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Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the
workability by incorporating an admixture
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CERTIFICATE
Department of Civil Engineering,
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Anjuman-I-Islam’s Kalsekar Technical ...
iii
Project Report Approval for B. E.
This project report entitled “Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the...
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Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the

  1. 1. Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the workability by incorporating an admixture Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering By Shaikh Mohd Shadab Mohd Shafi 12CE54 Siddiqui Saquib masood mouzzam 12CE60 Hamza Sayyed Hasham Ali 12CE46 Shaikh Shamsuddoha Mohd Umar 12CE56 Under Guidance of Dr. Abdul Razak Honnutagi DIRECTOR, AIKTC Department of Civil Engineering School of Engineering and Technology Anjuman-I-Islam’s Kalsekar Technical Campus Plot No. 2 3, Sector – 16, Near Thana Naka, Khanda Gaon, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai. 41026 2015-2016
  2. 2. ii CERTIFICATE Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering and Technology Anjuman-I-Islam’s Kalsekar Technical Campus Plot No. 2 3, Sector – 16, Near Thana Naka, Khanda Gaon, New Panvel, Navi Mumbai. 41026 This is to certify that the project entitled “Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the workability by incorporating an admixture” is a bonafide work of Shaikh Mohd Shadab Mohd Shafi (12CE54) , Siddiqui Saquib Masood Mouzzam (12CE60) , Hamza Sayyed Hasham Ali (12CE46) , Shaikh Shamsuddoha Mohd Umar (12CE56) submitted to the University of Mumbai in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of “Bachelor of Engineering” in Department of Civil Engineering. Dr. Abdul Razak Honnutagi Guide Dr. Rajendra B. Magar Dr. Abdul Razak Honnutagi Head of Department Director
  3. 3. iii Project Report Approval for B. E. This project report entitled “Effect of coconut fibre in concrete and to improve the workability by incorporating an admixture” by of Shaikh Mohd Shadab Mohd Shafi , Siddiqui Saquib Masood Mouzzam , Hamza Sayyed Hasham Ali , Shaikh Shamsuddoha Mohd Umar is approved for the degree of “Bachelor of Engineering” in “Department of Civil Engineering”. Examiners 1 ______________________ 2 ______________________ Supervisors 1 ______________________ 2 ______________________ Director _______________________ Date:
  4. 4. iv Declaration We declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others ideas or words have been included, we have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. we also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academics honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. we understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed. Shaikh Mohd Shadab Mohd Shafi 12CE54 Siddiqui Saquib Masood Mouzzam 12CE60 Hamza Sayyed Hasham Ali 12CE46 Shaikh Shamsuddoha Mohd Umar 12CE56
  5. 5. v Table of Content Acknowledgement Abstract List of Tables 1. Introduction 1.1 General 1.2 Comparison with other natural fiber 1.3 Coconut fibre in construction 2. Review of Literature 2.1 Literature review 3. MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 General 3.2 Materials 3.2.1 Binder Materials 3.2.1.1 Ordinary Portland Cement 3.2.2 Superplasticizers 3.2.3 Aggregates 3.2.3.1 Coarse Aggregates 3.2.3.2 Fine Aggregates 3.2.3.3 Coconut fibre 3.3 Experimental Programme 3.4 Methodology 3.4.1 Tests on coarse aggregate 3.4.2 Tests on fine aggregate 1 1 1 4 6 6 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 16 17
  6. 6. vi 3.4.3 Preparation and pretreatment of fibre 3.4.3.1 Fibre Preparation 3.4.3.2 Fibre pretreatment 3.4.4 Treatment with boiling water and washing 3.4.5 Master Glenium SKY8654 3.5 Mix design 3.6 Test procedure of Fresh Concrete and Hard Concrete 3.6.1 Workability Test 3.6.1.1 slump test 3.6.1.2 flow table test 3.6.2 Test On Hard Concrete 3.6.2.1 Compressive Strength Test 3.6.2.2 Split Tensile Test 3.7 Casting Of Cubes And Cylinder 3.7.1 Casting Of Cubes 3.7.2 Casting Of Cylinder 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Test on fresh concrete 4.2 Test on hard concrete 4.2.1 Compressive Strength Of Concrete 4.2.1.1 Graphs 4.2.2 Split Tensile Strength Of Concrete 5. Conclusion 6. References 17 20 20 20 20 20 21 25 25 25 27 29 29 31 33 33 34 35 35 37 37 37 47 49
  7. 7. vii Acknowledgement I would like to express my sincere appreciation to all those who contributed to the successful completion of this research programme. In particular, I would like to thanks the following people. I express my gratitude to my Guide and H.O.D of Civil Engineering Department of AIKTC, Abdul Razzak Honnutagi for his guidance in completing the research work. His advice and encouragement during the preparation of this report is sincerely appreciated. I am extremely grateful to Sunil Reddy ,Worker In BASF Chemical Industries ,TURBHE for their excellent guidance and for helping us by providing us with the necessary materials and vital contacts required to complete this project. I am thankful to all the Professor of Civil Engineering Department for their guidance and support to this research. I would also like to extend my gratitude to the nonteaching staff of the AIKTC Sincere thanks are extended to: Wasim M.Patel for providing the cement and sands J.M Mhatre Pvt. Ltd for providing Aggregates. BASF Chemical company for providing the Super Plasticizer. AMBER Coconut fibre LTD.
  8. 8. viii ABSTRACT Natural fibres are those fibre which are pollution free, environment friendly and does not have any bad effect on climate. Every year there is ample amount of wastages of natural fibre .If these natural fibres used as a construction material it could save the bio-reserves. They acts as green construction material. Amongst all natural fibres, CF is the fibre which has the better physical and chemical property also it is renewable, cheap, resistant to thermal conductivity, more durable, highest toughness, most ductile then the other natural fibre, it is capable of taking strain four time more than other fibres. Hence, CF is a best material to be used in construction. The objective of this investigation is to enhance the strength properties of concrete using coconut fibre. Addition of CF resulted into cohesive mix. To overcome this drawback the suitable dosage of admixture was incorporated without effecting it strength properties. In the present study the behavior of specimen with respect to compressive strength and the cracking behavior of concrete and CFRC has been investigated. According to I.S. specification different test is conducted to enhance the workability and strength properties by addition of CF. different test such as slump test and flow table test on fresh concrete is carried out and compressive strength and split tensile strength is carried out on hard concrete. The present study involves the use of super plasticizer, master glenium 8654 (0.4% by mass cone test) in M30 grade of concrete (grade ratio =1:1.918:2.898) which helps in enhancing the workability without affecting the strength with CF (2%,3.5%,5%) and is compared with the conventional concrete of same grade.
  9. 9. ix List of Tables Table 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 4.1 Caption Properties of coarse aggregate Sieve analysis Zone analysis Properties of fine aggregate Mix proportions of concrete mixes Cube casting schedule Cylinder casting schedule Workability test Pg. No. 18 20 20 21 26 34 35 36 4.2 Compressive Strength Results 38 4.3 Split Tensile Results 43
  10. 10. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 General Coconut fibre is extracted from the outer shell of a coconut. The common name, scientific name and plant family of coconut fibre is Coir, Cocos nucifera and Arecaceae (Palm) respectively. There are two types of coconut fibres, brown fibre extracted from matured coconuts and white fibres extracted from immature coconuts. Coconut fibres are stiff and tough and have low thermal conductivity. Coconut fibres are commercial available in three forms, namely bristle (long fibres), mattress (relatively short) and decorticated (mixed fibres). According to official website of International Year for Natural Fibres approximately, 500 000 tonnes of coconut fibres are produced annually worldwide, mainly in India and Sri Lanka. India and Sri Lanka are also the main exporters, followed by Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines and Indonesia. Around half of the coconut fibres produced is exported in the form of raw fibre. There are many general advantages of coconut fibres. e.g. they are moth-proof, resistant to fungi and rot, pro- vide excellent insulation against temperature and sound, not easily combustible, flame-retardant, unaffected by moisture and dampness, tough and durable, resilient, springs back to shape even after constant use, totally static free and easy to clean. 1.2 Comparison with other natural fiber The stress strain relationship with other natural fibre as shown by the different researcher in fig 1.a 1.b & 1.c
  11. 11. Chapter 1 Introduction 2 | P a g e 50 40 30 Coconut fibre 20 10 Fig.1a Strain (%) 800 600 Ramie bast Pineapple Sansevieria Abaca Sisal 200 Coconut Fig.1b Strain (%) 24 800 Pineapple 600 Banana 400 Sisal 200 Palmyrah Coconut Fig.1c Strain (%) 39
  12. 12. Chapter 1 Introduction 3 | P a g e Coconut fibre is differ from the other natural fibre because of the following physical and chemical properties. 1. Coconut fibres have the highest toughness compared to that of other natural fibres as reported by Majid ali et al.[10] 2. The strain of the coconut fibre is 24% to 39% while the other natural fibre are in the range of 3% to 6% .[11] 3. Coconut fibre is the most ductile fibre amongst all natural fibres.[9] 4. Coconut fibres are capable of taking strain 4-6 times more than that of other fibres as shown in the fig.1a,1b,1c reported by majid [10] Figure 1.2 show a coconut tree, coconut and coconut fibres. Figure 1.3 shows the structure (longitudinal and cross section) of an individual fibre cell (Abiola, 2008). Figure 1.4 shows the matured coconut fibres Fig. 1.2 Coconut Tree, Coconut And Coconut Fibres
  13. 13. Chapter 1 Introduction 4 | P a g e Fig. 1.3 Longitudinal and cross-section of a fibre cell (Abiola, 2008). Fig. 1.4 Matured coconut fibers 1.3 Coconut fibre in construction Plain concrete is a brittle material with low tensile strength. There has been a steady increase in the use of short and randomly distributed natural fibres to reinforce the matrix (paste, mortar and concrete). Fibres alter the behaviour of concrete when a crack occurs by bridging across the cracks (Fig.1.5), and thus can provide some post-
  14. 14. Chapter 1 Introduction 5 | P a g e cracking toughness. Fibres crossing the crack guarantee a certain level of stress transfer between both faces of crack, provid- ing a residual strength to the composite, whose magnitude depends on the fibre, matrix and fibre–matrix interface Fig.1.5 Coconut fibre bridging crack Strength and durability are often regarded as the most important criteria in concrete structure designs. These criteria especially apply for marine structures, which are exposed to hazardous environments and used in heavy-duty tasks such as resisting abrasion and erosion from ocean waves, high loading for shipments, and high seismic loading from the collision of water transports to the structure, among others. The experimental results prove that the compressive and flexural strengths of the structures improve up to 13% and 9%, respectively with the incorporation of coconut fibers.reported by mahyuddin [7]
  15. 15. Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Literature review A brief outline of different literatures approaches along with few important references is presented in the subsequent paragraph as follows. Slate FO (1976) Investigated compressive and flexural strength of coconut fibre reinforced mortar. Two cement-sand ratios by weight, 1:2.75 with water cement ratio of 0.54 and 1:4 with water cement ratio of 0.82 were considered. Fibre content was 0.08%, 0.16% and 0.32% by total weight of cement, sand and water. The mortars for both design mixes without any fibres were also tested as reference. Cylinders of 50 mm diameter and 100 mm height and beams of 50 mm width, 50 mm depth and 200 mm length were tested. The curing was done for 8 days only. It was found that, compared to that of plain mortar of both mix designs, all strengths were increased in the case of fibre reinforced mortar with all considered fibre contents. However, a decrease in strength of mortar with an increase of fibre content was also observed. Cook et al (1978) Reported the use of coconut fibre reinforced cement composites as low cost roofing materials. The parameters studied were fibre lengths (2.5, 3.75 and 6.35 cm), fibre volumes (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10% and 15%) and casting pressure (from 1 to 2 MPa with an increment of 0.33 MPa). They concluded that the optimum composite consisted of fibres with a
  16. 16. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 7| P a g e length of 3.75 cm, a fibre volume fraction of 7.5% and is casted under the pressure of 1.67 MPa. A comparison revealed that this composite was much cheaper than locally available roofing materials. Aziz et al (1981) Studied the mechanical properties of cement paste composites for different lengths and volume fractions of coconut fibres. Aziz et al. concluded that the tensile strength and modulus of rupture of cement paste increased when fibres up to 38 mm fibre length and 4% volume fraction were used. A further increase in length or volume fraction could reduce the strength of composite. The tensile strength of cement paste composite was 1.9, 2.5, 2.8, 2.2 and 1.5 MPa when it was reinforced with 38 mm long coconut fibre and the volume fractions of 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 6%, respectively. The corresponding modulus of rupture was 3.6, 4.9, 5.45, 5.4 and 4.6 MPa, respectively. 4% volume fraction of coconut fibres gave the highest mechanical properties amongst all tested cases. With 4% volume fraction, they also studied the tensile strength of cement paste reinforced with different lengths of coconut fibres. With the fibre lengths of 25, 38 and 50 mm, the reported tensile strength was 2.3, 2.8 and 2.7 MPa, respectively. The results indicated that coconut fibres with a length of 38 mm and a volume fraction of 4% gave the maximum strength. Paramasivam et al (1984) Conducted a feasibility study of coconut fibre reinforced corrugated slabs of 915 mm,460 mm,10 mm for low-cost housing. A cement–sand ratio of 1:0.5 and water–cement ratio of 0.35 were used. Test for flexural strength using third point loading was performed. For producing required slabs having a flexural strength of 22 MPa, a fibre length of 2.5 cm, a volume fraction of 3%, and a casting pressure of 0.15 MPa were recommended. The thermal conductivity and absorption coefficient for low frequency sound were comparable with those of asbestos boards.
  17. 17. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 8| P a g e John et al (2005) Studied the coir fibre reinforced low alkaline cement mortar taken from the internal and external walls of a 12 year old house. The panel of the house was roduced using 1:1.5:0.504 (cement:sand:water, by mass) mortar reinforced with 2% of coconut fibres by volume. Fibres removed from the old samples were reported to be undamaged. No significant difference was found in the lignin content of fibres removed from external and internal walls, confirming the durability of coconut fibres in cement composites. Mohammad et al (2005) Tested wall panels made of gypsum and cement as binder and coconut fibre as reinforcement. Bending and compressive strength, moisture content, density and water absorption were investigated. As expected, coconut fibres did not contribute to bending strength of the tested wall panels. Compressive strength increased with the addition of coconut fibres. There was no considerable change of moisture content with coconut fibres. However, moisture content increased with time. Water absorption of panels was not significantly affected with an increase in fibre content. Ramakrishna et al (2005) He is investigated the variation in chemical composition and tensile strength for four natural fibres, i.e. coconut, sisal, jute and hibiscus cannabinus fibres, when subjected to alter- nate wetting and drying, continuous immersion for 60 days in water, saturated lime and sodium hydroxide. The chemical composition of all fibres changed because of immersion in the considered solutions. Continuous immersion was found to be critical due to the loss of their tensile strength. However, coconut fibres were reported best for retaining a good percentage of its original tensile strength in all tested conditions. He also Carried out the experiments on impact resistance of slabs using a falling weight of 0.475 kg from a height of 200 mm. The slabs consisted of 1:3 cement–sand mortar with the dimension of 300 mm _ 300 mm _ 20 mm. They were reinforced with coconut, sisal, jute and hibiscus cannabinus fibres having four different fibre contents of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.5% by
  18. 18. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 9| P a g e weight of cement and three fibre lengths of 20, 30 and 40 mm. A fibre content of 2% and a fibre length of 40 mm of coconut fibres showed the best performance by absorbing 253.5 J impact energy. At ultimate failure all fibres, except coconut fibres, showed fibre fracture while coconut fibre showed fibre pull-out. The ultimate failure was determined based on the number of blows required to open a crack in the specimen sufficiently and for the propagation of the crack through the entire depth of the specimen. Li et al (2006) Studied untreated and alkalized coconut fibres with the lengths of 20 mm and 40 mm as reinforcement in cementitious composites. Mortar was mixed in a laboratory mixer at a constant speed of 30 rpm, with cement: sand: water: super plasticizer ratio of 1:3:0.43:0.01 by weight, and fibres were slowly put into the running mixer. The resulting mortar had a better flexural strength (increased up to 12%), higher energy absorption ability (up to 1680%) and a higher ductility (up to 1740%), and is lighter than the conventional mortar. Reis et al (2006) Performed third-point loading tests to investigate the flexural strength, fracture toughness and fracture energy of epoxy polymer concrete reinforced with coconut, sugarcane bagasse and banana fibres. The investigation revealed that fracture toughness and energy of coconut fibre reinforced polymer concrete were the highest, and an increase of flexural strength up to 25% was observed with coconut fibres. Asasutjarit et al (2007) Determined the physical (density, moisture content, water absorption and thickness swelling), mec(modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and internal bond) and thermal properties of coir-based light weight cement board after 28 days of hydration. The hysical and mechanical properties were measured by Japanese Industrial Standard JIS A 5908- 1994 and the thermal properties according to JIS R 2618. The parameters studied were fibre length, coir pre-treatment and mixture ratio. 6 cm long boiled and washed fibres with the optimum cement:fibre:water weight ratio of 2:1:2 gave the highest modulus of rupture and
  19. 19. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 10| P a g e internal bond amongst the tested specimens. The board also had a thermal conductivity lower than other commercial flake board composite. Baruah et al (2007) Investigated the mechanical properties of plain concrete (PC) and fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) with s fibre volume fractions ranging from 0.5% to 2%. Steel, synthetic and jute and coconut fibres were used. Here, the discussion is limited to the coconut fibres reinforced concrete (CFRC) only. The cement:sand:aggregate ratio for plain concrete was 1:1.67:3.64, and the water cement ratio was 0.535. Coconut fibres having length of 4 cm and an average diameter of 0.4 mm with volume fraction of 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% were added to prepare CFRC. The sizes of specimens were (1) 150 mm diameter and 300 mm height for cylinders (2) 150 mm width, 150 mm depth and 700 mm length for beams, and (3) 150 mm cubes having a cut of 90 mm _ 60 mm in cross-section and 150 mm high for L-shaped shear test specimens. All specimens were cured for 28 days. The compressive strength r, splitting tensile strength (STS), modulus of rupture (MOR) using four point load test and shear strength s, are shown in Table 1 for PC and CFRC. It can be seen that CFRC with 2% fibres showed the best overall performance amongst all volume fractions. The compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture and shear strength of coir fibre reinforced concrete with 2% fibres by volume fraction were increased up to 13.7%, 22.9%, 28.0% and 32.7%, respectively as compared to those of plain concrete. Their research indicated that all these properties were improved as well for CFRC with other fibre volume fractions of 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Even for CFRC with small fibre volume fraction of 0.5% the corresponding properties were increased up to 1.3%, 4.9%, 4.0% and 4.7%, respectively. Li et al (2007) Studied fibre volume fraction and fibre surface treatment with a wetting agent for coir mesh reinforced mortar using nonwoven coir mesh matting. They performed a four-point bending test and concluded that cementitious composites, reinforced by three layers of coir mesh with a low fibre content of 1.8%, resulted in a 40% improvement in the maximum flexural
  20. 20. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 11| P a g e strength. The composites were 25 times stronger in flexural toughness and about 20 times higher in flexural ductility. To the best knowledge of the authors the only research [25] on the static CFRC properties is done with only one coir fibre length of 4 cm. With regard to dynamic properties of CFRC, no study has been reported. Dynamic tests had been performed only for concrete reinforced by other fibres, e.g. polyolefin fibres [32] or rubber scrap [33]. To reveal the consequence of fibre length for CFRC properties, thorough investigations involving more fibre lengths and other parameters are required in order to have reliable insights. To be ableregions, the knowledge of static and dynamic properties of CFRC is necessary. This study is the first step in filling this knowledge gap. CFRC can be used in blocks, parking pavements to avoid shrinkage cracks. Even it can also be used in normal reinforced concrete to improve its behaviour during earthquake. But it needs to be properly investigated before implementation. Abiola et al (2008) Evaluated the mechanical properties (load-extension curves, stress strain curves, Young’s modulus, yield stress, stress and strain at break) inner and outer coconut fibres experimentally, and the results were verified by finite element method using a commercial software ABAQUS. The author found that the inner coconut fibre had a higher mechanical strength as compared to that of outer fibre, but the outer coconut fibre had a higher elongation property which could makes it to absorb or with stand higher stretching energy as compared to the inner coconut fibre. Majid Ali et al (2011) He investigated and studied the versatility and application of coconut fibre in different fields. He concluded that Coconut fibre are reported as more ductile and energy absorbent material. It is concluded that coconut fibre have potential to be used in composite for different purpose.
  21. 21. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 12| P a g e Majid Ali et al (2012) Investigate the effect of fibre embedment lengths, diameters, retreatment conditions and concrete mix design ratios on the bond strength between single coconut fibre and concrete is investigated. He is investigated the bond strength between the coconut fibre in the concrete and the result shown that fibre have the maximaum bond strength with concrete under the following condtion. 1. When the embedment length of the fibre is 30 mm 2. Fibres are thick 3. When the fibre is treated with boiling water 4. The concrete mix design ratio should be 1:3:3 He concluded that based on these conducted experiment empirical equation are developed to determine the bond strength ζ = αβ[aL3 +bL2 +c(L-1)] Where L is the embedment length (in cm) of coconut fibre in con- crete; a, b and c are its constants having values of —0.0166, 0.112 and —0.188, respectively Experiments have been performed to investigate the mechanical and dynamic properties of coconut fibre reinforced concrete (CFRC). The mechanical properties are static modulus of elasticity Estatic, compressive strength r, compressive toughness Tc, splitting tensile strength STS, modulus of rupture MOR, total toughnes and density. These properties are also compared with those of plain concrete. The dynamic properties are damping ratio n, fun-damental frequency f and dynamic modulus of elasticity Edynamic of CFRC beams. The considered fibre lengths are 2.5, 5 and 7.5 cm and the fibre contents are 1%, 2% and 3% for all fibre lengths, and 5% for 2.5 and 5 cm long fibres. Three specimens of CFRC are tested for each combination of fibres to get reliable average results. The static investigation reveals the testing confirmed that coconut fibres in concrete can improve its flexural toughness considerably for all considered cases. The CFRC with 5 cm long fibres having 5% fibre content has an increased r, Tc, MOR and TTI up to 4%, 21%, 2% and
  22. 22. Chapter 2 Review Of Literature 13| P a g e 910%, respec-tively, and decreased Estatic, STS and density up to 6%, 2% and 3%, respectively, as compared to that of plain concrete. Shreeshail.B.H et al (2014) They investigate the study of possibilities to use the coconut fiber in addition to the other constituents of concrete and to study the strength properties. A literature survey was carried out, which indicates that the detailed investigation of coconut fiber concrete is necessary. In the present study the deformation properties of concrete beams with fibers under static loading condition and the behavior of structural components in terms of compressive strength for plain concrete(PC) and coconut fiber reinforced concrete(CFRC) has been studied.
  23. 23. CHAPTER 3 MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY 3.1 General The present study envisages the performance of coconut fiber reinforced concrete on replacement of cement. This chapter gives detail account of the various materials used in present study along with its physical, chemical and other allied properties/ characteristics. It also accomplish the objectives of the study, the experimental program was carried out on cubes and cylinders. The details of the materials used for these specimens and testing procedure incorporated in the test program are presented in the subsequent sections. 3.2 Materials In view of the proposed experimental study, the materials such as Super plasticizers, Ordinary Portland Cement, Coir or Coconut Fibers, Aggregates (Metal 10, Metal 20) and Crushed Sand were used.
  24. 24. Chapter 3 Methodology 15 | P a g e 3.2.1 Binder Materials 3.2.1.1 Ordinary Portland Cement The cement used in the said investigation comprised of Ordinary Portland Cement (Ultratech Cement of 53 Grade) which was made available by local supplier from panvel. 3.2.2 Super plasticizers The super plasticizer used, namely Master Glenium SKY8654, was procured from BASF Pvt. Ltd. Turbhe. 3.2.3 Aggregates 3.2.3.1 Coarse Aggregates Coarse aggregates of 20 mm and 10 mm nominal size having specific gravity 2.66 confirming to IS 383:1970 was used in this investigation. 3.2.3.2 Fine Aggregates Crushed sand of zone-II having specific gravity 2.64 confirming to IS 383:1970 was used in this Investigation. Coconut fibers The coconut fiber is collected from ---. Average diameter of fiber is 0.0220 cm, the average length of the fiber is almost 25 cm. after analyzing and referring the journals, fiber was cut to 2.5cm. 3.3 Experimental Programme. The present study involves a series of various tests performed on various materials to arrive upon certain physical properties wherever required and if not given along with the prominent tests to
  25. 25. Chapter 3 Methodology 16 | P a g e evaluate the strength parameters. The various tests that were conducted during the present study include: 1. Determination of specific gravity of aggregates and crushed sand. 2. Determination of water absorption of aggregates and crushed sand. 3. Preparation and pre-treatment of coir. 4. Determination of Compressive strength of concrete. 5. Determination of split tensile strength of concrete 6. Determination of super plasticizer by mass cone test 3.4 Methodology A concrete mix was designed to achieve the minimum grade as required by IS 456 – 2000. The investigation done by the different proportion of coconut fibre in the concrete mix design. By referring the journal number [14]-As the fibre content is increased the mix became more cohesive & the workability is decreased. Therefore the suitability of coconut fibre reinforced concrete with super plasticizer is studied in comparison with different proportion of coconut fiber. By adding the coconut fibre the workability was not achieved which was required. Therefore a superplasticizer is added which gave the good workability and also not affect on the properties and strength of concrete. The optimum percentage of master gylanium is determine with the help of mass cone test. Minimum of three test specimen was taken for each analysis. The following tests conducted on the respective specimens.  Compressive Strength on cube  Splitting Tensile Strength on cylinder Concrete mixes of grade M30 was made using OPC. Replacement of cement was made using Supplementary Coconut Fibers, with defined percentage 2%, 3.5%, 5% repectively.
  26. 26. Chapter 3 Methodology 17 | P a g e The concrete mixes were tested for compressive strength at 3 days, 14 days, and 28 days of curing. Following section describes the experimental programme and the procedures used for conducting various tests involved in the programme. Tests on Materials 3.4.1 Tests on coarse aggregate The coarse aggregate passing through 20mm size sieve and retaining on 10mm sieve is tested as per IS:2386-1963 and properties are listed in table 3.1 Table 3.1 Properties of Aggregate Sr.no Property Value 1 Specific gravity 2.66 2 Water absorption 2.92% 3.4.2 Tests on Fine aggregate The fine aggregate passing through 4.75mm size sieve is tested as per IS:2386 and properties are listed below.  SIEVE ANALYSIS Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and fine aggregates. This is done by sieving the aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part I) – 1963. In this we use different sieves as standardized by the IS code and then pass aggregates through them and thus collect different sized particles left over different sieves. Fig.3a shows the distribution of fine aggregate. I. The apparatus used are –A set of IS Sieves of sizes – 80mm, 63mm, 50mm, 40mm,31.5mm, 25mm, 20mm, 16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm,4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600μm, 300μm, 150μm and 75μm. II. Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1 percent of the weight of the test sample.
  27. 27. Chapter 3 Methodology 18 | P a g e The weight of sample available should not be less than the weight given below: The sample for sieving should be prepared from the larger sample either by quartering or by means of a sample divider. Procedure to determine particle size distribution of Aggregates. 1. The test sample is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 110 + 5oC and weighed. 2. The sample is sieved by using a set of IS Sieves. 3. On completion of sieving, the material on each sieve is weighed. 4. Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total sample weight. 5. Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative percentage of aggregates retained on each sieve and dividing the sum by 100. Fig. 3a Sieve analysis of Fine aggregate.
  28. 28. Chapter 3 Methodology 19 | P a g e Table 3.2 & 3.3 shows the sieve analysis and zone analysis Observation Table: Table 3.2: Sieve Analysis Sieve Average Weight (gm.) Percentage Retained Cumulative % retained Cumulative % passing 4.75 mm - - - - 2.36 mm 25 1.23 1.23 98.77 1.18 mm 665 32.75 33.98 66.02 600 micron 760 37.43 71.41 28.59 300 micron 460 22.66 94.07 5.93 150 micron 95 4.67 98.74 1.26 pan 25 1.23 100 0 Table 3.3: Zone Analysis I.S. Sieve mm Percentage Passing Remarks As per actual test IS Requirements for Zone I Zone II 4.75 mm - 90-100 90-100 Falling in Zone I 2.36 mm 25 60-95 75-100 1.18 mm 665 30-70 55-90 600 micron 760 15-34 35-59 300 micron 460 5-20 8-30 150 micron 95 0-20 0-20
  29. 29. Chapter 3 Methodology 20 | P a g e Fig 3.4 shows the properties of aggregates such as specific and sieve analysis of fine aggregate. Table 3.4 Properties of Aggregate Property Value 1 Specific gravity 2.64 2 Sieve Analysis Zone I 3.4.3 Preparation and pretreatment of fibers. 3.4.3.1Fiber preparation Coconut fibres are loosed and soaked in tap water for 30 min to soften the fibres and to remove coir dust. Fibres are washed and soaked again for 30 min. Washing and soaking are repeated three times. Fibres are then straightened manually and combed with a steel comb. To accelerate drying process, wet long fibres are put in an oven at 30 °C for 10–12 h where for the most part moisture is removed and the chance of fibre burning is avoided. The fibres are then dried in the open air. 3.4.4 Fibre pre-treatment Only soaked and medium fibres are chosen for further pre- treatments as follows: 3.4.5 Treatment with boiling water and washing. The soaked fibres are put in boiling water for 2 h. They are then washed with tap water until the colour of the water is clear. The fibres are then dried in the same manner as the soaked fibres. These treated fibres are named as boiled fibres. 3.4.6 Master Glenium SKY8654: Optimum dosage of 0.4% of super plasticer of master glenium SKY8654 was obtained using marsh cone test with w/c ratio: 0.5.
  30. 30. Chapter 3 Methodology 21 | P a g e Fig.3b shows the mass cone test in which how the percentage of master glenium is set as an admixture Fig. 3b Marsh Cone Test 3.5 Mix Design: 3.5.1 Designing Mix Step wise: 1. Stipulations for Proportioning Grade designation : M30 Type of cement : OPC {conforming to IS: 489 (part 1)} Maximum nominal size of aggregate : Minimum cement content : Maximum water-cement ratio : 0.5 Exposure condition : Medium Degree of quality control : Fair Type of aggregate : Crushed angular aggregate Maximum cement content : Chemical admixture type : Super-plasticizer (0.1 %) 2 gm (0.2%) 4 gm (0.3%) 6 gm (0.4%) 8 gm (0.5%) 10 gm (0.6%) 12 gm (0.7%) 14 gm (0.8%) 16 gm time 6.95 6.55 6.03 6.26 5.82 4.78 4.56 4.23 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Timeinsec Marsh cone test
  31. 31. Chapter 3 Methodology 22 | P a g e 2. Test Data for Materials Cement used : OPC (conforming to IS: 489 (part 1)) Specific gravity of cement : 3.15 Chemical admixture : Super-plasticizer conforming to IS 9103 Specific gravity of Coarse aggregate : 2.66 Fine aggregate : 2.64 Water absorption: Coarse aggregate : - Fine aggregate : - Sieve analysis : Conforming to grading Zone I of Table 4 of IS 383 2. Target Strength for Mix Proportioning Where: = Target average compressive strength at 28 days. = Characteristic compressive strength at 28 days. = Standard deviation. From Table I, Standard deviation = ⁄ . Therefore, target strength = = ⁄ . 3. Selection of Water - Cement Ratio From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, maximum water-cement ratio = 0.5.
  32. 32. Chapter 3 Methodology 23 | P a g e 4. Selection of Water - Content From Table 2, maximum water content = 5. Calculation of Cement Water-cement ratio = 0.5 Cementitious material content = ⁄ From Table 5 of IS 456:2000, Minimum cement = ⁄ Content for “severe” exposure conditions ⁄ ⁄ , Hence OK. 6. Proportion of Volume of Coarse Aggregate and Fine Aggregate Content From Table 3, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to size aggregate and fine aggregate of Zone II for water-cement ratio of . Total volume of aggregate = 1 = 1 = 0.6881 Mix Calculations The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be as follows: Volume of concrete = . Volume of cement
  33. 33. Chapter 3 Methodology 24 | P a g e = . Volume of water = . Mass of coarse aggregate = = = . Mass of fine aggregate = = = . 7. Mix Proportions Cement = . Water = . Fine aggregate = . Coarse aggregate = Water-cement ratio =
  34. 34. Chapter 3 Methodology 25 | P a g e Table 3.5 Mix proportion 3.6 Test procedure of Fresh Concrete and Hard Concrete. 3.6.1 Workability Test: Test on fresh concrete were carried out to determine the workability of conventional concrete as well as with CFRC as per IS CODE 1199-1959 and the procedure of slump cone test and flow table test are as follows. 3.6.1.1 Slump Test Slump test is the most common test to evaluate the workability of a fresh concrete in worldwide. Although the slump test „does not measure the workability of concrete‟ (Neville, 1997), it is useful to „obtain the difference in the consistency of fresh concrete‟ (Murdock et. al, 1968) and detecting „variations in the uniformity of concrete mix‟ (Neville, 1997). The apparatus of slump test is simple, portable and suitable for laboratory and on-site testing. After the concrete was fully mixed, the fresh concrete was undertaken for use in the slump test. The test procedure was carried out accordance with IS: 1199 - 1959. The apparatus of slump test was shown in fig.3.6.a Apparatus: The following apparatus and equipment complying with the relevant provisions of IS: 1199 -1959 were used. Mould: The mould shall be constructed of metal (brass or aluminum shall not be used) of at least l-6 mm (or 16 BG) thickness and the top and bottom shall be open and at right angles to the axis of the cone. The mould shall have a smooth internal surface. It shall be provided with suitable foot w/c (kg/ ) Cement content (kg/ ) Fine aggregate (kg/ ) Coarse aggregate (kg/ ) 189.44 378.88 726.74 1098.367 0.5 1 1.918 2.898
  35. 35. Chapter 3 Methodology 26 | P a g e pieces and also handles to facilitate lifting it from the moulded concrete test specimen in a vertical direction as required by the test. A mould provided with a suitable guide attachment may be used. Dimensions of the mould were as below. Bottom diameter = . Top diameter = . Vertical height = . Tamping Rod: The tamping rod shall be of steel or other suitable material, 16 mm in diameter, 0.6 m long and rounded at one end. Scoop: An appropriate size which large enough to accommodate the maximum size of aggregate in the concrete mix. Base plate: A smooth, rigid and non-absorbent material of base metal plate with minimum 3.0mm thickness. Ruler: Appropriate steel ruler is required for measurement of slump height. Fig.3.6.a Slump Cone Apparatus
  36. 36. Chapter 3 Methodology 27 | P a g e Test Procedure The test procedure was in accordance to IS: 1199 - 1959. The procedure of the testing was as follow. 1. The internal surface of the mould was cleaned (free from set concrete) and moistened with a damp cloth immediately before beginning of each test. 2. The mould placed on a smooth and horizontal surface. The mould was hold firmly by standing on the foot pieces against the base plate while the mould is being filled. 3. The mould was filled in three layers approximately one-third of the height of the mould. Each layer was rodded 25 strokes with the metal rod. The strokes were distributed in a uniform manner over the cross-section of the mould. 4. After the top layer has been rodded, the excessive concrete on the top of the mould strike off or rolled off with the rodded. A firm downward pressure was maintained at all times until the mould is removed. 5. The mould was immediately removed from the concrete by raising it‟s slowly and carefully in a vertical direction, allowing the concrete to collapse. 6. The mould was placed upside down next to the collapse concrete. The steel rod was positioned on to the mould. 7. The slump immediately was measured by determining the difference between the height of the mould and the average height of the top surface of the concrete. 3.6.1.2 Flow Table Test : OBJECTIVE For determination of consistency of concrete where the nominal maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 38 mm using flow table apparatus.
  37. 37. Chapter 3 Methodology 28 | P a g e REFERENCE STANDARD IS : 1199 – 1959 – Method of sampling and analysis of concrete. EQUIPMENT & APPARATUS  Fig3.6.b shows the Flow table test apparatus Fig. 3.6.b Flow table test ROCEDURE 1. Before commencing test, the table top and inside of the mould is to be wetted and cleaned of all gritty material and the excess water is to be removed with a rubber squeezer. 2. The mould is to be firmly held on the centre of the table and filled with concrete in two layers, each approximately one-half the volume of the mould and rodded with 25 strokes with a tamping rod, in a uniform manner over the cross section of the mould. 3. After the top layer has been rodded, the surface of the concrete is to be struck off with a trowel so that the mould is exactly filled. 4. The mould is then removed from the concrete by a steady upward pull. 5. The table is then raised and dropped from a height of 12.5 mm, 15 times in about 15 seconds.
  38. 38. Chapter 3 Methodology 29 | P a g e 6. The diameter of the spread concrete is the average of six symmetrically distributed caliper measurements read to the nearest 5 mm. CALCULATION The flow of the concrete is the percentage increase in diameter of spread concrete over the base diameter of the moulded concrete, calculated from the following formula. -----------------(1) 3.6.2 Tests on Hard concrete. Tests on hard concrete were carried out to determine the strength of conventional concrete and modified with CFRC and admixture. Age of Testing For each mix, sets of three cubes were cast and cured and these were then tested at each of the following test ages: 3 days, 14 days and 28 days. 3.6.2.1 Compressive Strength Test: Compressive strength of a concrete is a measure of its ability to resist static load, which tends to crush it. Most common test on hardened concrete is compressive strength test. It is because the test is easy to perform. Furthermore, many desirable characteristic of concrete are qualitatively related to its strength and the importance of the compressive strength of concrete in structural design. The compressive strength gives a good and clear indication that how the strength is affected with the self-curing additives in the test specimens. The compressive strength of concrete can be calculated using the following eqn(2)
  39. 39. Chapter 3 Methodology 30 | P a g e Where: = Compressive strength of concrete (MPa). P = Maximum load applied to the specimen in . A = Cross sectional area of the specimen ( ). Apparatus Machine: Automated compression testing machine. Mould Size: Fig. no. 3.6.c Compression Testing Machine (CTM)
  40. 40. Chapter 3 Methodology 31 | P a g e Test Procedure The test procedure was in accordance to IS: 516 - 1959. The procedure of the testing was as follow. 1. All moist cured specimens that need to be test and the measuring of the concrete specimens were conducted immediately after the specimens were removed from the curing room. 2. The mass of each specimen was weight and recorded. 3. The platens of the testing machine were cleaned with a clean rag to ensure it is free from films of oil and particles of grit. 4. The uncapped surfaces of the specimens was wiped and brushed to remove free loose particles. 5. The specimen was placed in the testing machine (between the two platens). The axis of the specimens was carefully aligned with the center of thrust of the spherically seated platen. 6. Force was applied without shock and increase continuously. 3.6.2.2 Split Tensile Test. To determine the split tensile strength of concrete of given mix proportions.Fig 3.6.d shows the split tensile apparatus in which a std size of 150mm_300mm concrete cylinder is used for testing. Apparatus Compression testing machine weighing machine mixer, tamping rods
  41. 41. Chapter 3 Methodology 32 | P a g e Fig. 3.6.d Split Tensile Test Test Procedure 1. Take mix proportion as 1:2:4 with water cement ratio of 0.6. Take 21kg of coarse aggregate, 10.5 kg of fine aggregate 5.25kg of cement and 3.l5 litres of water. Mix them thoroughly until uniform colour is obtained. This material will be sufficient for casting three cylinders of the size 150mm diameter X 300 mm length. 2. Pour concrete in moulds oiled with medium viscosity oil. Fill the cylinder mould in four layers each of approximately 75 mm and ram each layer more than 35 times with evenly distributed strokes. 3. Remove the surplus concrete from the tope of the moulds with the help of the trowel. 4. Cover the moulds with wet mats and put the identification mark after about 3 to 4 hours.
  42. 42. Chapter 3 Methodology 33 | P a g e 5. Remove the specimens from the mould after 24 hours and immerse them in water for the final curing. The test are usually conducted at the age of 7-28 days. The time age shall be calculated from the time of addition of water to the dry ingredients. 6. Apply the load without shock and increase it continuously at the rate to produce a split tensile stress of approximately 1.4 to 2.1 N/mm2/min, until no greater load can be sustained. Record the maximum load applied to specimen Note the appearance of concrete and any unusual feature in the type of failure. 7. Compute the split tensile strength of the specimen to the nearest 0.25 N/mm2. 3.7 Casting Of Cubes And Cylinder 3.7.1 Casting of Cubes Fig 3.7 show the quantity of cubes required for different mixes. Table 3.7 Cube casting schedule No. of Cubes of Various types of concrete mix Without admixture Days Conventional 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% CF 3 Days 3 3 3 3 7 Days 3 3 3 3 28 Days 3 3 3 3 No of cubes of various types of concrete mix with admixture (0.4%) 3 Days 3 3 3 3 7 Days 3 3 3 3 28 Days 3 3 3 3 Total 18 18 18 18
  43. 43. Chapter 3 Methodology 34 | P a g e Fig. 3.6.b cube moulds. 3.7.2 Casting of cylinder: Fig 3.8 show the quantity of cubes required for different mixes Table 3.7 Cylinder Casting Schedule No. of Cylinders of Various types of concrete mix Without admixture Days Conventional 2% CF 3.5% CF 3 Days 3 3 3 7 Days 3 3 3 28 Days 3 3 3 No of cylinders of various types of concrete mix with admixture (0.4%) 3 Days 3 3 3 7 Days 3 3 3 28 Days 3 3 3 Total 18 18 18
  44. 44. Chapter 3 Methodology 35 | P a g e
  45. 45. Chapter 4 Results 4.General: The observations of the various tests on Fresh And Hard CFRC was conducted such as flow tests, slump test, compressive test of concrete and split tensile tests have been analyzed and the behavior is studied. The results of the analysis are discussed in the subsequent sections. The various types of cubes and cylinders of different mix were tested under compression testing machine. 4.1 Tests on Fresh concrete Tests on fresh concrete were carried out to determine the workability of normal concrete as well as CFRC as per IS: 1199-1959. The properties of the tests are listed in the table 4.1 Table 4.1 Workability Test Different mix Fresh Concrete without admixture Fresh Concrete with admixture Proportion Slump value Flow table test Slump value Flow Table Test Normal concrete 110 mm 92% 125 mm 97% with 2% fibre 100 AR 40 mm 52% 95 mm 71% with 3.5% fibre 100 AR 22 mm 50% 78 mm 62% with 5% fibre 100 AR 0 mm 44% 20 mm 53%
  46. 46. Chapter 4 Results 36 | P a g e Fig.4.a Slump cone tests Fig.4.b Flow Table Test Fig 4.a shows the workability of concrete with and without admixture with the difference mixes of CFRC and as the admixture is added slump value is rises and so that the workability is increases Fig 4.b shows the workability of concrete with and without admixture with the difference mixes of CFRC and as the admixture is added flow value is rises and so that the workability is increases NC CF 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% Series1 110 40 22 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120Slumpinmm Without Admixture NC CF 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% Series1 92 52 50 44 0 20 40 60 80 100 flowin% Without Admixture NC CF 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% Series1 97 71 62 53 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 flowin% With Admixture NC CF 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% Series1 125 95 78 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Slumpinmm With Admixture
  47. 47. Chapter 4 Results 37 | P a g e 4.2Tests on Hard concrete 4.2.1 Compressive strength of concrete: The mean of compressive strength results for all the mixes are given in Table 4.3. Table 4.2 Compressive Strength Results The results presented in Table 4.2 shows that the compressive strength of concrete with 2% CF and 0.4% Admixture combination is higher than the normal concrete for 3, 14 and 28 days. At 3 days, the compressive strength is 20.5% higher than the normal concrete. Similarly at 14 days and 28 days, these values are 55.31% and 28% respectively. 4.2.1.1 Graphs: Following are the graphs of results obtained from the various concrete mix: The graphs which are presented shows the compressive strength of the concrete without and with admixture. No. of Cubes of Various types of concrete mix Without admixture No of cubes of various types of concrete mix With admixtures (0.4%) Days Normal 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% CF Normal 2% CF 3.5% CF 5% CF 3 Days 20.8 24.36 21.27 15.23 21.3 25.06 20.80 14.73 14 Days 22.8 34.84 31.15 26.55 24.36 35.41 32.00 24.15 28 Days 31.7 39.05 38.3 30.34 33.8 40.55 38.35 28.94
  48. 48. Chapter 4 Results 38 | P a g e 1. Conventional concrete mix (without admixture). 2. 2% CFRC mix (without admixture). cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 31.7 31.5 31.9 31.3 31.4 31.5 31.6 31.7 31.8 31.9 32 StrengthinMpa Conventional mix cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 39.05 39.03 39.07 39.01 39.02 39.03 39.04 39.05 39.06 39.07 39.08 StrengthinMpa 2% CFRC Fig.4.2.a. 28 days compressive strength of conventional mix: Fig. 4.2.a shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 31.70 MPa of normal concrete without admixture Fig.4.2.b. 28 days compressive strength of 2 % CFRC : Fig. 4.2.b shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 39.05 MPa when 2% CFRC added but without admixture.
  49. 49. Chapter 4 Results 39 | P a g e 3. 3.5% CFRC mix (without admixture). 4. 5% CFRC mix (without admixture). cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 38.1 38.3 38.5 37.9 38 38.1 38.2 38.3 38.4 38.5 38.6 strengtthinMpa 3.5% CFRC cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 30.3 30.35 30.37 30.26 30.28 30.3 30.32 30.34 30.36 30.38 strengthinMPa 5% CFRC Fig. 4.2.c. 28 days compressive strength of 3.5 % CFRC : Fig. 4.2.c shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 38.03 MPa when 3.5% CFRC added but without admixture. Fig. 4.2.d. 28 days compressive strength of 5 % CFRC: Fig. 4.2.d shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 30.34 MPa when 5% CFRC added but without admixture.
  50. 50. Chapter 4 Results 40 | P a g e 5. Combined graph of 1,2,3,4 Fig.4.2.e. Comparision Graph The combined graph in Fig. 4.2.e shows a plot of comparative compressive strengths of three combinations and also the conventional concrete. It is observed that the highest compressive strength is 39.05 MPa for 2% CFRC without admixture. 3dy 14day 28day CONVENTIONAL 20.8 22.8 31.7 2 % CFRC 24.36 34.84 39.05 3.5 CFRC 21.27 31.15 38.3 5 % CFRC 15.23 26.55 30.34 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 STRENGTHINMPa COMPARISION
  51. 51. Chapter 4 Results 41 | P a g e 6. Conventional concrete mix (with admixture). 7. 2% CFRC mix (with admixture). cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 40.56 40.51 40.58 40.46 40.48 40.5 40.52 40.54 40.56 40.58 40.6 StrengthinMPa 2% CFRC cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 33.8 33.5 34.1 33.2 33.4 33.6 33.8 34 34.2 strengthinMPa Conventional Fig.4.3.a. 28 days compressive strength of con mix: Fig. 4.3.a shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 33.80 MPa of normal concrete with admixture Fig.4.3.b. 28 days compressive strength of 2%CFRC: Fig. 4.3.b shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 40.55 MPa when 2% CFRC added with admixture.
  52. 52. Chapter 4 Results 42 | P a g e 8. 3.5% CFRC mix (with admixture). 9. 5% CFRC mix (without admixture). cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 38.34 38.39 38.33 38.3 38.32 38.34 38.36 38.38 38.4 StrengthinMPa 3.5% CFRC cube 1 cube 2 cube 3 Series1 28.93 28.96 28.94 28.91 28.92 28.93 28.94 28.95 28.96 28.97 StrengthinMPa 5% CFRC Fig.4.3.c. 28 days compressive strength of 3.5% CFRC: Fig. 4.3.c shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 38.35 MPa when 3.5% CFRC added with admixture. Fig.4.3.d. 28 days compressive strength of 5%CFRC: Fig. 4.3.d shows a plot of compressive strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 28.94 MPa when 5% CFRC added with admixture.
  53. 53. Chapter 4 Results 43 | P a g e 10.Combined graph of 6,7,8,9 Fig.4.3.e. Comparision The combined graph in Fig. 4.3.e shows a plot of comparative compressive strengths of three combinations and also the conventional concrete. It is observed that the highest compressive strength is 40.55 MPa for 2% CFRC with admixture. 3 Days 14 Days 28 Days NC 21.3 24.36 33.8 CF 2% 25.06 35.41 40.55 CF 3.5% 20.8 32 38.35 CF 5% 14.73 24.15 28.94 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 StrengthinMPa Comparision
  54. 54. Chapter 4 Results 44 | P a g e 4.2.2 Split Tensile Test: All the cylinders will be tested in a ‘Compressive Testing Machine’ to determine the split tensile strength of the cylinders Table 4.3 Split Tensile Result The results presented in Table 4.3 shows that the split tensile strength of concrete with 2% CF and 0.4% Admixture combination is higher than the normal concrete for 3, 14 and 28 days. At 3 days, the tensile strength is 124.6% higher than the normal concrete. Similarly at 14 days and 28 days, these values are 112.5% and 112.3% respectively. 4.2.1.2 Graphs: Following are the readings of results obtained from the various concrete mix: The graphs which are presented shows the tensile strength of the concrete without and with admixture. No. of cylinder of Various types of concrete mix Without admixture (MPa) No of cylinder of various types of concrete mix With admixtures (0.4%) (MPa) Days Normal 2% CF 3.5% CF Normal 2% CF 3.5% CF 3 Days 0.77 1.20 1.16 0.90 1.73 1.28 14 Days 1.36 2.15 1.84 1.41 2.89 2.00 28 Days 1.94 2.99 2.76 2.17 4.12 3.19
  55. 55. Chapter 4 Results 45 | P a g e 11. Conventional concrete mix (without admixture). 12. 2% CFRC mix (without admixture). CYLIND ER 1 CYLIND ER 2 CYLIND ER 3 Series1 1.94 1.92 1.96 1.9 1.91 1.92 1.93 1.94 1.95 1.96 1.97 StrengthinMPa Conventional CYLINDER 1 CYLINDER 2 CYLINDER 3 Series1 2.99 2.95 3.04 2.9 2.92 2.94 2.96 2.98 3 3.02 3.04 3.06 StrengthinMPa 2% CFRC Fig.4.4.a. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of Conventional mix : Fig. 4.4.a shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 1.94 MPa of normal concrete without admixture Fig. No. 4.4.b. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of 2% CFRC: Fig. 4.4.b shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 2.99 MPa . when 2% CFRC added but withot admixture
  56. 56. Chapter 4 Results 46 | P a g e 13. 3.5% CFRC mix (without admixture). 14.Combined graph of 11,12,13 Fig.4.4.d. Comparision Fig. No. 4.4.c. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of 3.5% CFRC: Fig. 4.4.c shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 2.76 MPa . when 3.5% CFRC added but withot admixture CYLIND ER 1 CYLIND ER 2 CYLIND ER 3 Series1 2.76 2.73 2.79 2.7 2.72 2.74 2.76 2.78 2.8 StrengthinMPa 3.5% CFRC 3 Days 14 Days 28 Days NC 0.77 1.36 1.94 CF 2% 1.2 2.15 2.99 CF 3.5% 1.16 1.84 2.76 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 StrengthinMPa COMPARISION
  57. 57. Chapter 4 Results 47 | P a g e 15. Conventional concrete (with admixture). The combined graph in Fig. 4.4.d shows a plot of comparative split tensile strengths of three combinations and also the conventional concrete. It is observed that the highest compressive strength is 2.99 MPa for 2% CFRC without admixture. CYLINDER 1 CYLINDER 2 CYLINDER 3 Series1 2.17 2.18 2.15 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 StrengthinMPa CONVENTIONAL Fig. No. 4.5.a. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of Conventional : Fig. 4.5.a shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 2.16 MPa of normal concrete with admixture
  58. 58. Chapter 4 Results 48 | P a g e 16. 2% CFRC (with admixture). 17.3.5% CFRC (with admixture). CYLIND ER 1 CYLIND ER 2 CYLIND ER 3 Series1 4.12 4.1 4 3.9 3.95 4 4.05 4.1 4.15 StrengthinMPa 2% CFRC Fig. No. 4.5.b. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of 2% CFRC: Fig. 4.5.b shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 4.07 MPa .when 2% CFRC is added with admixture CYLINDER 1 CYLINDER 2 CYLINDER 3 Series1 3.19 3.125 3.23 3.05 3.1 3.15 3.2 3.25 StrengthinMPa 3.5% CFRC Fig. No. 4.5.c. 28 Days Split Tensile Strength Of 3.5% CFRC: Fig. 4.5.c shows a plot of tensile strength of three cubes tested. It is observed that the mean strength is 3.18 MPa .when 3.5% CFRC is added with admixture
  59. 59. Chapter 4 Results 49 | P a g e 18.Combined graph of 15,16,17 Fig.4.5.d. Comparision 3 Days 14 Days 28 Days NC 0.9 1.41 2.17 CF 2% 1.73 2.89 4.12 CF 3.5% 1.28 2 3.19 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 StrengthinMPa Comparision The combined graph in Fig. 4.5.d shows a plot of comparative tensile strengths of three combinations and also the conventional concrete. It is observed that the highest compressive strength is 4.12 MPa for 2% CFRC with admixture.
  60. 60. Chapter 5 CONCLUSION The properties of coconut Fiber reinforced concrete, compressive strength and tensile strength of concrete is investigated experimentally using the standard procedures. With respect to compressive strength, incorporating a small amount of CF 2% enhances the performance of concrete, as expected and counters harmful shrinkage effects in concrete. The results suggests that short coconut fibers are more effective in enhancing the performance of concrete The recommended threshold value of the fiber content that will benefit the long term durability of the concrete in all environments is 2.0 % The properties can increase or decrease depending upon fiber length and its content. As a result of this CFRC strengths can be greater than that of plain concrete. By replacing cement content with CF, decrement in the weight thus INERTIA OF STRUCTURE may result in to low density, slender and economical as well as green structures With the addition of admixture cohesive mix can be made suitably workable . It is a versatile material reported as most ductile and energy absorbent have wide scope in earthquake prone areas as well as in marine structures.
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