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I.s.en1997 1-2004+a1-2013

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No copying without NSAI permission except as permitted by copyright law.© CEN 2005
Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part ...
11 February, 2005
This document was published
under the authority of the NSAI
and comes into effect on:
1 Swift Square,
No...
National Foreword
NSAI adopts all Eurocodes as Irish Standards.
Eurocodes permit certain design parameters to be selected ...
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I.s.en1997 1-2004+a1-2013

  1. 1. No copying without NSAI permission except as permitted by copyright law.© CEN 2005 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Irish Standard Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  2. 2. 11 February, 2005 This document was published under the authority of the NSAI and comes into effect on: 1 Swift Square, Northwood, Santry Dublin 9 T +353 1 807 3800 F +353 1 807 3838 E standards@nsai.ie Údarás um Chaighdeáin Náisiúnta na hÉireann W ICS number: T +353 1 857 6730 F +353 1 857 6729 W standards.ie EN 1997:2004/AC:2009 EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013 I.S. xxx: Irish Standard – national specification based on the consensus of an expert panel and subject to public consultation. S.R. xxx: Standard Recommendation - recommendation based on the consensus of an expert panel and subject to public consultation. SWiFT xxx: A rapidly developed recommendatory document based on the consensus of the participants of an NSAI workshop. 91.120.20 EN 1997-1:2004 ENV 1997-1:1994 24 November, 2004 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  3. 3. National Foreword NSAI adopts all Eurocodes as Irish Standards. Eurocodes permit certain design parameters to be selected nationally. In Ireland, the selection of National Design Parameters (NDP's) is the responsibility of the Eurocodes Consultative Committee (NSAI TC 015). National Annexes are developed in accordance with CEN and NSAI procedures and include a public consultation process. Where NSAI TC 015 considers it appropriate, NDP's are agreed and listed in Irish National Annexes to Eurocodes. Eurocodes must always be used in conjunction with the accompanying National Annex (NA), where available. For example, I.S. EN 1991-1-4, Eurocode 1: Actions on structures – Part 1-4: General actions – Wind actions is to be used in conjunction with NA to I.S. EN 1991-1-4. National Annexes are reviewed as necessary e.g. when a new edition, an amendment or a corrigendum to a Eurocode is issued. The National Annex identifies what amendments/corrigenda are addressed. The user should check that the National Annex addresses the latest changes to the Eurocode. Previews of all documents are available on www.standards.ie. Any questions should be directed to NSAI. Where an Irish National Annex to a Eurocode has not been prepared, the user must make sure that the general requirements of I.S. EN 1990 and the accompanying Irish National Annex are complied with. Where a Eurocode has been changed (revised/amended/corrected) and the National Annex has yet to be revised to account for the change(s), the National Annex for the previous version is available. Engineering judgement must be applied if using guidance contained therein e.g. when selecting appropriate parameters. Information on Eurocodes and the related national annexes is available from www.nsai.ie. In Line with international standards practice the decimal point is shown as a comma (,) throughout this document. Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  4. 4. This page is intentionally left BLANK. Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  5. 5. EUROPEANSTANDARD NORMEEUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHENORM EN 1997-1:2004/A1 November 2013 ICS 93.020; 91.010.30 English Version Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules Eurocode 7: Calcul géotechnique - Partie 1: Règles générales Eurocode 7 - Entwurf, Berechnung und Bemessung in der Geotechnik - Teil 1: Allgemeine Regeln This amendment A1 modifies the European Standard EN 1997-1:2004; it was approved by CEN on 8 August 2013. CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for inclusion of this amendment into the relevant national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member. This amendment exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom. EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels © 2013 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members. Ref. No. EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013: E I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  6. 6. EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013 (E) 2 Contents Page Foreword..............................................................................................................................................................3 1 Modification to the Contents ................................................................................................................4 2 Modifications to National annex for EN 1997-1 ..................................................................................4 3 Modification to 1.1.2 ..............................................................................................................................4 4 Modification to 1.2 .................................................................................................................................5 5 Modification to 1.6 .................................................................................................................................5 6 Modification to Section 8 ......................................................................................................................7 7 Modifications to Section 9 ................................................................................................................. 14 8 Modification to 10.2 ............................................................................................................................ 15 9 Modification to 11.4 ............................................................................................................................ 15 10 Modification to Annex A title and A.1 ............................................................................................... 15 11 Modification to A.3.3.4........................................................................................................................ 16 12 Modifications to A.4............................................................................................................................ 16 13 Modification to A.5.............................................................................................................................. 17 14 Modification to B.3.............................................................................................................................. 19 I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  7. 7. EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013 (E) 3 Foreword This document (EN 1997-1:2004/A1:2013) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 250 “Structural Eurocodes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. This Amendment to the European Standard EN 1997-1:2004 shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by November 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by November 2014. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. According to the CEN-CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom. I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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×*!=)!* !C?AB* ;C232;4935745;*>26D9*<8*DE54*?279*3975742E;9!* !C7A.AB* ;C232;4935745;*>26D9*<8*DE54*7C284*3975742E;9*5E*74324DF*.!#* =2(+"02%"#%#?@'3+%43)%!G5H4C*<8*2*8<DEH245<E!6%!'!%5.$-%!B!<% =2(+"02%./%$-2%2>(+"/"$.3/%34%!DH!6*I9889;4*<8*2E*2;45<EJ*5.$-*I3969>2E4*793>5;92?5654:*;354935<EJ<% =2(+"02%"#%#?@'3+%43)*!8<DEH245<E*69EK4C!L*!+!*5.$-*!!!<* E/#2)$%$-2%43++35./,%#?@'3+%./%$-2%+.#$%"4$2)%!M7A3AB!L% !CD* DE;<E85E9H*;<F139775>9*7439EK4C!#* 7")$%!H;<<I#><88<;C!6% =2"1%$-2%2>(+"/"$.3/%34%$-2%43++35./,%#?@'3+#%"#%43++35#6% !γNA9* 1234526*82;4<3*8<3*12775>9*9234C*3975742E;9!* !γOAH74* 1234526*82;4<3*8<3*2*>2352?69*H9742?56575EK*2;45<E!* !γOA74?* 1234526*82;4<3*8<3*2*>2352?69*742?56575EK*2;45<E!#* +# 123454678429#82#@AB6>7AC<#)D$## 7")$%8;F:*%)2(+"026*I7<56J*5.$-*IK3<DEHJ<* I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  10. 10. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# 1# 2# 34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#)B+B)## !"#$%&'()%*#+%+",-)%+./.$.0!"#$%!&'()$%*+#,-'!.'-//)'-01! C# 34567689:64;@#:4#<=>8?9=@A#)B+B&B$## !"#$%&'()%"++%$-.%23//34567%63$.0! "1234! 35-!6#7)-/!(8!.#',9#7!8#:,('/!;#<!=-!/-,!=<!,5-!1#,9($#7!>$$-?@0! !"#$%&8()%"++%$-.%23//34567%63$.0! "1234! 35-!6#7)-/!(8!.#',9#7!8#:,('/!;#<!=-!/-,!=<!,5-!1#,9($#7!>$$-?@0! !"#$%&9()%"++%$-.%23//34567%63$.0% "1234! 35-!6#7)-/!(8!;(%-7!8#:,('/!;#<!=-!/-,!=<!,5-!1#,9($#7!>$$-?@0! &# 34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#CB2B1## !"#$%&::(!)%#.;/"<.%56%23#=>/",%&91'"(%"6+%&91'?(0!A@:A!45$-!A@B!A@! D# 34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#&B$## !"#$%&*(!)%+./.$.%$-.%A1234A%"6+%"++0!A!"!41!CDCEEFGHHIJ!8('!;9:'(.97-/A@! %# 34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#&BCB)B$## !"#$%&:*()%B6+%+",-)%#.;/"<.0!":'(//*/-:,9($#70!45$-!"&'(//!:'(//*/-:,9($#701! $*# 34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#&BCB1B1## !"#$%&9()%ACDEFA)%#.;/"<.0!A8'(;A!45$-!A9$A1! $$# 34567689:64;@#:4#<=>8?9=@A#&BCB+B)## !"#$%&:(!)%#.;/"<.0!A.#',9#7!/#8-,<!8#:,('/A!45$-!A.#',9#7!8#:,('/A1# !"#$%&'()%#.;/"<.0!A#//-//-%!($A!45$-!A#//-//-%!($!,5-!=#/9/!(801! $)# 34567689:64;@#:4#<=>8?9=@A#&BD## !"#$%&'(!)%#.;/"<.0!"6-'<!+-#K0!45$-!"-?,'-;-7<!7(+!/,'-$&,5!89$-01# !"#$%&8()%#.;/"<.0!"'-.'-/-$,#,96-J!)$%'#9$-%0!45$-!":5#'#:,-'9/,9:01! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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hisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  12. 12. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# 1# )$# 23456578953:#93#;<=7>8<?@#%A&A1## !"#$%&'(!)%#*+,"-*.!"#$%&'()!*+!/0$1!"#$%&'()!,+2! ))# 23456578953:?#93#;<=7>8<?@#%ABA$# 3*,*$*%45,,%$*6$%74%+"#$8%&9(!%":;%&<(!2% =*:5>?*#%+"#$%&@(%0:$7%&9(%":;%+"#$%&'(%0:$7%&<(2% A:%+"#"B#"+1%&<(%&#*:5>?*#*;()%#*+,"-*.!"-./+!/0$1!")$$0+2! )C# 23456578953:?#93#;<=7>8<?@#$*A)# !"#$%&9(!.% A:8*#$.%123'4$1!?*$/**:!"56(7)0!4./$689+!":;!"&3$!0$8'5)!6$8'8&.)%$+2! !"#$%&<(.% =*+,"-*%$1*%*:$0#*%C 8$ %+"#"B#"+1%/0$1%$1*%47,,7/0:B.%% "! :;!.44(2$0!</!&3$!=.&'().4!>))$?9!6$8'8&.)%$!&(!7@4';&!</!;6'%&'()!(6!.)%3(6!;(6%$8!-./!.48(!<$!&6$.&$0!.8!.! 8&.<'4'8')5!@$6-.)$)&!A$6&'%.4!.%&'()!BD8&<C0DE! =FGH! G3$!A.47$8!(;!&3$!@.6&'.4!;.%&(68!-./!<$!8$&!</!&3$!=.&'().4!>))$?E! +! E0B5#*8%CF2C%"(%$7%*()%G*H%*,*>*:$%C)%#*+,"-*%475#%$0>*8.%"B56(7)0DI2.&$6!&.<4$+!/0$1!"56(7)02.&$6!&.<4$+)! =*+,"-*%E0B5#*8%CF2C%-()%CF2C%;(%":;%CF2C%*(%/0$1%$1*%47,,7/0:B%:*/%E0B5#*8%CF2C%-()%CF2C%;(%":;%CF2C%*(.! ! D5E<F@#$*A$#70! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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hisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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hisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  15. 15. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# 1# !"#$%&'()*+,-,./0)1234$526!"#$%&'()*!+,-./0!7&%8!"#$%&'()*!+,-.1/0,! 9$1%)*./6) :234$526)"#$%&'()*!+,-./0!7&%8)"#$%&'()*2!+,-.&/3!+,-.4/!&*5!+,-.1/0,! 9$1%)*-/6) .(;)3$1$<1$380)1234$526)"#$%&'()*!+,-./0!7&%8!"#$%&'()*!+,-.1/0,! 2$# #34567689:64;#:4#<=>8?9=@A#BC)## !"#$%&'()*=,>/0)1234$526)6?6!7&%8!6+6,! 2)# 34567689:64;#:4#-;;AD#.# 7#89&1#!':#!;%99!<**#=!>!?(':!':#!;)99)?(*@!*#?!<**#=!>A! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  16. 16. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# %# -1123#.# !"#$%&'()"*+,# # 456782#79:;2<=92>#?:#<2?296@12#259?A#792>>=92># .B$# C@6@?#D58=2>#:E#259?A#792>>=92# !-,./0+.1"'").*(12+3.%$.+(&)0.4&+332&+.%#.(.*+&)"5(1.6(117.5(23+8.9:.3%"1.%$.6+";0).8+#3"):.!γ)7.2#"$%&'.*+&)"5(1. 32&$(5+.1%(8.!!,7.(#;1+.%$.30+(&"#;.&+3"3)(#5+.!ϕ!.(#8.5%0+3"%#.!",.30%218.9+.5(1521()+8.(3.$%11%63<. ".(5)"*+.1"'").3)()+<. σ(!#,.=.$(.>.!γ8#.?.!.−.%.@.?.%.−."&$(5.. !AB-,. 60+&+.)0+."#)+;&()"%#."3.)(C+#.$&%'.;&%2#8.32&$(5+.)%.8+4)0.D. $(5.=.E√>$(.!-?'F",@7.1"'")+8.)%.E7GH√$(. ".4(33"*+.1"'").3)()+<. σ4!#,.=.$4.>.!γ8#.?!.−.%.@.?.%.?."$45.. !ABE,. 60+&+.)0+."#)+;&()"%#."3.)(C+#.$&%'.;&%2#8.32&$(5+.)%.8+4)0.#. $45.=.E√>$4!-?'F",@7.1"'")+8.)%.E7GH√$4. 60+&+<. '. . "3.)0+.(80+3"%#.!9+)6++#.;&%2#8.(#8.6(11,& "& & "3.)0+.5%0+3"%#.& $(. . "3.)0+.5%+$$"5"+#).%$.+$$+5)"*+.0%&"D%#)(1.(5)"*+.+(&)0.4&+332&+. $4. . "3.)0+.5%+$$"5"+#).%$.+$$+5)"*+.0%&"D%#)(1.4(33"*+.+(&)0.4&+332&+. !& & "3.)0+.*+&)"5(1.32&$(5+.1%(8. #. . "3.)0+.8"3)(#5+.8%6#.)0+.$(5+.%$.)0+.6(11. β. . "3.)0+.31%4+.(#;1+.%$.)0+.;&%2#8.9+0"#8.)0+.6(11.!246(&8.4%3")"*+,. δ. . "3.)0+.(#;1+.%$.30+(&"#;.&+3"3)(#5+.9+)6++#.;&%2#8.(#8.6(11. γ. . "3.)0+.)%)(1.6+";0).8+#3"):.%$.&+)("#+8.;&%2#8.& σ(!#,. "3.)0+.)%)(1.3)&+33.#%&'(1.)%.)0+.6(11.().8+4)0.#&!(5)"*+.1"'").3)()+,. σ4!#,. "3.)0+.)%)(1.3)&+33.#%&'(1.)%.)0+.6(11.().8+4)0.#&!4(33"*+.1"'").3)()+,. !E,. I%&. 8&("#+8. 3%"17. $(. (#8. $4. (&+. $2#5)"%#3. %$. (#;1+. %$. 30+(&"#;. &+3"3)(#5+.ϕ′7. (#8. "& =. "′7. )0+. +$$+5)"*+. 5%0+3"%#B.I%&.2#8&("#+8.3%"17.$(.=.$4.=.-.(#8.".=."27.)0+.2#8&("#+8.30+(&.3)&+#;)0B. I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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ββββ#H#*0# $ $ I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  18. 18. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $$# ! 123456#.7$7)#8#.96::2;26<=>#!?#9:#6::6;=2@6#?;=2@6#6?5=A#B56>>456#/A952C9<=?D#;9EB9<6<=0(#F2=A#2<;D2<6G# 56=?2<6G#>45:?;6#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕH#I#*#?<G#δδδδ#I#*0# ! # I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  19. 19. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $)# # 123456#.7$78#9#.:6;;2<26=>?#!@#:;#6;;6<>2A6#@<>2A6#6@5>B#C56??456#/B:52D:=>@E#<:FC:=6=>0(#G2>B#2=<E2=6H# 56>@2=6H#?45;@<6#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕI#J#*KLL0# I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  20. 20. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $1# ! 234567#.8$8+#9#.:7;;3<37=>?#!@#:;#7;;7<>3A7#@<>3A7#7@6>B#C67??567#/B:63D:=>@E#<:FC:=7=>0(#G3>B#3=<E3=7H# 67>@3=7H#?56;@<7#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕI#J#$0# ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  21. 21. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $+# # 123456#.7)7$#8#.96::2;26<=>#!?#9:#6::6;=2@6#?A>>2@6#6A5=B#?56>>456#/B952C9<=AD#;9E?9<6<=0(#F2=B# B952C9<=AD#56=A2<6G#>45:A;6#/ββββ#H#*0# ! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  22. 22. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $1# ! 234567#.8)8)#9#.:7;;3<37=>?#!@#:;#7;;7<>3A7#@B??3A7#7B6>C#@67??567#/C:63D:=>BE#<:F@:=7=>0(#G3>C# 3=<E3=7H#67>B3=7H#?56;B<7#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕI#J#*#B=H#δδδδ#J#*0# ! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  23. 23. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $1# ! 234567#.8)89#:#.;7<<3=37>?@#!A#;<#7<<7=?3B7#AC@@3B7#7C6?D#A67@@567#/D;63E;>?CF#=;GA;>7>?0(#H3?D# 3>=F3>7I#67?C3>7I#@56<C=7#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕJ#K#*L110# ! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  24. 24. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $&# # 123456#.7)7+#8#.96::2;26<=>#!?#9:#6::6;=2@6#?A>>2@6#6A5=B#?56>>456#/B952C9<=AD#;9E?9<6<=0(#F2=B# 2<;D2<6G#56=A2<6G#>45:A;6#/δδδδ"ϕϕϕϕH#I#$0# I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  25. 25. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $1# .2)# -345678945#:;<9=>?;=#@<;#<A748383B#58C8783B#4978D=#43>#:4EE8D=#=4;7F#:;=EE?;=E# !"#$%&'$()**)+,-.$/0)1'230'4$+&,1&$,-1*32'5$1'067,-$7//0)8,976,)-54$97:$;'$35'2$,-$7**$175'5<$ !=#$%&'$/0)1'230'$,5$5676'2$()0$/755,>'$/0'5530'5$+,6&$6&'$560'-.6&$/7079'6'05$!0'/0'5'-6'2$,-$6&'$()**)+,-.$ ;:$ϕ4$!4$δ4$"#$,-5'06'2$75$/)5,6,>'$>7*3'54$5''$?,.30'$@<A<$$ !A#$?)0$716,>'$/0'5530'5$6&'$579'$7*.)0,6&9$,5$35'24$+,6&$6&'$()**)+,-.$1&7-.'5B$ !$6&'$560'-.6&$/7079'6'05$ϕ4$!4$δ$$7-2$"$70'$,-5'06'2$75$-'.76,>'$>7*3'5C$ !$6&'$ >7*3'$ )($ 6&'$ 7-.*'$ )($ ,-1,2'-1'$ )($ 6&'$ 'D3,>7*'-6$ 530(71'$ *)72$ βE$ ,5$ β4$ 97,-*:$ ;'1735'$ )($ 6&'$ 7//0)8,976,)-5$35'2$()0$#γ<$ !F#$%&'$()**)+,-.$5:9;)*5$70'$35'2$!5)9'$70'$7*5)$.,>'-$,-$"<G#B$ "$ ,5$6&'$72&'5,)-$;'6+''-$+7**$7-2$.0)3-2$ !$ ,5$6&'$1)&'5,)-$$ #1$ $ ,5$6&'$1)'((,1,'-6$()0$1)&'5,)-$ #-$ $ ,5$6&'$1)'((,1,'-6$()0$-)097*$*)72,-.$)-$6&'$530(71'$ #D$ $ ,5$6&'$1)'((,1,'-6$()0$>'06,17*$*)72,-.$ #γ$ $ ,5$6&'$1)'((,1,'-6$()0$6&'$5),*$+',.&6$ %6$ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$(0)9$6&'$5),*$530(71'$2,0'16,)-4$/),-6,-.$7+7:$(0)9$6&'$+7**4$6)$6&'$67-.'-6$2,0'16,)-$)($6&'$ ,-6'05'16,-.$5*,/$*,-'$6&76$;)3-25$6&'$9)>,-.$5),*$97554$/),-6,-.$)36$(0)9$6&'$5),*$530(71'$ %+$ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$(0)9$6&'$+7**$-)097*$6)$6&'$67-.'-6$2,0'16,)-$76$6&'$+7**$)($6&'$'86'0,)0$5*,/$*,-'4$/)5,6,>'$ +&'-$6&'$67-.'-6$/),-65$3/+7025$;'&,-2$6&'$+7**$ β$ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$(0)9$6&'$&)0,H)-67*$6)$6&'$5),*$530(71'$2,0'16,)-4$/)5,6,>'$+&'-$6&'$5),*$530(71'$0,5'5$7+7:$ (0)9$6&'$+7**$$ δ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$)($+7**$(0,16,)-4$+,6&$5,.-$1)->'-6,)-$75$2'(,-'2$,-$?,.30'$@<F$+&'-$1)9/36,-.$/755,>'$ 0'5,567-1'$ ϕ$ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$)($5&'70,-.$0'5,567-1'$$ θ$ ,5$6&'$7-.*'$;'6+''-$6&'$>'06,17*$7-2$6&'$+7**$2,0'16,)-4$/)5,6,>'$+&'-$6&'$5),*$)>'0&7-.5$6&'$+7**$ ν$ ,5$6&'$67-.'-6$0)676,)-$7*)-.$6&'$'86'0,)0$5*,/$*,-'4$/)5,6,>'$+&'-$6&'$5),*$9755$7;)>'$6&,5$5*,/$*,-'$,5$)($ 7$1)->'8$5&7/'$$ &$ ,5$6&'$.'-'07*$3-,()09$5301&70.'$/0'5530'4$/'0$3-,6$70'7$)($6&'$71637*$530(71'$$ '$ ,5$6&'$>'06,17*$3-,()09$5301&70.'$/0'5530'4$/'0$3-,6$70'7$,-$7$&)0,H)-67*$/0)I'16,)-$ $ I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  26. 26. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# $%# 123456#.78#9#:6;2<2=2><?#@><@65<2<3#ABCC#B<D#EB@F;2CC#2<@C2<B=2><G#?45@HB536?#B<D#?C2IC2<6# 36>J6=5K# ! "#$!%&'!()*'+,-.'!/-+-0'*'+1!δ!-)2!!!031*!4'!.&51')!15!*&-*6! ! ϕ*-) *-)! " ! = ! "7$!%&'!453)2-+8!.5)2(*(5)!-*!*&'!15(9!13+,-.'!():59:'1!β;<!=&(.&!(1!*&'!-)>9'!5,!().(2').'!5,!-)!'?3(:-9')*! 13+,-.'!95-2@!A(*&!*&(1!.5).'/*!*&'!-)>9'!(1!2',()'2!,+50!*&'!:'.*5+(-9!130!5,!*=5!*'+016! B! -.*3-9!2(1*+(43*'2!13+,-.'!95-2()>!#<!/'+!3)(*!5,!13+,-.'!-+'-<!3)(,5+0!43*!)5*!)'.'11-+(98!:'+*(.-9<!-)2C! B$ "!.5*ϕ!-.*()>!-1!)5+0-9!95-2@! %&'! -)>9'! β;! (1! /51(*(:'! =&')! *&'! *-)>')*(-9! .50/5)')*! 5,! #! /5()*1! *5=-+2! *&'! =-99! =&(9'! *&'! )5+0-9! .50/5)')*! (1! 2(+'.*'2! *5=-+2! *&'! 15(9@! D,!"! E! ;! =&(9'! *&'! 13+,-.'! 95-2! (1! :'+*(.-9! 5+! F'+5<! -)2! ,5+! -.*(:'! /+'113+'1!>')'+-998<!β;!E!β@! "G$!%&'!-)>9'!%*!(1!2'*'+0()'2!48!*&'!453)2-+8!.5)2(*(5)!-*!*&'!15(9!13+,-.'6! ( ) ϕ β βϕ 1() ; 1() ;*H.51 −=++% ! "I@J$! "K$!%&'!453)2-+8!.5)2(*(5)!-*!*&'!=-99!2'*'+0()'1!%=!486! ( ) ϕ δ δϕ 1() 1() =H.51 =++% ! "I@L$! %&'!-)>9'!%=!(1!)'>-*(:'!,5+!/-11(:'!/+'113+'1!"ϕ!M!;$!(,!*&'!+-*(5!1()!δ$N1()!ϕ!(1!13,,(.(')*98!9-+>'@! "O$!%&'!*5*-9!*-)>')*!+5*-*(5)!-95)>!*&'!'P*'+(5+!19(/!9()'!5,!*&'!05:()>!15(9!0-11<!(1!2'*'+0()'2!48!*&'!-)>9'!&! *5!4'!.50/3*'2!48!*&'!'P/+'11(5)6! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  27. 27. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# )*# θβ −−+= !" !!" # $%&'(# $)*(#+,-#./-001.1-2"##2#0/3#2/3456#6/57128#/2#",-#9:305.-#$1&-&#",-#2/3456#-53",#;3-99:3-#/2#",-#!566#03/4#5#:21"# ;3-99:3-#2/3456#"/#",-#9:305.-(#19#",-2#7-"-3412-7#<=#",-#0/66/!128#->;3-991/2#12#!,1.,#"#19#"/#<-#129-3"-7#12# 3571529?# ( ) ( ) ( )ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ "52@->; "@912912) !@912912) 2 ! ! ! # +− ++ = # $%&A(# $))(#+,-#./-001.1-2"#0/3#5#B-3"1.56#6/57128#/2#",-#9:305.-#$0/3.-#;-3#:21"#/0#,/31C/2"56#53-5#;3/D-."1/2(E#19?# β @ ./92F ## = # $%&G(# 527#",-#./-001.1-2"#0/3#",-#./,-91/2#"-34#19?# ( ) ϕ./")2. −= ## # $%&H(# $)@(#I/3#",-#9/16#!-18,"#52#5;;3/>145"-#->;3-991/2#19?# ( )"#### −=γ ./9./92 # $%&J(# +,19#->;3-991/2#19#/2#",-#950-#917-&#K,16-#",-#-33/3#19#:214;/3"52"#0/3#5."1B-#;3-99:3-9#1"#45=#<-#./2917-35<6-# 0/3#;5991B-#;3-99:3-9#!1",#;/91"1B-#B56:-9#/0#β.# I/3#ϕ#L#*#",-#0/66/!128#6141"#B56:-9#53-#0/:27?# M!./9@ M./9#912"./9@ $ % ! $ & ! = −= ββ # M!912@"912@@. M @ ./9F !!# # ++= = ν β # $!1",#ν#12#3571529(E#!,16-#0/3##γ##$ϕ#L#*(E#5#<-""-3#5;;3/>145"1/2#19?# "912 !./9912 ./9 ! ! # β θ +=γ # $%&)*(# $)N(#O/",#0/3#;5991B-#527#5."1B-#;3-99:3-9E#",-#;3/.-7:3-#599:4-9#",-#5286-#/0#./2B->1"=#"/#<-#;/91"1B-#$ν#≥# *(&# $)P(#Q0#",19#./271"1/2#19#2/"#$-B-2#5;;3/>145"-6=(#0:60166-7E#-&8&#0/3#5#94//",#!566#527#5#9:001.1-2"6=#96/;128#9/16# 9:305.-#!,-2#β#527#φ#,5B-#/;;/91"-#91829E#1"#45=#<-#2-.-9953=#"/#./2917-3#:9128#/",-3#4-",/79&#+,19#45=# 569/#<-#",-#.59-#!,-2#133-8:653#9:305.-#6/579#53-#./2917-3-7&## I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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hisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  29. 29. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# ))# 12345#.6$#7#829:;<#!2,"#=;>#?;?'@;A5<:B5#<;:4<# C:?D#;=# E244#F;B5F5?9# !2,"# 4;;<5#<;:4# G# !2,"# D5?<5#<;:4# G# ! "#! ! ! ! $%&!'(!$%)! ! $%*!'(!$%+! ! ,#! ! ! ! ! $%+! ! $%$)!'(!$%*! ! -#! ! ! ! ! $%.!'(!*%$! ! $%+!'(!$%)! ! /#! ! ! ! ! $%&!'(!$%)! ! $%*!'(!$%+! 012324! !"! 56!'12!0"77!8('5(9!'(!8(,57562!"-'5:2!2"3'1!;3266<32! "! 56!'12!125=1'!(>!'12!0"77! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  30. 30. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# )1# #23456#.7)#8#93:;<=#>?,@#3AB#>,@#C<D#*7Eσσσσ?#C<D#A<A'F<@6=;>6#=<;5=# G<B6# <C## H355#I<>6I6A:# >?,@#/>,@#C<D#*7Eσσσσ?0! J# >?,@#/>,@#C<D#*7Eσσσσ?0# J# 5<<=6#=<;5# B6A=6#=<;5# ! "#! ! ! ! ! $!%&'(#!)*! +(!%,'-#! ! (!%&'&#!)*! &-!%+'-#! ! .#! ! ! (!%-'/#!)*! &-!%&'(#! ! 0!%-'(#!)*! 1!%&'-#! ! 2#! ! ! 1!%&'-#!)*! &(!%&'(#! ! (!%-'(#!)*! 1!%&'0#! 345657! !! 89!)45!3"::!;89<:"25=5>)!! !<! 89!)45!3"::!;89<:"25=5>)!)*!=*.8:895!<"998?5!5"6)4!<6599@65!! "! 89!)45!458A4)!*B!)45!3"::! σ#$ 89!B@::C!=*.8:895;!<"998?5!5"6)4!<6599@65! ! ! ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  31. 31. !"#$%%&'$()**+,-.()**%#/!0# )+# ! ! 123# "! #$%&'(!)$*'+!,-./!0$1%'!234! 4! +.)!).!(5$%'! 456782#.9+#:!;<=5>5?@A5<B#<C#2CC2DA5E2#F@??5E2#2@8AG#F82??782#<C#B<B'D<G2?5E2#?<5>#E28?7?#B<8H@>5?2I# J@>>#I5?F>@D2H2BA#!,!F## /E(#I5?F>@D2H2BAK#!F(#I5?F>@D2H2BA#C<8#AG2#C7>>#H<=5>5?@A5<B#<C#F@??5E2#2@8AG#F82??7820# ! I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
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`IFGA25=! ! ! ! !"#$%!&'()$**+,,!!(-$#(.,&'/&#/+0&,+$'(( )$*+ ,1(!"#$%1!'(/!('$#*&2+.&,+$'( !"#$%3+.)4!.(5$*+,!!(-6#('$#*"'7( ! ! ()*)+,-,*.!/,*.0,1!02,!3,!4.)55)0.6!78!!!!9'$:;:!90255,<5! a!899:!0"(! 'HH!7IGJM@!2S!4[?H2IMNMI2F!IF!NFW!S275!NFA!6W!NFW!54NF@!74@4734A! R27HARIA4!S27!0"(!FNMI2FNH!,45647@=! $4S=!(2=!"(!<;;CD<E899:E!" I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  33. 33. EN 1997-1:2004 (E) 2 Contents Foreword................................................................................................................................. 5 Section 1 General................................................................................................................ 9 1.1 Scope.............................................................................................................................. 9 1.2 Normative references .................................................................................................... 10 1.3 Assumptions.................................................................................................................. 11 1.4 Distinction between Principles and Application Rules..................................................... 11 1.5 Definitions ..................................................................................................................... 12 1.6 Symbols........................................................................................................................ 13 Section 2 Basis of geotechnical design........................................................................... 19 2.1 Design requirements ..................................................................................................... 19 2.2 Design situations........................................................................................................... 21 2.3 Durability....................................................................................................................... 22 2.4 Geotechnical design by calculation................................................................................ 23 2.5 Design by prescriptive measures ................................................................................... 35 2.6 Load tests and tests on experimental models................................................................. 36 2.7 Observational method ................................................................................................... 36 2.8 Geotechnical Design Report.......................................................................................... 36 Section 3 Geotechnical data............................................................................................. 38 3.1 General......................................................................................................................... 38 3.2 Geotechnical investigations ........................................................................................... 38 3.3 Evaluation of geotechnical parameters .......................................................................... 39 3.4 Ground Investigation Report.......................................................................................... 47 Section 4 Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance ........................... 49 4.1 General......................................................................................................................... 49 4.2 Supervision ................................................................................................................... 49 4.3 Checking ground conditions........................................................................................... 51 4.4 Checking construction ................................................................................................... 52 4.5 Monitoring ..................................................................................................................... 53 4.6 Maintenance.................................................................................................................. 54 Section 5 Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement.............................. 55 5.1 General......................................................................................................................... 55 5.2 Fundamental requirements............................................................................................ 55 5.3 Fill construction ............................................................................................................. 55 5.4 Dewatering.................................................................................................................... 59 5.5 Ground improvement and reinforcement........................................................................ 60 Section 6 Spread foundations .......................................................................................... 61 6.1 General......................................................................................................................... 61 6.2 Limit states.................................................................................................................... 61 6.3 Actions and design situations ........................................................................................ 61 6.4 Design and construction considerations......................................................................... 61 6.5 Ultimate limit state design.............................................................................................. 62 6.6 Serviceability limit state design ...................................................................................... 65 6.7 Foundations on rock; additional design considerations................................................... 67 6.8 Structural design of spread foundations......................................................................... 68 6.9 Preparation of the subsoil.............................................................................................. 68 Section 7 Pile foundations................................................................................................ 70 7.1 General......................................................................................................................... 70 7.2 Limit states.................................................................................................................... 70 7.3 Actions and design situations ........................................................................................ 70 I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  34. 34. EN 1997-1:2004(E) 3 7.4 Design methods and design considerations ................................................................... 72 7.5 Pile load tests................................................................................................................ 74 7.6 Axially loaded piles ........................................................................................................ 76 7.7 Transversely loaded piles .............................................................................................. 86 7.8 Structural design of piles................................................................................................ 88 7.9 Supervision of construction............................................................................................ 88 Section 8 Anchorages ....................................................................................................... 91 8.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 91 8.2 Limit states .................................................................................................................... 92 8.3 Design situations and actions......................................................................................... 92 8.4 Design and construction considerations......................................................................... 93 8.5 Ultimate limit state design .............................................................................................. 94 8.6 Serviceability limit state design....................................................................................... 95 8.7 Suitability tests............................................................................................................... 95 8.8 Acceptance tests ........................................................................................................... 96 8.9 Supervision and monitoring............................................................................................ 96 Section 9 Retaining structures ......................................................................................... 97 9.1 General ......................................................................................................................... 97 9.2 Limit states .................................................................................................................... 97 9.3 Actions, geometrical data and design situations............................................................. 98 9.4 Design and construction considerations....................................................................... 101 9.5 Determination of earth pressures ................................................................................. 102 9.6 Water pressures .......................................................................................................... 105 9.7 Ultimate limit state design ............................................................................................ 105 9.8 Serviceability limit state design..................................................................................... 109 Section 10 Hydraulic failure............................................................................................ 111 10.1 General...................................................................................................................... 111 10.2 Failure by uplift .......................................................................................................... 112 10.3 Failure by heave ........................................................................................................ 114 10.4 Internal erosion.......................................................................................................... 114 10.5 Failure by piping ........................................................................................................ 115 Section 11 Overall stability ............................................................................................. 117 11.1 General...................................................................................................................... 117 11.2 Limit states ................................................................................................................ 117 11.3 Actions and design situations..................................................................................... 117 11.4 Design and construction considerations..................................................................... 118 11.5 Ultimate limit state design .......................................................................................... 119 11.6 Serviceability limit state design................................................................................... 121 11.7 Monitoring.................................................................................................................. 121 Section 12 Embankments................................................................................................ 123 12.1 General...................................................................................................................... 123 12.2 Limit states ................................................................................................................ 123 12.3 Actions and design situations..................................................................................... 123 12.4 Design and construction considerations..................................................................... 124 12.5 Ultimate limit state design .......................................................................................... 125 12.6 Serviceability limit state design................................................................................... 126 12.7 Supervision and monitoring........................................................................................ 126 Annex A (normative) Partial and correlation factors for ultimate limit states and recommended values .................................................................................................. 128 Annex B (informative) Background information on partial factors for Design Approaches 1, 2 and 3........................................................................................................ 138 Annex C (informative) Sample procedures to determine limit values of earth pressures on vertical walls ................................................................................................ 141 Annex D (informative) A sample analytical method for bearing resistance calculation........................................................................................................................... 156 I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  35. 35. EN 1997-1:2004 (E) 4 Annex E (informative) A sample semi-empirical method for bearing resistance estimation..........................................................................................................160 Annex F (informative) Sample methods for settlement evaluation...................................161 Annex G (informative) A sample method for deriving presumed bearing resistance for spread foundations on rock........................................................................163 Annex H (informative) Limiting values of structural deformation and foundation movement .........................................................................................................165 Annex J (informative) Checklist for construction supervision and performance monitoring .....................................................................................................167 I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  36. 36. EN 1997-1:2004(E) 5 Foreword This document (EN 1997-1) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC250 “Structural Eurocodes”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI. CEN/TC 250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes. This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text, or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2005 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn by March 2010. This document supersedes ENV 1997-1:1994. According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom. Background to the Eurocode programme In 1975, the Commission of the European Community decided on an action programme in the field of construction, based on article 95 of the Treaty. The objective of the programme was the elimination of technical obstacles to trade and the harmonisation of technical specifications. Within this action programme, the Commission took the initiative to establish a set of harmonised technical rules for the design of construction works which, in a first stage, would serve as an alternative to the national rules in force in the Member States and, ultimately, would replace them. For fifteen years, the Commission, with the help of a Steering Committee with Representatives of Member States, conducted the development of the Eurocodes programme, which led to the first generation of European codes in the 1980s. In 1989, the Commission and the Member States of the EU and EFTA decided, on the basis of an agreement1 between the Commission and CEN, to transfer the preparation and the publication of the Eurocodes to CEN through a series of Mandates, in order to provide them with a future status of European Standard (EN). This links de facto the Eurocodes with the provisions of all the Council’s Directives and/or Commissions Decisions dealing with European standards (e.g. the Council Directive 89/106/EEC on construction products - CPD - and Council Directives 93/37/EEC, 92/50/EEC and 89/440/EEC on public works and services and equivalent EFTA Directives initiated in pursuit of setting up the internal market). The Structural Eurocode programme comprises the following standards generally consisting of a number of Parts: EN 1990 Eurocode : Basis of Structural Design EN 1991 Eurocode 1: Actions on structures EN 1992 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures 1 Agreement between the Commission of the European Communities and the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) concerning the work on EUROCODES for the design of building and civil engineering works (BC/CEN/03/89). I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  37. 37. EN 1997-1:2004 (E) 6 EN 1994 Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures EN 1997 Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design EN 1998 Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance EN 1999 Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium structures Eurocode standards recognise the responsibility of regulatory authorities in each Member State and have safeguarded their right to determine values related to regulatory safety matters at national level where these continue to vary from State to State. Status and field of application of Eurocodes The Member States of the EU and EFTA recognise that Eurocodes serve as reference documents for the following purposes: — as a means to prove compliance of building and civil engineering works with the essential requirements of Council Directive 89/106/EEC, particularly Essential Requirement N°1 – Mechanical resistance and stability – and Essential Requirement N°2 – Safety in case of fire; — as a basis for specifying contracts for construction works and related engineering services; — as a framework for drawing up harmonised technical specifications for construction products (ENs and ETAs) The Eurocodes, as far as they concern the construction works themselves, have a direct relationship with the Interpretative Documents2 referred to in Article 12 of the CPD, although they are of a different nature from harmonised product standards3 . Therefore, technical aspects arising from the Eurocodes work need to be adequately considered by CEN Technical Committees and/or EOTA Working Groups working on product standards with a view to achieving full compatibility of these technical specifications with the Eurocodes. The Eurocode standards provide common structural design rules for everyday use for the design of whole structures and component products of both a traditional and an innovative nature. Unusual forms of construction or design conditions are not specifically covered and additional expert consideration will be required by the designer in such cases. 2 According to Art. 3.3 of the CPD, the essential requirements (ERs) shall be given concrete form in interpretative documents for the creation of the necessary links between the essential requirements and the mandates for harmonised ENs and ETAGs/ETAs. 3 According to Art. 12 of the CPD the interpretative documents shall : a) give concrete form to the essential requirements by harmonising the terminology and the technical bases and indicating classes or levels for each requirement where necessary ; b) indicate methods of correlating these classes or levels of requirement with the technical specifications, e.g. methods of calculation and of proof, technical rules for project design, etc. ; c) serve as a reference for the establishment of harmonised standards and guidelines for European technical approvals. The Eurocodes, de facto, play a similar role in the field of the ER 1 and a part of ER 2. I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  38. 38. EN 1997-1:2004(E) 7 National Standards implementing Eurocodes The National Standards implementing Eurocodes will comprise the full text of the Eurocode (including any annexes), as published by CEN, which may be preceded by a National title page and National foreword, and may be followed by a National annex. The National annex may only contain information on those parameters, which are left open in the Eurocode for national choice, known as Nationally Determined Parameters, to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the country concerned, i.e. : — values and/or classes where alternatives are given in the Eurocode, — values to be used where a symbol only is given in the Eurocode, — country specific data (geographical, climatic), e.g. snow map, — the procedure to be used where alternative procedures are given in the Eurocode. It may also contain: — decisions on the application of informative annexes, — references to non-contradictory complementary information to assist the user to apply the Eurocode. Links between Eurocodes and harmonised technical specifications (ENs and ETAs) for products There is a need for consistency between the harmonised technical specifications for construction products and the technical rules for works4 . Furthermore, all the information accompanying the CE Marking of the construction products, which refer to Eurocodes should clearly mention which Nationally Determined Parameters have been taken into account. Additional information specific to Eurocode 7 EN 1997-1 gives design guidance and actions for geotechnical design of buildings and civil engineering works. EN 1997-1 is intended for clients, designers, contractors and public authorities. EN 1997-1 is intended to be used with EN 1990 and EN 1991 to EN 1999. In using EN 1997-1 in practice, particular regard should be paid to the underlying assumptions and conditions given in 1.3. The 12 sections of EN 1997-1 are complemented by 1 normative and 8 informative annexes. National annex for EN 1997-1 This standard gives alternative procedures and recommended values with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1997-1 should have a National annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country. 4 see Art.3.3 and Art.12 of the CPD, as well as clauses 4.2, 4.3.1, 4.3.2 and 5.2 of ID 1. I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  39. 39. EN 1997-1:2004 (E) 8 National choice is allowed in EN 1997-1 through the following paragraphs: — 2.1(8)P, 2.4.6.1(4)P, 2.4.6.2(2)P, 2.4.7.1(2)P, 2.4.7.1(3), 2.4.7.2(2)P, 2.4.7.3.2(3)P, 2.4.7.3.3(2)P, 2.4.7.3.4.1(1)P, 2.4.7.4(3)P, 2.4.7.5(2)P, 2.4.8(2), 2.4.9(1)P, 2.5(1), 7.6.2.2(8)P, 7.6.2.2(14)P, 7.6.2.3(4)P, 7.6.2.3(5)P, 7.6.2.3(8), 7.6.2.4(4)P, 7.6.3.2(2)P, 7.6.3.2(5)P, 7.6.3.3(3)P, 7.6.3.3(4)P, 7.6.3.3(6), 8.5.2(2)P, 8.5.2(3), 8.6(4), 11.5.1(1)P and the following clauses in annex A: — A.2 — A.3.1, A.3.2, A.3.3.1, A.3.3.2, A.3.3.3, A.3.3.4, A.3.3.5, A.3.3.6, — A.4 — A.5 I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  40. 40. EN 1997-1:2004(E) 9 Section 1 General 1.1 Scope 1.1.1 Scope of EN 1997 (1) EN 1997 is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002, which establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. (2) EN 1997 is intended to be applied to the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works. It is subdivided into various separate parts (see 1.1.2 and 1.1.3). (3) EN 1997 is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability and durability of structures. Other requirements, e.g. concerning thermal or sound insulation, are not considered. (4) Numerical values of actions on buildings and civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction. Actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997. (5) Separate European Standards are intended to be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. They are denoted in the relevant sections. (6) In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. (7) EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this Standard. 1.1.2 Scope of EN 1997-1 (1) EN 1997-1 is intended to be used as a general basis for the geotechnical aspects of the design of buildings and civil engineering works. (2) The following subjects are dealt with in EN 1997-1: Section 1: General Section 2: Basis of geotechnical design Section 3: Geotechnical data Section 4: Supervision of construction, monitoring and maintenance Section 5: Fill, dewatering, ground improvement and reinforcement Section 6: Spread foundations Section 7: Pile foundations Section 8: Anchorages Section 9: Retaining structures I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  41. 41. EN 1997-1:2004 (E) 10 Section 10: Hydraulic failure Section 11: Overall stability Section 12: Embankments (3) EN 1997-1 is accompanied by Annexes A to J, which provide: — in A: recommended partial safety factor values; different values of the partial factors may be set by the National annex; — in B to J: supplementary informative guidance such as internationally applied calculation methods. 1.1.3 Further Parts of EN 1997 (1) EN 1997-1 is supplemented by EN 1997-2 that provides requirements for the performance and evaluation of field and laboratory testing. 1.2 Normative references (1) This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to applies (including amendments). NOTE The Eurocodes were published as European Prestandards. The following European Standards which are published or in preparation are cited in normative clauses EN 1990:2002 Eurocode: Basis of structural design EN 1991 Eurocode 1 Actions on structures EN 1991-4 Eurocode 1 Actions on structures - Part 4 Actions in silos and tanks EN 1992 Eurocode 2 Design of concrete structures EN 1993 Eurocode 3 Design of steel structures EN 1994 Eurocode 4 Design of composite steel and concrete structures EN 1995 Eurocode 5 Design of timber structures EN 1996 Eurocode 6 Design of masonry structures EN 1997-2 Eurocode 7 Geotechnical design - Part 2: Ground investigation and testing EN 1998 Eurocode 8 Design of structures for earth quake resistance EN 1999 Eurocode 9 Design of aluminium and aluminium alloy structures EN 1536:1999 Execution of special geotechnical work: Bored piles EN 1537:1999 Execution of special geotechnical work; Ground anchors EN 12063:1999 Execution of special geotechnical work; Sheet-pile walls I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline.
  42. 42. This is a free preview. Purchase the entire publication at the link below: Looking for additional Standards? Visit SAI Global Infostore Learn about LexConnect, All Jurisdictions, Standards referenced in Australian legislation Need to speak with a Customer Service Representative - Contact Us Thisisafree41pagesample.Accessthefullversiononline. I.S. EN 1997-1:2005 - PDF

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