,rather than acquired. There are different
types of arithmetic disabilities like difficulty
with shape discrimination ,size discrimination
,classification ,counting, problem solving etc.
34. Arithmetic Disability (Dyscalculia)
Characteristics of arithmetic disability are:-
• Unable to associate number with quantity
• Unable to discriminate right /left (spatial
• Unable to reverse numbers
• Poor spatial orientation and ability to make
estimation of space ,size, time, shape and weight
• Difficulty in relating what they see visually with
what they know auditory. That is the difficulty to
relate the spoken word six with written symbol 6
or with word Six.