Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
‘Sentencing’ is when a 
judge decides on a punishment.
Think of how hard it would be to be a judge and decide on a punishment for 
someone… 
How would you decide the punishments...
The judge 
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
can’t just pick ANY punishment. 
There are GUIDELINES. 
These guidelines co...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
The really OLD way of choosing a sentence… 
Judges used to hand down MASSIVE prison se...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
And THEN we had… 
The NSW parliament passed the Sentencing Act 1989 (NSW) which 
requi...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
And NOW we’ve got… 
The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW), which was 
amend...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
And NOW we’ve got… 
The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW), which was 
amend...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
1. MAXIMUM sentences for ALL crimes 
All crimes have a maximum 
punishment. 
Most of t...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
But a judge isn’t just going to give the 
MAXIMUM sentence ALL the time! 
Every case i...
FACTORS AFFECTING 
A SENTENCING 
DECISION 
-Aggravating circumstances 
-Mitigating circumstances 
F A C T O R S F A C T O ...
FACTORS AFFECTING 
A SENTENCING 
DECISION 
-Aggravating circumstances 
-Mitigating circumstances 
DISCUSS factors that 
af...
FACTORS AFFECTING 
A SENTENCING 
DECISION 
-Aggravating circumstances 
-Mitigating circumstances 
DISCUSS factors that 
af...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes 
There are TWO SEPARATE LAWS that the j...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes 
From the 
Crimes Act 
From the 
C(SP) ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes 
But do judges HAVE TO give these 
‘sta...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes 
35 crimes with SNPPs 
(set by statute ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
Not all judges think the same way. 
They are ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
To normal people, a judge’s 
REASONS for deci...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
So, for 3 Armed Robbery cases, 3 different ju...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
But WE DON’T REALLY WANT THIS. 
We want CONSI...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
The NSW Sentencing Council looks at 
the way ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
e.g. The NSW Sentencing Council has 
decided ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes 
So, R v Henry is now a 
guideline judgement. ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes 
The NSW government passed the 
Crimes Ame...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes 
This was popular, but it created serious ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes 
A lot of people argued that this would le...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes 
Success Tip 1 (out of 1): quote Nicholas ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
So, our sentencing system is now: 
ALL crimes have a maximum punishment (set by statut...
SEEM 
STUPID 
TO 
YOU? 
Judges 
agree! 
“You’re almost inviting judges to run the court 
like a checklist, ‘Oh, he’s got o...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
The IMPACT of the SNPP sentencing scheme 
on sentencing patterns in NSW 
Judicial Comm...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
4. SENTENCING AND PUNISHMENT 
EVALUATE the effectiveness of sentencing and punishment ...
STATUTORY AND 
JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 
Lucky the NSW Law 
Reform Commission’s 
wrote a 450-page 
report on Sentencing 
(Repor...
The big guide to the NSW Law Reform Commission’s 450-page report on Sentencing (Report 139) 
The Crimes (Sentencing Proced...
The big guide to the NSW Law Reform Commission’s 450-page report on Sentencing (Report 139) 
The Crimes (Sentencing Proced...
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Statutory and Judicial Guidelines - Free Band 6 Resource

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This is a sample for the HSC Legal Studies Crime package by HSC Apps. Just click Download and it's all yours to do what you want with it! All of the resources have been updated for 2014-15 to include the latest laws, cases and media reports. You'll see that this presentation includes the Crimes and Other Legislation Amendment (Assault and Intoxication) Act 2014, ‘Mandatory minimum sentences are a legal and judicial muddle’ (SMH, 2014), Lessons from the Kieran Loveridge Sentence (SMH, 2014), the Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Amendment (Standard Non-parole Periods) Act 2013 and much more. To order, download the order form from our facebook page or contact us at info@hsclegalstudies.com.

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Statutory and Judicial Guidelines - Free Band 6 Resource

  1. 1. ‘Sentencing’ is when a judge decides on a punishment.
  2. 2. Think of how hard it would be to be a judge and decide on a punishment for someone… How would you decide the punishments for these three armed robbery cases: Less Serious Armed Robbery “Average” Armed Robbery More Serious Armed Robbery Offender just turned 18, with Offender is 22, with little Offender is 40 with long no criminal history criminal history criminal history Weapon was a stick Weapon was a knife Weapon was a shotgun Impulsive (he “just did it” Some planning (the night Weeks of planning and without any planning) before) organising Threatened violence, but didn’t actually hurt anyone Pushed someone over Shot someone Victim was an armed guard Victim was a shopkeeper Victims included elderly women Only $10 taken $150 taken $5,000 taken Decided to plead guilty (even Decided to plead guilty though there wasn’t much because the prosecution had a chance the prosecution could very strong case. have proved their case against him). Decided to plead not guilty, leading to a long and expensive trial.
  3. 3. The judge STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES can’t just pick ANY punishment. There are GUIDELINES. These guidelines come from two different places: 1. Parliament (Statutory) 2. Previous cases (Judicial)
  4. 4. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES The really OLD way of choosing a sentence… Judges used to hand down MASSIVE prison sentences that seemed tough (e.g. 25 years), but then the offender would only serve 4 or 5 years. This caused public and media outrage.
  5. 5. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES And THEN we had… The NSW parliament passed the Sentencing Act 1989 (NSW) which required people sentenced with imprisonment to serve a minimum percentage (75%) of their sentence without getting parole. This was called ‘truth in sentencing’.
  6. 6. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES And NOW we’ve got… The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW), which was amended in 2003 to give us a very different, complicated system. NSW Attorney-General Bob Debus 2nd Reading Speech for the WHY??? Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Amendment (Standard Minimum Sentencing) Bill 2003 (NSW)
  7. 7. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES And NOW we’ve got… The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 (NSW), which was amended in 2003 to give us a very different, complicated system. 1. MAXIMUM sentences for ALL crimes STATUTORY guidelines 1. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes STATUTORY guidelines 1. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes JUDICIAL guidelines 1. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes STATUTORY guidelines
  8. 8. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 1. MAXIMUM sentences for ALL crimes All crimes have a maximum punishment. Most of the crimes and their maximum sentences are in the Crimes Act 1900 (NSW) Armed Robbery maximum = 25 years
  9. 9. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES But a judge isn’t just going to give the MAXIMUM sentence ALL the time! Every case is going to be different. Some will be more serious. Some will be less serious.
  10. 10. FACTORS AFFECTING A SENTENCING DECISION -Aggravating circumstances -Mitigating circumstances F A C T O R S F A C T O R S Looks at the actual CRIME/OFFENCE Can make the punishment more severe e.g. The offence involved violence, the victim was a police officer (or teacher…) who was doing their job, etc Looks more at the OFFENDER Can make the punishment less severe e.g. The person is unlikely to re-offend, the person is of good character, the person has shown that he has taken responsibility for his actions, etc
  11. 11. FACTORS AFFECTING A SENTENCING DECISION -Aggravating circumstances -Mitigating circumstances DISCUSS factors that affect sentencing decisions, including the purposes of punishment and the role of the victim FACTORS AFFECTING A SENTENCING DECISION -Aggravating circumstances -Mitigating circumstances Discuss the issues involved with having aggravating and mitigating factors The NSW Law Reform Commission Report 139 – Sentencing looked into the problems with having a big list of aggravating and mitigating factors. They found that s.21A (where the aggravating and mitigating factors are listed) was confusing a lot of judges. There were: 1. Too many factors to consider; and 2. Most were completely irrelevant
  12. 12. FACTORS AFFECTING A SENTENCING DECISION -Aggravating circumstances -Mitigating circumstances DISCUSS factors that affect sentencing decisions, including the purposes of punishment and the role of the victim FACTORS AFFECTING A SENTENCING DECISION -Aggravating circumstances -Mitigating circumstances Discuss the issues involved with having aggravating and mitigating factors Also, some crimes (like sexual offences under the Crimes Amendment (Serious Sexual Offences) Act 2008) have NO POSSIBLE MITIGATING FACTORS - it doesn't matter if it's your first offence, or you’re usually a good person  you're getting the STANDARD NPP AS A MINIMUM!
  13. 13. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes There are TWO SEPARATE LAWS that the judge has to follow. The Crimes Act tells the judge the MAXIMUM punishment. e.g. 25 years max for Armed Robbery e.g. 7 years SNPP for Armed Robbery The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act tells the judge the ‘STANDARD Non- Parole Period’. This is what parliament says SHOULD be the “standard” minimum punishment.
  14. 14. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes From the Crimes Act From the C(SP) Act But this isn’t for every crime! Just SOME!!! From the Crimes Act From the C(SP) Act
  15. 15. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes But do judges HAVE TO give these ‘standard’ non-parole periods? NO! Judges always thought they had to START from the SNPP and then go up and down from there (based on the aggravating factors and mitigating factors). But the High Court decided in 2011 that the SNPP for a crime is just a ‘guidepost’ or ‘marker’ (Muldrock (2011)). So, the SNPP for a crime just gives the judge SOME DIRECTION
  16. 16. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 2. STANDARD Non-Parole Periods for SOME crimes 35 crimes with SNPPs (set by statute law)
  17. 17. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes Not all judges think the same way. They are humans, with their own ideas of what is important. What’s the most important in choosing a partner? Sense of humour? Intelligence? Body? Different people give different weight to different aspects.
  18. 18. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes To normal people, a judge’s REASONS for deciding to give someone 5 years in jail will look like this (x 20 pages) But other judges see it like this:
  19. 19. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes So, for 3 Armed Robbery cases, 3 different judges will come up with 3 different decisions with 3 different personal “systems” deciding what is (and isn’t) important in working out a punishment. Sentence: 5 years Sentence: 3 years Sentence: 8 years
  20. 20. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes But WE DON’T REALLY WANT THIS. We want CONSISTENCY in our legal system (judges should be roughly thinking the same way; giving the same amount of weight to the same issues). We want the process to be PREDICTABLE. Sentence: 5 years Sentence: 3 years Sentence: 8 years
  21. 21. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes
  22. 22. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes The NSW Sentencing Council looks at the way different sentencing decisions have been made by judges. They focus on the REASONING of the judge in deciding on a specific sentence. They decide for some cases, on ONE JUDGEMENT as being “the CORRECT way to work out the sentence in (this type of) case”
  23. 23. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes e.g. The NSW Sentencing Council has decided that the case R v Henry (1999) was an excellent example of how a judge SHOULD decide on the punishment for someone in an Armed Robbery case. So NOW, every judge in an Armed Robbery case MUST follow what the judge did in R v Henry (or at least provide good reasons why he/she didn’t!).
  24. 24. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 3. GUIDELINE judgements for SOME crimes So, R v Henry is now a guideline judgement. “best example” judgement “should be followed” judgement
  25. 25. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes The NSW government passed the Crimes Amendment (Murder of Police Officers) Act 2011. This means that if a person is found guilty (by a jury) of murdering a police officer, the judge has NO DISCRETION in sentencing the defendant – the judge must hand down a mandatory LIFE SENTENCE.
  26. 26. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes This was popular, but it created serious justice issues: 1. ‘Is a policeman’s life worth more?’, SMH (2011) 2. Parliaments are not legally allowed to take over the role of the courts (e.g. by setting an exact sentence, rather than a range). Get-tough laws erode functions of justice, SMH, 2011 And in Queensland, they brought in mandatory life sentences for repeated child sex offenders, which they deserve, but might give the paedophile an incentive to kill their victim (to prevent being caught and sent to prison for life). Queensland child-sex law 'may lead to murder’, The Australian (2012)
  27. 27. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes A lot of people argued that this would lead to more mandatory sentences in the future. They were right. After the death of Thomas Kelly, and the inadequate sentence given for his killing (R v Loveridge (2013), 4 years non-parole, increased to 7 on appeal), the NSW government passed the Crimes and Other Legislation Amendment (Assault and Intoxication) Act 2014 to force a mandatory minimum sentence for assaults causing death while the defendant is intoxicated. There were supposed to be 9 more offences with mandatory minimums, but the government brought it back to 6, then the Premier got busted for that wine, so it kind of got lost there in the whole transition (the Bill was called the Crimes Amendment (Intoxication) Bill 2014, though some version might have passed whenever you’re reading this). But it’ll make a comeback any day now, keep checking the facebook page… Anyway, there are SO many reasons why mandatory sentences are ridiculous, ESPECIALLY those given to people who are heavily intoxicated and wouldn’t be thinking about the s25B(1) of the Crimes Act at the time. The government just gave in to public pressure and made permanent changes without even waiting for the Loveridge appeal. And the law was announced, written and passed in a week because they specifically wanted the law to apply that weekend. And now we’re stuck with it.
  28. 28. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 4. MANDATORY life sentences for SOME crimes Success Tip 1 (out of 1): quote Nicholas Cowdery. Nick Cowdery used to be the DPP in NSW and now he’s a regular commentator for the SMH and the Legal Studies Association, so all the markers know who he is. He’s particularly passionate about how shit the idea of mandatory sentencing is, so he’s done lots of speeches and written lots of articles about it. So, if you’d like an incredibly in-depth look at mandatory sentencing, and you want to impress the markers, just find any (or all) of these articles (or just quote the names and say you read them…): ‘Mandatory Sentencing’, Sydney Law School Distinguished Speakers Program (2014) Lessons from the Kieran Loveridge Sentence (SMH, 2014) There’s also an article you can quote from Richard Ackland called ‘Mandatory minimum sentences are a legal and judicial muddle’ (SMH, 2014).
  29. 29. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES So, our sentencing system is now: ALL crimes have a maximum punishment (set by statute law) There are 35 crimes with SNPPs (set by statute law) There are 22 possible aggravating factors and 13 possible mitigating factors that have to be looked at There are 7 cases (from common law) that are used as ‘guideline’ judgements There are some crimes with a mandatory sentence (set by statute law) (life imprisonment for murdering a police officer + 8 years for assault causing death while intoxicated) +
  30. 30. SEEM STUPID TO YOU? Judges agree! “You’re almost inviting judges to run the court like a checklist, ‘Oh, he’s got one, two, three, four aggravating factors there – he’s only got three mitigating ones’” Justice Conlon ‘Putting the Truth into Sentencing’, SMH, 2010 “The gradual increase in ‘law and order’ measures have forced judges to impose higher sentences for some crimes” ‘Putting the Truth into Sentencing’, SMH, 2010 The legislation setting standard non-parole periods should be overturned Justice Reg Blanch ‘Putting the Truth into Sentencing’, SMH, 2010 STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES
  31. 31. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES The IMPACT of the SNPP sentencing scheme on sentencing patterns in NSW Judicial Commission of NSW, 2010 What effect has this new sentencing system (since 2003) had on sentencing in NSW? Did it REALLY make sentencing more consistent? Or did it just INCREASE penalties?
  32. 32. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES 4. SENTENCING AND PUNISHMENT EVALUATE the effectiveness of sentencing and punishment as a means of achieving justice STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES Is the system of having SNPPs and guideline judgements for certain crimes (an increasing number of crimes – increasing each time a terrible individual crime happens and is on the news) the best way to achieve justice? You should have a very good answer for this, because it is a good tip for the exam.
  33. 33. STATUTORY AND JUDICIAL GUIDELINES Lucky the NSW Law Reform Commission’s wrote a 450-page report on Sentencing (Report 139)
  34. 34. The big guide to the NSW Law Reform Commission’s 450-page report on Sentencing (Report 139) The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 NSWLRC’s recommendations for a NEW Crimes (Sentencing) Act There are 22 aggravating and 13 mitigating factors in s.21A (difficult to apply properly; leads to lots of mistakes) Just have 6 GENERAL factors that the court should look at (e.g. the nature, circumstances and serious of the offence; the extent of the harm caused; the offenders character, background and offending history; the extent of any remorse shown; and the offender’s prospects of rehabilitation) We have discounts for guilty pleas Keep the discounts and make sure the judge says exactly how much of a discount was applied We have a completely ridiculous process for deciding how long someone should be imprisoned Go back to the “top down” approach (set the TOTAL sentence first and THEN decide on the non-parole period, which should be presumed to be 2/3 of the total sentence – this is like the old ‘Truth in Sentencing’ law from 1989!). We use standard non-parole periods (which has been controversial, because they’ve been pretty inconsistent, especially as a % of the maximum sentence available) Keep the system of SNPPs, but add more offences (according to which offences the community wants included) Short sentences (six months or less) are a pain in the arse because they often increase re-offending and don’t have any rehabilitative value. … but we should keep them (???). However, the courts should try to use community based options instead of imprisonment A ‘life’ sentence means ‘FOR LIFE’ (no parole ever) We should ALLOW judges (but not require them) to set non-parole periods for people who get life sentences (just in case they change dramatically). THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN RULED OUT BY THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. ‘Home Detention’ and ‘Intensive Correction Orders’ (the things that replaced period/weekend detention) are underused. Replace these with a NEW ‘Community Detention Order’ (like a mix between a good behaviour bond, community service order, treatment/counselling and possible home detention). ‘Suspended Sentences’ are shit. Replace these with a NEW ‘Community Detention Order’ People are sometimes struggling to pay fines and end up with more serious penalties because of this We should allow for ‘suspended fines’. There are over 10,000 people in NSW prisons We should use imprisonment as a last resort Aboriginal people are massively overrepresented in Australian prisons Courts should consider whether the person’s Aboriginality is something that should be taken into account (Talkback radio hosts like Ray Hadley have already lost their shit about this idea) We have guideline judgements for a couple of offences The NSW Sentencing Council should be better funded so it can decide on more guideline judgements
  35. 35. The big guide to the NSW Law Reform Commission’s 450-page report on Sentencing (Report 139) The Crimes (Sentencing Procedure) Act 1999 NSWLRC’s recommendations for a NEW Crimes (Sentencing) Act There are 22 aggravating and 13 mitigating factors in s.21A (difficult to apply properly; leads to lots of mistakes) Just have 6 GENERAL factors that the court should look at (e.g. the nature, circumstances and serious of the offence; the extent of the harm caused; the offenders character, background and offending history; the extent of any remorse shown; and the offender’s prospects of rehabilitation) We have discounts for guilty pleas Keep the discounts and make sure the judge says exactly how much of a discount was applied We have a completely ridiculous process for deciding how long someone should be imprisoned Go back to the “top down” approach (set the TOTAL sentence first and THEN decide on the non-parole period, which should be presumed to be 2/3 of the total sentence – this is like the old ‘Truth in Sentencing’ law from 1989!). We use standard non-parole periods (which has been controversial, because they’ve been pretty inconsistent, especially as a % of the maximum sentence available) Keep the system of SNPPs, but add more offences (according to which offences the community wants included) Short sentences (six months or less) are a pain in the arse because they often increase re-offending and don’t have any rehabilitative value. … but we should keep them (???). However, the courts should try to use community based options instead of imprisonment A ‘life’ sentence means ‘FOR LIFE’ (no parole ever) We should ALLOW judges (but not require them) to set non-parole periods for people who get life sentences (just in case they change dramatically). THIS HAS ALREADY BEEN RULED OUT BY THE ATTORNEY-GENERAL. ‘Home Detention’ and ‘Intensive Correction Orders’ (the things that replaced period/weekend detention) are underused. Replace these with a NEW ‘Community Detention Order’ (like a mix between a good behaviour bond, community service order, treatment/counselling and possible home detention). ‘Suspended Sentences’ are shit. Replace these with a NEW ‘Community Detention Order’ People are sometimes struggling to pay fines and end up with more serious penalties because of this We should allow for ‘suspended fines’. There are over 10,000 people in NSW prisons We should use imprisonment as a last resort Aboriginal people are massively overrepresented in Australian prisons Courts should consider whether the person’s Aboriginality is something that should be taken into account (Talkback radio hosts like Ray Hadley have already lost their shit about this idea) We have guideline judgements for a couple of offences The NSW Sentencing Council should be better funded so it can decide on more guideline judgements

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