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Video Transcoding on Hadoop

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Video Transcoding on Hadoop

  1. 1. Video Transcoding on Hadoop P R E S E N T E D B Y S h i t a l M e h t a a n d K i s h o r e A n g a n i ⎪ J u n e 3 , 2 0 1 4 2 0 1 4 H a d o o p S u m m i t , S a n J o s e , C a l i f o r n i a
  2. 2. Outline 2 2014 Hadoop Summit, San Jose, California  Video Transcoding at Yahoo  Current Architecture: (Hadoop 0.23.x)  New Requirements  Generic YARN (master / worker)
  3. 3. Video Transcoding at Yahoo
  4. 4. Video Transcoding 4 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Convert source videos to standard output formats › input support • > 10 container formats • > 40 video codecs • > 60 audio codecs › output support (at various resolutions and bitrates) • mp4/h264/AAC • webm/vp8/vorbis AVI MP4 Mov 3GP FLV WebM … MP4 WebM
  5. 5. Related Jobs 5 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Post Transcode enrichments › watermarking › previews › thumbnails › visual seek  Machine learning
  6. 6. Extremely Compute and I/O intensive 6 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  SLA is measured in multiples of source video length  FFmpeg takes between 0.5x to 5x video duration › depending on hardware / resources available › tool configuration, etc  Computation requirements are dependent on: › source and destination parameters  Job parallelism › some jobs can work on fragmented videos › many require the whole video file for optimal results
  7. 7. The Processing Job (DAG) 7 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary job1 jobn t1 job split (DAG planning based on source video / requester) t2 … tn partial callbacks, intermediate uploads t0 start td done Download Input Video Merge, Cleanup Download Input Video Merge, Cleanup (E) Previews (E) Thumbnails (T) mp4/h264/AAC/720p (T) webm/vp8/vorbis/1080p (T) webm/vp8/vorbis/720p (E) enrichments (T) mp4/h264/AAC/1080p (T) mp4/h264/AAC/720p (T) mp4/h264/AAC/360p
  8. 8. Job Characteristics 8 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Tens of thousands of input videos / day  Source duration ranges from 10 seconds to 2 hours  Video sizes vary from a few MBs to a few GBs  Variable source / output fan-out › 5 to 15 output jobs per source video › hundreds of thousands of processing tasks per day  Job split and planning at ‘t1’ › dependent on source video parameters  Static Job plan (DAGs) based approaches lead to: › high resource wastage with reduced concurrency if the DAG over provisioned › high resource contention with SLA misses when DAG plan too strict  SLA and predictability are very important
  9. 9. Current Architecture: (Hadoop 0.23.x)
  10. 10. Cascaded Map – Reduce Jobs 10 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary MR Job MR Job OOZIE MR Job (M) Download + Split Generation Video Store HDFS MR Job MR Job MR Job (R) Cleanup, Notify (M) Transcode (M) Transcode (M) Transcode API API
  11. 11. Why Hadoop 1/2 11 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Extremely reliable as a framework  Good Resource Management › custom container asks based on source video parameters › multiple 2G to 6G MR jobs spawned on demand › minimal resource wastage (job plan decided by the parent MR job)  Distributed File System (HDFS) › used to share video files between various transcode jobs  Elasticity › scaling achieved by increasing queue capacity  Fault Tolerance  OOZIE provides job level fault tolerance  MR framework provides task level fault tolerance
  12. 12. Why Hadoop 2/2 12 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Log analysis and reporting › run as MR jobs alongside transcode jobs in the same queue  All functions well contained within the Hadoop MR ecosystem  Very low maintenance › over and above Grid maintenance  Lets us focus on the business logic and functions  Excellent SLA for big jobs
  13. 13. New Requirements (UGC and near real-time processing)
  14. 14. UGC and the current architecture (shortcomings) 14 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Very high variance in User Generated Content › duration, size, bitrates, etc.  Users want immediate feedback › SLA very important here  Large number of short length videos (< 30 seconds)  SLAs on small videos is very high › latency in MR containers’ allocation and preparation › some latency added by OOZIE scheduling  OOZIE / MR designed for batch jobs
  15. 15. The Latency 15 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Total Δt1 ~ 50 seconds to a minute, Δt2 ~ few seconds  Job split decision point important › leads to efficient resource utilization  Map Reduce framework very good for batch jobs › but not suitable for near real-time processing  Well known and documented  Alternate low latency frameworks available OOZIE MR1 Δt1 MR3 Δt1 MR2 Δt1 MR4 Δt1 t1 job split (DAG planning based on source video / requester) Δt1 Job Queuing / Scheduling Container Allocation Container Localization Δt2 Δt2 Δt2 Δt2 Container warming - (ML Models, etc)
  16. 16. New Requirements and options explored 16 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Need › near real-time scheduling (Δt1) › long running re-usable containers (Δt2)  Options explored › Tez › Storm / Spark › Slider
  17. 17. Issues with options explored 17 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Most (if not all) frameworks optimized for captive data flow › (in our case) only job metadata flows through the framework › while video blobs are consumed from outer subsystems (HDFS / local storage) › metadata is not a clear indicator of job characteristics  Video vs Text Processing › cannot process line by line › no key / value decomposition › many jobs require the whole video file to be present locally
  18. 18. The Comparison Sheet 18 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary Requirement Current Tez Storm / Spark Slider Elasticity High High High High Latency High Low Low Low Resource Efficiency (usage %) High Low* High High Dynamic DAG Yes No No No DAG Fault Tolerance Framework Framework Framework Framework Resource Management Fine Fine Coarse / None Fine Job / Task Abstraction Yes Yes Yes No Container Release Yes Yes No No Container Isolation Yes Yes No Yes Container PreWarm Per Job Once Once Once * Containers remain idle as DAG cannot be changed post first step
  19. 19. New Architecture: Generic YARN (master / worker)
  20. 20. Generic YARN Master / Worker 20 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary Master w1 Workers – (Type 1…k) … wn Jobs RPC  Extremely simple framework  Master manages a pool of workers  Master reads jobs and distributes to workers over Hadoop RPC  Framework has pluggable master and worker tasks  Pluggable scheduling strategy to manage workers  Heterogeneous worker tasks in same pool  Custom resource allocation per worker type  Worker resources setup once at bootstrap  State management is done by Master using HDFS  Security and token management by framework harness …
  21. 21. Master, Worker Interfaces 21 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary public interface Master { Job getJobInput(String workerName); void setJobOutput(Job jobOutput); } public interface Worker { public Job execute(Job jobInput); }
  22. 22. New Architecture for Transcoding 22 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary HDFS Pool Master w1 Worker1 … w m Client API Job Queue w1 Workerk … wn API State Information Video Storage …
  23. 23. Characteristics of the New Framework 23 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Long running workers in YARN containers › configurable TTL and timeouts  Pools consists of 1 Master and multiple workers  Multiple pools are managed by the client  Multiple clients across clusters  Adaptive container allocation and release › scheduling strategy (low – high watermark based)  Significant improvements in latency › job scheduling and distribution in milliseconds  YARN and the Client provide Master fault tolerance  Master takes care of fault tolerance for workers
  24. 24. What Next … 24 Yahoo Confidential & Proprietary  Hope to release to the community soon  In-principle similar to Google containers › with a low latency Job abstraction  YARN (nice to have): › Multi dimensional scheduling › Node Labels
  25. 25. Thank You @kishore_angani @smcal75 We are hiring! Stop by Kiosk P9 or reach out to us at