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  2. 2. 2ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSCONTENT PAGEABSTRACT1. Chapter- 1 INTRODUCTION ------------------------- 1-51.1. What is ESP?1.2. The difference between ESP and EGP?1.3. The difference between EAP and EOP?1.4. Hypothesis1.5. Significance1.6. Delimitation of the study2. Chapter -2 NEED ANALYSIS ------------------------ 6-172.1 What is need Analysis2.2 Learning needs2.3 Learning-centered Approach2.4 Learner-centered Approach2.5 Methodology2.6 Data Analysis3. Chapter-3 COURSE DESIGN --------------------------- 18-204. Appendix-1 COURSE MATERIAL --------------------------- 21-45Unit 1-205. Appendix -2 ASSESSMENT -------------------------- 466. Appendix -3 LESSON PLAN -------------------------- 47-507. Appendix –4 QUESTIONNAIRE -------------------------- 51-538. Appendix -5 TRAINING EVALUATION FORM --------- 54-559. BIBLIOGRAPHY ------------------------- 56
  3. 3. 3ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSChapter 1- Introduction1.1 What is ESP?"English for specific purposes is a term that refers to teaching or studying Englishfor a particularcareer (like law, medicine) or for business in general." (InternationalTeacher TrainingOrganization, 2005).There is a specific reason for which English islearned.ESP involves teaching and learning the specific skills and language needed by particular learnersfor a particular purpose. ESP students are usually adults who already have some acquaintancewith English and are learning the language in order to communicate a set of professional skillsand to perform particular job-related functions. An ESP program is therefore built on anassessment of purposes and needs and the functions for which English is required .The studentsabilities in their subject-matter fields, in turn, improve their ability to acquire English. Subject-matter knowledge gives them the context they need to understand the English of the classroom.In the ESP class, students are shown how the subject-matter content is expressed in English. Theteacher can make the most of the students knowledge of the subject matter, thus helping themlearn English faster. The learners potential are identified, and the required knowledge and skillare also taken into consideration while designing the course. The target situation such aspropensity, time, feasibility and technical resources are also taken into account. With theserequirements in mind, a course is designed and materials are chosen or specially designed.1.2 The Difference between ESP and EGP?The question of the difference between ESP and EGP has been addressed in the literature interms of theory and practice. Hutchinson and Waters (1987) state that there is no differencebetween the two in theory; however, there is a great deal of difference in practice. ESP differsfrom EGP in the sense that the words and sentences learned and the subject matter discussed areall relevant to a particular field or discipline. The design of syllabuses for ESP is directedtowards serving the needs of learners seeking for or developing themselves in a particularoccupation or specializing in a specific academic field. ESP courses make use of vocabularytasks related to the field such as negotiation skills and effective techniques for oral presentations.A balance is created between educational theory and practical considerations. ESP also increases
  4. 4. 4ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSlearners skills in using English.A deeper investigation, however, of the difference between the two is required. English forGeneral Purposes (EGP) is essentially the English language education in junior and senior highschools. Learners are introduced to the sounds and symbols of English, as well as to thelexical/grammatical/rhetorical elements that compose spoken and written discourse. There is noparticular situation targeted in this kind of language learning. Rather, it focuses on applicationsin general situations: appropriate dialogue with restaurant staff, bank tellers, postal clerks,telephone operators, English teachers, and party guests as well as lessons on how to read andwrite the English typically found in textbooks, newspapers, magazines, etc. EGP curriculumsalso include cultural aspects of the second language. EGP conducted in English-speakingcountries is typically called ESL, and EGP conducted in non-English-speaking countriesis normally called EFL. EGP is typically viewed as a level that precedes higher-level instructionin ESP if ESP programs are to yield satisfactory results.English for Specific Purposes, however, is that kind of English teaching that builds upon whathas been acquired earlier in EGP with a more restricted focus. It aims at acquainting learnerswith the kind of language needed in a particular domain, vocation, or occupation. In other words,its main objective is to meet specific needs of the learners. Of course, this indicates that there isno fixed methodology of ESP that can be applicable in all situations, but rather each situationand particular needs of learners belonging to a particular domain impose a certain methodologyof teaching.Thus, ESP is centered on the language appropriate to the activities of a given discipline.According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987:19), "ESP is an approach to language teaching inwhich all decisions as to content and method are based on the learners reason for learning." Inthis connection, Dudley-Evans (1998) explains that ESP may not always focus on the languagefor one specific discipline or occupation, such as English for Law or English for Engineering.University instruction that introduces students to common features of academic discourse in thesciences or humanities, frequently called English for Academic Purposes (EAP), is equally ESP.
  5. 5. 5ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSThe definitions of English for Specific Purposes (ESP) as conceptual term appeared in theliterature only in the 1960s. Hutchinson and Waters (cf. 1987, p.19) define ESP as an ―approach‖rather than a product, meaning that ESP does not involve a particular type of language, teachingmaterials or methodology.The learners and their purposes for learning English constitute the major difference between ESPand EGP. ESP learners are usually adults, who are familiar with the English language. ESPlearners are highly motivated because their needs are catered to. They are learning the languagein order to communicate professional information and to perform some particular, job-relatedfunctions. In ESP course, it is needs analysis that determines which language skills are useful forthe learners to be able to accomplish certain professional tasks (e g. for a tourist guide, coursesshould be focused on the speaking skills). ESP courses are centred on the context. The Englishlanguage is taught as a subject related to the learners‘ real needs and wishes in a particular fieldof human activity. The English language is usable immediately in the employment context. Thelearners are highly motivated as they are aware of their specific purposes for learning English.(cf. Chris Wright, 1992)The age of EGP learners varies from children to adults and learning the English language is thesubject of the courses. EGP courses are mostly focused on grammar, language structure andgeneral vocabulary. EGP courses are responsible to the general language acquisition and, for thevast majority of learners, they are extremelyuseful. EGP helps students to cope with any subject-matter course. It gives them the ability to generate more language. EGP learners, if well-taught,can use English to cope with the language in any undefined tasks. EGP courses deal with manydifferent topics and each of the four skills is equally treated. Due to the general nature of thesecourses no needs analysis is conducted.Aside from the rough separation at the definition level there is an overlapping connection andproportion between them. In order to clarify their relation Widdowson (1983) establishesdistinctive features of ESP and EGP.The most important EGP features are:1. The focus is often on education;2. As the learners‘ future needs are impossible to predict, the course content is more difficult toselect;
  6. 6. 6ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS3. Due to the above point it is important for the content in the syllabus to have a high surrendervalue.The most relevant ESP features are:1. The focus is on training;2. As English is intended to be used in specific vocational contexts, the selection of theappropriate content is easier;3. It is important for the content in the syllabus to have a high surrender value, most relevant tothe vocational context;4. The aim may be to create a restricted English competence.We consider that the two are highly interrelated. According to Hutchinson et al. (1987, p.53)the difference between the ESP and EGP approach is "in theory nothing, in practice a great deal".At the time, teachers of General English courses, while acknowledging that students had aspecific purpose for studying English, would rarely conduct a needs analysis to find out whatwas necessary to actually achieve it. Teachers nowadays, however, are much more aware of theimportance of needs analysis, and materials writers think very carefully about the goals oflearners at all stages of materials production. Perhaps this demonstrates the influence that theESP approach has had on English teaching in general.1.3 Difference between EAP and EOP?EAP was once called English for Educational Purposes (EEP) in the past. This term was usedwhen the concept was first introduced, and it is seldom used now after being replaced by theterm EAP. Coffey (1984, cited in Sager, 1998), describes EAP as a students need for ―quick andeconomical use of the English language to pursue a course of academic study‖ (p.4). Whereas forWei and Flaitz (2005), EAP is like a keyresponsibility‟ in assisting ESL (English as a SecondLanguage) students to develop the kind of English language proficiency that will lead to successin their academic endeavours.The difference between the EAP and EOP is that, EAP is the theoretical part , which is neededto understand or write academic papers. EAP course is more focused on the theory,methodology, concepts and lexicons; and all this takes place in the classroom, whereas EOP ismore oriented towards the application of this knowledge in the real context.
  7. 7. 7ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS1.4 HypothesisThe teachers of the elementary level of the government schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad,who confront the difficulties in written or verbal communication in English language will be ableto improve their language skills.1.5 Objectives The basic objective to design ESP course is to enhance their speaking skills. The second objective on the study is to improve their knowledge of Grammar. The third objective to design An ESP course is to improve their expression. Final objective is to heighten their communicative skills.1.6 Significance of the study:The majority of our population is getting education from these government schools, so the futureof our nation depends upon these teachers. Our course will help these teachers to properlycommunicate in English. This study will enhance their competitive skills, and if these teacherswill be proficient enough to teach well, so their training will help the students to communicatewell in English.1.6 Delimitation of the study:The study has been conducted on the teachers of Elementary level of government schools ofRawalpindi and Islamabad; thus it only analyzes the needs of the learners by taking intoconsideration their present situations. The study cannot be used to interpret the teachers on thewhole, because their needs can vary according to their situation. Course design can subject tovarious changes with difference other than government elementary schools.
  8. 8. 8ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSChapter 2 - NEEDS ANALYSIS2.1 What is needs analysis?Needs analysis ‗provides a basis for setting goals and objectives‘ (Nunan and Lamb 1996: 27).Thus, the concept is worth examining in some detail: its definition and emergence in languageteaching as well as the tools for conducting a needs analysis. West (1997: 68) provides a briefoverview of the origin of needs analysis. According to his article, the term was first used in the1920-s, but because it referred to determining the needs of the general language learners, whostudied English simply for the sake of knowing English, it did not seem very relevant at that timeand did not linger. Its return is closely associated with the emergence of ESP in the 1970-s, sincewhen the scope of the concept has evolved and expanded. As a result, what is meant by needsanalysis has also gradually changed?Need is basically a gap between the present situation and the target situation.Jordan (1997: 26) quotes Bower (1980) who has noted the importance of learning needs:“If we accept…that a student will learn best if what he wants to learn, less well what he onlyneeds to learn, less well still what he either wants or needs to learn, it is clearly important toleave room in a learning programme for the learner’s own wishes regarding both goals andprocesses.”In more formal terms a need analysis is a process of determining the needs for which a learner orgroup of learners require a language and arranging the needs according to the priorities.The target needs:PERESENTSITUATIONTraining gapTARGETSITUATION
  9. 9. 9ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSTarget needs are general term which has several fields that will determine the need in ESP itself.There are three points:a. Necessity:These needs are determined by the demands of the target situation. It means what thelearner has to know in order to function effectively in the target situation. For example, a teacherneeds to understand about vocabulary, pronunciation and how to communicate effectively, etc.He or she will also need to know the linguistics features – discoursal, functional, structural,lexical, and most commonly used in the situations identified.b. Lack: It is required to know what the learner knows already, so that it can be decided thenwhich of the necessities the learners lack. According to what a learner already knows, weacknowledged that what necessities are missing. Knowing the lack of student will help a teacherto design appropriate course in study process. This is the gap between the existing proficiencyand the target proficiency.c. Wants: Hutchinson and Waters‘ (1987) definition of wants (perceived or subjective needs oflearners) corresponds to learning needs. Similar to the process used for target needs analysis,they suggest a framework for analyzing learning needs which consists of several questions, eachdivided into more detailed questions.According to what we have considered from an objective POV, we have to say that ― a need doesnot exist independent of a person. It is people who build their images of their need on the basis ofdata relating to themselves and their environment.2.2 Learning NeedsLearning needs are linked with the route‟ to the destination set by target situation. It is naïve tobase the course design and the whole ESP program merely on target needs. The methodological,ExistingProficiency GapTargetProficiency
  10. 10. 10ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSadministrative and psychological needs must occupy the same space in needs analysis as thetarget needs do. ESP learning is not a mechanical project to be imposed mechanically on thelearners. The whole ESP program is an enjoyable, pleasing, manageable, generative, creative andproductive activity.It is only possible when it is based on the full potential and constraints of both target needs andthe learning situation. It needs to be clear, at this point, that learning is a broader term thanlearner. Though, being the most fundamental building block, a learner is the central part, yet notthe whole of a learning process. There is much more in the overall learning process than just thelearner to consider. Altman and James (1980), though following the term of learner-centeredlanguage teaching, points out three main distinctions of the learning or learner-centered approachin comparison with curriculum-centered and teacher-centered instruction. In learner-centeredteaching approach, the needs and abilities of the learners determine the curriculum details andteaching requirements of the course. There are four main perspectives to view the learner-centered language teaching program: goals, means, rate, expectations. Further, the teachers aretrained in way they can fulfill the needs of learners.The framework proposed by Hutchinson and Waters (1987) for analysis of learning needs is thefollowing:1. Why are the learners taking the course?2. How do the learners learn?3. What sources are available?4. Who are the learners?2.3 A learning-centered approachHutchinson & Waters (1987) offer an often-cited learning-centered approach to ESP. They arguethat other approaches give too much attention to language needs, whereas more attention shouldbe given to how learners learn. They suggest that a learning needs approach is the best route toconvey learners from the starting point to the target situation. Learner needs are approached fromtwo directions; target needs and learning needs. Target needs are defined as ―what the learnerneeds to do in the target situation‖ (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987, p. 54). They are broken downinto three categories: necessities, lacks and wants.Learner needs also involve:• Teaching and learning styles with which the learners are familiar
  11. 11. 11ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS• Appropriate or ineffective teaching and learning methods• Knowledge of specialized contents that teachers should have• Suitable instructional materials and study location• Time of study and status of ESP courses• Expectations about what learners should achieve in the courses• How necessary the courses are for the learners2.4. Learner-centered approachesBerwick (1989) and Brindley (1989) are leaders in contributing learner-centered approaches toneeds analysis. Three ways to look at learner needs are offered: perceived vs. felt needs; productvs. process oriented interpretations; and objective vs. subjective needs. ‗Perceived needs‘ arefrom the perspective of experts while ‗felt needs‘ are from the perspective of learners (Berwick,1989). In the product-oriented interpretation, learner needs are viewed as the language thatlearners require in target situations. In the process-oriented interpretation, the focus is on howindividuals respond to their learning situation, involving affective and cognitive variables whichaffect learning.2.5 Methodology:A course for the teachers of Elementary level has been designed by taking into account thelearners interest, how, what, why, when and where they want to learn. This range ofacquaintance is important to design a significant course for the learners.2.5.1 Tools used to collect Data:Following information gathering procedures had been used to construct an authentic needsanalysis.Observations: The situation has been analyzed by examining the daily routine of theteachers, their activities like observing their process of teaching during the class, copingwith the issues of the students, dealing with other staff members and the outsiders.Formal interviews: The teachers were interviewed face to face. They were asked certainquestions regarding to what they need according to their present situation. Their responseand attitude was also recorded.Informal discussion: The teachers were asked that what should be the course contentaccording to their present situation and which timing would be feasible to them to attendthat course.
  12. 12. 12ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSQuestionnaires: The questionnaires were given to the teachers to fill; and through whichtheir needs, lacks and wants are determined.2.5.2 Sample:The research is based on 25 members of the teaching staff from different government schools.All of them are the female teachers ranging from 22-50. They belong to three levels of job,junior, middle and senior.2.6 Data Analysis1. The observations:demonstrate the routine of the teachers, and their needs which areobserved. While observation we come to know about their lacks and needs. During observationswe acknowledged that what should be the strategies for designing the course for them.2. Formal Interviews: When we interviewed the teachers of different of the governmentschools about their lacks, needs and wants, we came to be familiar with the fact that most of theteachers could not speak fluently rather they preferred to talk in Urdu. They were quite happythat someone has recognized their problems and that some effort is going to be done in order toimprove their writing and speaking skills. Majority of the teachers wanted to improve theirspeaking and writing skills. They said that they feel it difficult to communicate in English in theclass. Some of teachers wanted to improve their vocabulary, and some of them said that theywant to improve their pronunciation as well. They said that they want to improve their English inorder to cope with official meetings and they want to improve their social status by gainingproficiency in English. They said that course should focus on vocabulary activities which couldimprove their speaking skills and could enhance their confidence as well.3. Informal Discussion:In formal discussion with teachers, we came know that they can spare 1hour on weekends for ESP course. They also share their needs for ESP course they want us toinclude.4. Questionnaires:The questionnaires were filled out by 25 staff members of the teaching staffof the government schools of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.Following is the analysis of these questionnaires. The analysis of these questionnaire is dividedinto four sections. The first section is comprised on the closed ended questionnaire, and that
  13. 13. 13ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSdeals with the target needs and wants of the learners, the second section is comprised on the openended questions that analysis the lacks of the learners. The third section deals with the presentsituation of the learner.A number of people wants to learn English as this is the demand of their job, but majority wantsto learn it for both of the purpose. As English has become basic need of today‘s educationalsystem of Pakistan.Demand of your job35%For promotion0%All of the above65%Q-1 WHY DO YOU WANT TO LEARN ENGLISH?To improve status9%To move in societyconfidently10%Urge to learnEnglish10%To learninternationalmodern teachingtechniques38%All of the above33%Q-2 ANY OTHER PURPOSE FOR LEARNING ENGLISH?
  14. 14. 14ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSMost of the people wants to learn international modern techniques of teaching, some of themwant to move confidently in society as English has become the International language, and fewof them have an urge to learn English.Grammar and vocabulary were found more difficult, and some of them found expression moredifficult, and few people found all of them complex and uneasy.Grammar33%Expression28%Vocabulary33%All of the above6%Q-3 WHICH ASPECT OF ENGLISH IS DIFFICULT FORYOU?Writing0%Speaking14%Reading4%Listening0%All above82%Q-4 WHAT MEDIUM WILL YOU USE FOR THISLANGUAGE IN YOUR JOB?
  15. 15. 15ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSSome people said that they will use medium of speaking in their job while a few will chosereading as a medium of teaching, but majority was of the view that they will use all of them intheir job.Majority of the people will use English with their students, some of them needed English tocommunicate with their colleagues and head of institution, but a few need English for all of theabove mentioned categories.Head of institution5%Outsiders0%Student59%Colleagues9% All of the above27%Q-5 WHO WILL BE THE PEOPLE YOU USE ENGLISHWITH?Classroom23%Playground0%Office0%Staffroom0%All of the above77%Q-6 WHAT WILL BE THE PHYSICAL SETTING, INWHICH ENGLISH WILL BE USED?
  16. 16. 16ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSThe physical setting in which English will be used by a few people, is classroom; but majority ofpeople will use English at all the places, like classroom, playground, office and staffroom.Teachers remarked that a majority of the students are native, but some of the teachers said thatthey are teaching both native and foreigner students in the class.Native students55%Foreigner students0%Both45%None0%Q-7 STUDENTS IN YOUR CLASS ARE?Frequently78%Seldom5%In small amounts11%In large amounts6%Q-8 IN WHAT AMOUNT ENGLISH WILL BE USED
  17. 17. 17ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSA few of teachers said that they use English on seldom bases, and a few use it in large amounts,but a large number of teacher use English frequently.English is required by a number of teachers in lectures and demonstration; a few use it inconversation, but a large number of them required it in lectures, conversation, meeting and indemonstration as well.Lecture anddemostration18%Conversation9%Meetings0%All of the above73%Q-9 IN WHAT CONTEXT YOU WILL USE ENGLISH?
  18. 18. 18ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSThe teachers required workshops for their training, a few required seminars and lecture byexperts but a large number of people required all of them for their training.The second section deals with the lacks and demands of the learners. In this section they wereprovided with the open ended questions and were asked to fill it in two or three lines.Open Ended Questions:The second section deals with the lacks and demands of the learners. In this section they wereprovided with the open ended questions and were asked to fill it in two or three lines. In the lightof the open ended questions that were provided to them, we have analyzed that majority of thepeople found English speaking difficult. While discussion we analyzed that they even preferredto speak Urdu. As a teacher the main demand of their job was to be fluent in speaking English.They also found obstacles in using English grammar. They had insufficient vocabulary or if theyhad they didn‘t know the appropriate use of that vocabulary. Due to the lack of vocabulary, itwas difficult for them to express their thoughts. When they were asked about their demands forthe ESP course, they said that the grammar should be focused in the course. They also wanted toimprove their vocabulary and desired some exercise should be added to improve theirvocabulary. They also wanted to improve their communicative skills as well as expression.Workshops23%Seminars4%Lectures byexperts5%All of the above68%Q-10 WHAT KIND OF SESSION YOU THINK SHOULDBE THERE BESIDE TRAINING COURSE?
  19. 19. 19ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSThe third section deals with their present situation analysis.2.6 Findings:The data analysis has helped us to evaluate the findings. The findings are as follows:All of the four language skills - listening, reading, writing and speaking are need andrequired by the learner. Hence a course containing all four skills should be introduced.The major demand of the learner however is writing and speaking; thus the major focusof the course will be the areas of speaking and writing.Learners desired to be proficient in spoken, thus the course will also focus to improvetheir accents and pronunciation.The learners also wanted to improve their communication skills, they wanted to enhancetheir confidence level, so the exercises of our course will also focus to boost up theirconfidence level.The major concern to improve writing skills in English is for writing formally, so ourcourse content will also focus on the vocabulary, use of correct grammar, and expression.The learners find it feasible to spare one and half hour on weekend for this course.Therefore, the course will be designed for the duration of 1.5 hours every two days in aweek.02468101214Grammar Speaking Vocabulary Writing ReadingExcellent 4 4 2 6 13Good 9 10 14 14 6Fair 7 6 5 2 2Bad 0 0 0 0 0Present Situation Analysis
  20. 20. 20ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSThe learners fall under the category of intermediate learners who bring somebackground knowledge with them.The learners possess both instrumental and integrative motivation to learn Englishlanguage.Conclusion:The learners of the teaching staff will be able to perceive constructive learningexperience. Learner centred approach of learning is considered as a major paradigm shiftin ESP teaching, that is why we have selected the learner centred approach to design thecourse. The focus will be the constructive role of the learner in order to make the learnerautonomous. The learners of the ESP course will take some responsibility for their ownlearning and will be invited to negotiate with some aspects of the course design, thesubject matter and the course content will be relevant for the learner as they feelmotivated to become more involved in their learning and will often seem to participatemore actively in classCHAPTER-3 (COURSE CONTENT AND SALLYBUS DESIGN)Days Activities Duration Aim RequirementWeek 1(Writing skills)Day-1 Unit-1:Important BuildingBlocks Of Grammar60-65 MIN To Give BasicKnowledge ForGrammar RulesIn this basic lecture on Basic grammar concepts with handouts will be given to studentsDay-2 Unit -2: Tenses 60-65 Overview of alltensesLecture and written exercises if Tenses will be givenWeek 2Day-1 Unit-3: How to write a letterand its types60-65 Min To fulfill teachersprofessional needsIn this activity lecture on how to write a letter, its types and exercise on to write a formal and informal
  21. 21. 21ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSletter will be conduct by trainers.Day-2 Unit-4: How to make evaluationsheet60-65 Min To fulfill teachersprofessional needsWeek 3Day 1 Unit-5: How to write anapplication60-65 Min To fulfil teachersprofessional needsAs teachers use English for professional use also, so in this unit how to write an application will be teach tothem.Day 2 Unit -6 :Short story writing 40-45 Min To fulfil teachersprofessional needsWeek 4Day 1 Unit-7 :Memo writing 60-65 Min To fulfil teachersprofessional needsFor official use activity will be conducted to teach them how to write memoDay 2 Unit-8:Essay writing 60-65 Min To fulfil teachersprofessional needsTo improve their expression essay on different topics will be asked to writeWeek 5Day 1 Unit-9:How to write précis 60-65 Min To fulfil teachersprofessional needsDay 2 Revision 60-65 MinDays Activities Duration AIM RequirementsWeek 6(SPEAKING SKILLS)Day-1 Unit-10 Using Large Chunks 60-65 Min Oral Fluency PracticeList Of Large Chunks Will Be Given To Them And They Will Use Them In Their Conversation AsPractice.Newspaper Cutting , Dialogue Activity Will Be Conduct For ImprovementDay-2 Unit -11: Telling PersonalExperiences60-65 Min Oral Fluency PracticeIn This learners Will Share Their Personal Experiences In Time Frame Of 5 Min To Class.Week 7Day1 Uni-12: Re-Telling Stories 60-65 Min Oral Fluency PracticeIn This,learners will Hear Sketches From Their Classmates And Retell Them.
  22. 22. 22ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSDays Activities Duration Aim RequirementWeek 11(Reading skills)Day 1 Unit-18: Strategies of reading 60-65MinTo teach them basics ofreadingTo give an overview about how to readDay 2 Unit-19: Paragraph reading 60-65MinTo improve pronunciation,and fluency in readingFew newspapersand magazinesRead a paragraph from English magazine, newspaper.Week 12(Listening skills)Day 1 Unit -20: Documentary 60-65MinTo improve fluencyBy this learners will concentrate and dialogues said by others and questions will be asked fromDay-2 Unit-13:Two Min Debates 60-65 Min Oral FluencyIn This Student Will Debate In Pairs About Any Topic.Week 8Day1 Unit-14:Short Role-Plays 60-65 Min Oral Fluency Role play cardsRole Play According To Instructions On Role Play CardDay-2 Unit-15: Find Differences 60-65 Min Think In EnglishSpeak In EnglishPicturesStudents Speak In Order To Find The Differences Between Two Similar Pictures.Week 9Day1 Unit-16: Weekly Talkshow 60-65 Min Think In EnglishSpeak In EnglishThree Students Answer Questions From The Class On A Particular Topic.Day-2 Unit-17:Holiday AdventureDiscussion60-65 Min Think In EnglishSpeak In EnglishStudents Plan An Adventure Holiday In Groups.Week 10Day 1 Revision 60-65 Minlearners with their pairs practice spoken skills they have learnt
  23. 23. 23ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSthemDay 2 Assessment 60-65MinTo evaluate performanceDetail assessment of learnersregarding all skills.CHAPTER 3 – COURSE DESIGNAPPENDIX -1: COURSE CONTENT AND SYLLABUS DESIGNUNIT-1Grammar LessonIMPORTANT BUILDING BLOCKS OF GRAMMARNOUNSA noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.Examples: King, Mohan, Sarita, Mumbai, TablePRONOUNSA pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.Examples: He, She, It, TheyARTICLESThe words ‗a‘, ‗an‘ and ‗the‘ are called articles. They are used before nouns.VERBS
  24. 24. 24ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSA verb is a word that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.Examples: He talks to Sameer, She sings a songADJECTIVESAn adjective is a word used to describe a noun.Examples : Beautiful house, Tall manADVERBSAn adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.Examples: He runs fast,They fought bravely.PREPOSITIONSA preposition is a word which shows the relation between the noun or pronoun and other wordsin the sentence.Examples: The boy is in the room, The book is on the table.CONJUNCTIONSA conjunction is a word which joins to sentences to complete their meaning.Examples : They reached the station but it was too late.He put on his shoes because he was going for a run.INTERJECTIONSAn interjection is a word which expresses sudden feeling or emotion.Examples : Hello!, Alas!, Hurray!, Oh!Activity:1 adverb exercisesChoose the correct word1. She could hard hardly walk after the accident.2. My book is near nearly finished.3. She is too short shortly. She cannot be a model.4. I would like two tickets for the late lately ahow.5. I will let you know my decision short shortly.6. This problem is too hard hardly for me.7. I live near nearly the supermarket.8. He has been very sick late lately.9. There is near nearly no money left.
  25. 25. 25ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS10. We will go on vacation short shortly.11. This is hard hardly the way to speak to your teacher.12. He is often late lately to work.13. The operation is near nearly over.14. Your composition is too short shortly. It looks like a telegram.15. He has been working too hard hardly , late lately.Activity :2Fill in with the correct form: adjective or adverb.1. The movie had a ending. (comic)2. She will get home . (short) I hope she will drive . (careful)3. She described the accident . (dramatic)4. We studied for the test. (hard)5. Do you think you could drive more ? (slow)6. I thought Gil did in his test. (Good). He studied really . (hard)7. The quiz is . (easy)8. The plane flew to London. (direct)9. David ran in the competition. (fast)10. I ate the sandwich . (hungry)Activity 3:PREPOSITIONS EXERCISEExercise on Prepositions – PlaceFill the gaps with the correct prepositions.1. We live London.2. Would you like to go the cinema tonight?3. No, thanks. I was the cinema yesterday.4. We are going holiday next week.5. There is a bridge the river.
  26. 26. 26ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS6. The flight from Leipzig to London was Frankfurt.7. my wall, there are many picture postcards.8. Who is the person this picture?9. Come the sitting room, we want to watch TV.10. Munich lies 530 meters sea level.Activity 4:Exercise for InterjectionsMatch the following12345678910ahablahcheersdarneekgoodbyeouchpoohshooughscaredmeaningless talksee you soonget awayit is so easylooks beautifuldisgustpaina drinking toastgot hurt11.
  28. 28. 28ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSActivity: (Present perfect tense)A) Which answer is correct?1) In which question is the Present Perfect put in correctly?Had you had spaghetti for lunch?Has you had spaghetti for lunch?Have you had spaghetti for lunch?
  29. 29. 29ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS2) In which sentence is the Present Perfect put in correctly?We has left for Edinburgh.We have leaved for Edinburgh.We have left for Edinburgh.B) Rewrite the phrase into Present Perfect.Example: he cries - he has cried1) we dont forget -2) she doesnt know -C) since or for?1) years2) 1997D) Which answers are correct?1) What are typical signal words for the Present Perfect?alreadyat the momenteverjustlast nightusuallyyet2) Which verb forms are used with the Present Perfect?hadhad hadhas
  30. 30. 30ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERShas hadhave hadE) Negate the sentences.1) The twins have broken the window.2) Jeff has made pizza.Activity: (Present progressive)A) Fill in the correct verb forms.1) They doing an exercise.2) I sending a text message.3) Tom cleaning the shop.4) The teacher checking the homework.5) We making sandwiches.6) Our class visiting a museum.7) My baby brother playing with his toys.8) George wearing a pullover today.9) Ronny and David running out of the house.10) My friends watching a new DVD.UNIT-3 (writing skills-letter)
  31. 31. 31ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSFormal lettersThese are sometimes known as business letters. They are written in a strictly formal style. Suchletters are always written on an A4 (8" x 11" sheet of paper. They can be folded three times sothat the address to which the letter is being sent can appear in the window of a businessenvelope. The layout is always the same.Structure:The senders address is put at the top right hand sideInclude telephone number and email if availableThe address of the person receiving the letter goes on the left hand side below thesenders addressThe dateGreeting — Dear Sir or Madam. You can use the titles Miss, Mrs. or Mr. if you know thename of the person to whom you are writingThe messageComplimentary close — Yours faithfully or Yours sincerelySignatureWrite name in block letters (this is to ensure that the person receiving the letter knowsexactly who has sent it. Signatures may not be very clear)
  32. 32. 32ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSInformal lettersThese are letters to friends and relations, or people you know well. Structure:The senders address should always appear on the top right hand corner of the page.Include telephone number and email if availableGreeting — There are several variations that can be used depending on how well youknow the person: Dear Mary, Hi Mary, GreetingsComplimentary close — short comment, for example Love, Lots of love, With thanks,See you soon
  33. 33. 33ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUNIT-5 HOW TO WRITE JOB APPLICATIONWhat to includeo Customize your cover letter so it is relevant to the employer and the job.o Focus on what the employer wants to know, not what you want from them.o Try to convince them that you can do the job, that you‘ll do a great job, you‘ll fit in and be anasset to their organization.o Make sure you include your contact details.o Keep your letter no longer than one page.StructureExplain the purpose of your letter in the opening paragraph. Mention the position you areapplying for and where you heard about it or where it was advertised.In the next paragraph, show you can do the job and do it well. You should summaries yourqualifications, skills, abilities and experience. State what makes you perfect for the jobadvertised.Next, state that you are keen to work for the company and why. Try to give some informationabout what type of person you are. Keep in mind what you know about the employer. Mentionyour personal qualities which you think they are looking for.Before finishing, thank them for taking the time to review your application. Also mention anyattachments including your resume and any work examples
  34. 34. 34ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUNIT -6 HOW TO WRITE A SHORT STORYA short story is a short work of fiction. Fiction, as you know, is prose writing about imaginedevents and characters. Prose writing differs from poetry in that it does not depend on verses,meters or rhymes for its organization and presentation.A character is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a shortstory or other literary work.The setting of a short story is the time and place in which it happens. Authors often usedescriptions of landscape, scenery, buildings, seasons or weather to provide a strong sense ofsetting.A plot is a series of events and character actions that relate to the central conflict.The conflict is a struggle between two people or things in a short story. The main character isusually on one side of the central conflict.On the other side, the main character may struggle against another important character,against the forces of nature, against society, or even against something inside himself orherself (feelings, emotions, illness).The theme is the central idea or belief in a short story.ACTIVITY:WRITE A SHORT STORY ON ANY TOPICRollercoaster ThemingSoccer for the Little Ones
  35. 35. 35ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUNIT-7 MEMO WRITINGStarting with formal writings to informal writings because it is difficult to give a free hand to thelearners who are not efficient in this skill, so they will be provided certain limitations for formalwritings .Memos: ask the learner to write a memo which will help them in their target situation as well.Explain them what is a memo and then provide a sample and ask them to write one on a suitabletopic.A memo is:A hard-copy (sent on paper) documentUsed for communicating inside an organizationUsually shortContains; to, from, date , subject headings and message sectionsDoes not need to be signed, but sometimes has the sender‘s name at the bottom to bemore friendly, or the sender‘s full name to be more formal. If in doubt, follow yourcompany style.Activity:Write a memo to inform your principle of the school that you areresigning from the job because of some reason.
  36. 36. 36ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit -8 How to write an EssayHow To Write an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten sequential steps in anessay writing process, or can be explored by individual topic.1. Research: Begin the essay writing process by researching your topic, making yourself anexpert. Utilize the internet, the academic databases, and the library. Take notes and immerseyourself in the words of great thinkers.2. Analysis: Now that you have a good knowledge base, start analyzing the arguments of theessays youre reading. Clearly define the claims, write out the reasons, the evidence. Look forweaknesses of logic, and also strengths. Learning how to write an essay begins by learning howto analyze essays written by others.3. Brainstorming: Your essay will require insight of your own, genuine essay-writing brilliance.Ask yourself a dozen questions and answer them. Meditate with a pen in your hand. Take walksand think and think until you come up with original insights to write about.4. Thesis: Pick your best idea and pin it down in a clear assertion that you can write your entireessay around. Your thesis is your main point, summed up in a concise sentence that lets thereader know where youre going, and why.5. Outline: Sketch out your essay before straightway writing it out. Use one-line sentences todescribe paragraphs, and bullet points to describe what each paragraph will contain. Play withthe essays order. Map out the structure of your argument, and make sure each paragraph isunified.6. Introduction: Now sit down and write the essay. The introduction should grab the readersattention, set up the issue, and lead in to your thesis. Your intro is merely a buildup of the issue, astage of bringing your reader into the essays argument.7. Paragraphs: Each individual paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports yourthesis. Begin paragraphs with topic sentences, support assertions with evidence, and expoundyour ideas in the clearest, most sensible way you can. Speak to your reader as if he or she weresitting in front of you. In other words, instead of writing the essay, try talking the essay.8. Conclusion: Gracefully exit your essay by making a quick wrap-up sentence, and then end onsome memorable thought, perhaps a quotation, or an interesting twist of logic, or some call toaction. Is there something you want the reader to walk away and do? Let him or her knowexactly what.
  37. 37. 37ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSActivity:Write an essay on any of the following topicAre women are better parents than men?Are our zoos cruel to wild animals?Do the benefits of study abroad justify the difficulties?
  38. 38. 38ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-9 How To Write A PrecisePrécis WritingThe goal of a précis is to summarize the findings in an article by identifying the main points andconclusions of the research along with reviewing the broader implications of the results obtainedin the passage.In order to accomplish this goal, it helps to follow a six step process:Step 1: Read the passage. Read it again. Go on reading it until you understand it. Put down onpaper the main idea or ideas; make notes in the margins.Step 2: Read the passage again to make sure you haven‘t missed any important ideas.Step 3: Referring to your notes if you need to, but not to the original, write a rough summary ofthe passage. By not looking at the original, you will avoid copying; you will be forced to put theideas into your own words.Step 4: Read your précis. Ask yourself the following questions—Activity:Write a precise of Newspaper column.
  39. 39. 39ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit -10 Speaking skillImprove English fluency with chunksCommon polite expressionsChunks like See you later or Take a seat are often used in everyday communication andlearning them can help you improve English fluency.All the bestSee you soonMind how you goHave a nice dayHow do you do?Youre welcomeDiscourse markersDiscourse markers are used in both written and spoken English to link what has come before towhat comes next. Youll already know of discourse markers used in written English such as onthe one hand, turning now to or in conclusion. Typical single word discourse markers inspoken English include now, so actually and well. As your English fluency skills improveyoull find yourself using informal discourse markers such as the following more often:I see what you mean butBy the waySort ofMind youYou knowLets seeActivity:Jonas: ... And then I came up with the … the thought that maybe a … a communalstretching session would be appropriate as well … or maybe I don’t know ... a yogalesson in the evening.Ana: Yes but … yeah … yeah maybe … a few more breaks would be good. What about …introducing breaks of about 15 minutes one in the morning and one in the afternoon …during which people can go to the gym … and I mean you mentioned some stretching …Ana: I just had the idea of … I mean maybe there are some exercises certain exercisespeople can do in a very short time even if they stay in front of their computers but … yes… just a little bit of stretching … standing up every now and then ...Jonas: Yes … that’s quite right … if you … I mean it would be pretty realistic toorganisesomething like this … between … in breaks or I don’t know and it would be ofcourse all on a voluntary basis you wouldn’t … wouldn’t be forced to do yoga oranything like that.
  40. 40. 40ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSMagazines were given to read interviews in which feature direct speech and make a note of anychunks you come across. The most frequent - and therefore most useful - chunks will consists ofthe most common words, not specialized or less frequently used vocabulary.Unit-11 Telling personal experiencesOld memoriesJob experiencesNightmaresHobbies / interestsSkills that they haveUnit-12 Re-telling stories that they have heard from theirclassmates.In this learners will re-tell each other stories in their own wordsUnit-13 Two min debate on social, political or universal topic.Present condition of education systemWhich party is your favorite and why?Do you agree women speak more than men?
  41. 41. 41ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-14 short role playAsk learners to read this script and try to play themselvesACT I – On the Countryside(father, his son, and a donkey enter stage)Father: Tell me Peter… did you feed Snooky?Son: Yes, father, I did. Where are we going so early?Father: We´re going to town to do some shopping. Come on, hurry up, it´s getting late.(they walk a little. A man enters stage)Man: Good morning… Where are you going so early?Father: We´re going to St. James.Man: Forgive me for asking, why are you going on foot if you can ride your donkey?Son: That´s right, father! Tell me why?Father: I appreciate your advice… and good bye, it´s getting late. (the man leaves stage) Who´sgoing to ride the donkey?Son: You are, father. I can walk.(the man gets on the donkey and walk a little. A woman carrying a basket enters stage)Father: Good morning, Mrs. Liz.Mrs. Liz: Good Morning (she stops and watches them). I know that this is none of mybusiness… but, why is this poor, little and sweet boy walking? And why is this strong man ridingthe donkey?Son: (thinking) Mrs. Liz is right. Don´t you think so father?Father: Ok, I‘ll get off the donkey…and you get on.(the farmer gets off the donkey and his son gets on. They walk a little. An old man enters stage).Old Man: Good morning… (he stops and watches them)Farmer: Good morning…Old Man: Oh my! When I was young these things never happened! Why is a young and healthyboy riding the donkey, and his poor father is walking? This is so disrespectful! Oh, my!
  42. 42. 42ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS(the old man leaves the stage whispering)Father: What do you think about what the old man said?Son: I think he´s right. It would be better if you too ride the donkey.(the farmer gets on the donkey, now both are riding the donkey, and walk a little. A girl entersstage running).Girl: (approaches the donkey) What a sweet donkey! What´s his name?Son: His name is SnookyGirl: Oh, poor Snooky! Look at his tired face. Why are you both riding this poor donkey. (sheleaves stage whispering)… Poor donkey!Father: (a little impatient) And now, what are we going to do, my son?Son: I think that the girl is right, father. Snooky looks tired, let´s carry the donkey ourselves andnobody will critize us.Father: Ok, lets see what happens.(both get off the donkey and carry him. They can hardly walk. The man, Mrs. Liz, the old man,and the girl enter stage)Man: (laughing) What´s this! I´ve never seen anything like this!Mrs. Liz: (laughing) What a pair of fools!Old Man: How funny you look carrying a donkey…(they leave stage)Father: (angry) And now, what are we going to do, my son?Son: To tell you the truth. I don´t know, father. We did what they told us to do, but we couldn´tplease them. Everybody critized us, and now they laugh at us.Farmer: Look, my son. I wanted you to see with your own eyes that there are many differentopinions and that it´s not possible to please everybody.Son: I can see that, fahter. They laughed at us because we tried to please them, but what are wegoing to do now?Father: Well, you must think right and decide what you think it´s better.
  43. 43. 43ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSSon: Even if not everybody agrees. I know what to do! You will ride the donkey half of the way,and I will ride him the other half. Along the way we can also walk a little, so that Snooky canrest.Father: (gets on the donkey) Well done, my son. We will do just that. Come on Snooky, startwalking!Son: (looking convinced) Let people talk!
  44. 44. 44ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-15 Find difference and express it in orally
  45. 45. 45ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-16 Talk showOrganize talk shows between pairs of learners and ask them to perform a talkshow on any topic .SocialPoliticalEconomicalUnit-17 Holiday adventure DiscussionIn this learners will discuss their adventures they have experienced with classmatesin target language and will try to convey it in best possible way.
  46. 46. 46ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-18 Strategies of readingThink About What You Want to KnowBefore you start reading anything, ask yourself why youre reading it. Are you reading with apurpose, or just for pleasure? What do you want to know after youve read it?Once you know your purpose, you can examine the resource to see whether its going to helpyou.For example, with a book, an easy way of doing this is to look at the introduction and the chapterheadings. The introduction should let you know who the book is intended for, and what it covers.Chapter headings will give you an overall view of the structure of the subject.Know How Deeply to Study the MaterialWhere you only need the shallowest knowledge of a subject, you can skim material. Here youread only chapter headings, introductions, and summaries.If you need a moderate level of information on a subject, then you can scan the text. This is whenyou read the chapter introductions and summaries in detail. You can then speed read thecontents of the chapters, picking out and understanding key words and conceptsRead ActivelyWhen youre reading a document or book in detail, it helps if you practice "active reading" byhighlighting and underlining key information, and taking notes(member-only article) as youprogress. (Mind Maps are great for this). This emphasizes information in your mind, and helpsyou to review important points laterKnow How to Study Different Types of MaterialDifferent types of documents hold information in different places and in different ways, and theyhave different depths and breadths of coverage.By understanding the layout of the material youre reading, you can extract the information youwant efficiently.Magazines and NewspapersThese tend to give a fragmented coverage of an area. They will typically only concentrate on themost interesting and glamorous parts of a topic - this helps them boost circulation! As such, theywill often ignore less interesting information that may be essential to a full understanding of asubject, and they may include low value content to "pad out" advertising
  48. 48. 48ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSUnit-20 DocumentaryIn This Learners Will Watch A Documentary Carefully And Then QuestionsRelated To That Documentary Will Be Asked.Documentary: History of IranQuestions:Who was SHAH?What happened to Musadiq ?Why revolution in Iran came?What were the important events shown in documentary?
  49. 49. 49ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSAPPENDIX -2ASSESSMENTWriting test:Write a letter to the head of the department of your school to arrange a meeting to discusscertain issues concerning students and teachers.Write an Essay on any one topic: Education in Pakistan Current affairs Government and Private education systemSpeaking test:Activity:Make pairs of students and ask them to produce a dialogue of at least 5 minutes.Discussion:Give a topic to each student individually and ask her/him to talk over it for at least 3 to 5minutes.Listening test:Play a recorded cassette and ask the students to reproduce it. Ask them questions related to thetopic. And evaluate their performance accordingly.Reading test:Read the paragraph and answer the question
  50. 50. 50ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSAppendix 3: Lesson Plan-BUILDING BLOCKS OF GRAMMAR1. Objectives:To teach them basics of GrammarTo revise their prior knowledge about building blocks of GrammarTo make them familiar with rulesPracticeInput: use of activities, including exercises regarding building blocks.Output: They will learn rules and use of Grammar.2. Level: Elementary3. Time: 60-65 min approximately.4. : Aids/materials: building blocks of Grammar chart , board and board markerINPUT:Lecture and handout of important building block will be given to learners.Than through different types of exercises use of these rules will be teach to themGrammar LessonIMPORTANT BUILDING BLOCKS OF GRAMMARNOUNSA noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.Examples: King, Mohan, Sarita, Mumbai, TablePRONOUNSA pronoun is a word used instead of a noun.Examples: He, She, It, TheyARTICLESThe words ‗a‘, ‗an‘ and ‗the‘ are called articles. They are used before nouns.VERBSA verb is a word that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.Examples: He talks to Sameer, She sings a song
  51. 51. 51ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSADJECTIVESAn adjective is a word used to describe a noun.Examples : Beautiful house, Tall manADVERBSAn adverb is a word which modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.Examples: He runs fast,They fought bravely.PREPOSITIONSA preposition is a word which shows the relation between the noun or pronoun and other wordsin the sentence.Examples: The boy is in the room, The book is on the table.CONJUNCTIONSA conjunction is a word which joins to sentences to complete their meaning.Examples : They reached the station but it was too late.He put on his shoes because he was going for a run.INTERJECTIONSAn interjection is a word which expresses sudden feeling or emotion.Examples : Hello!, Alas!, Hurray!, Oh!Activity:1 adverb exercisesChoose the correct word1. She could hard hardly walk after the accident.2. My book is near nearly finished.3. She is too short shortly. She cannot be a model.4. I would like two tickets for the late lately ahow.5. I will let you know my decision short shortly.6. This problem is too hard hardly for me.7. I live near nearly the supermarket.8. He has been very sick late lately.9. There is near nearly no money left.10. We will go on vacation short shortly.11. This is hard hardly the way to speak to your teacher.
  52. 52. 52ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS12. He is often late lately to work.13. The operation is near nearly over.14. Your composition is too short shortly. It looks like a telegram.15. He has been working too hard hardly , late lately.Activity: 2Fill in with the correct form: adjective or adverb.1. The movie had a ending. (comic)2. She will get home . (short) I hope she will drive . (careful)3. She described the accident . (dramatic)4. We studied for the test. (hard)5. Do you think you could drive more ? (slow)6. I thought Gil did in his test. (Good). He studied really . (hard)7. The quiz is . (easy)8. The plane flew to London. (direct)9. David ran in the competition. (fast)10. I ate the sandwich . (hungry)Activity 3:PREPOSITIONS EXERCISEExercise on Prepositions – PlaceFill the gaps with the correct prepositions.12. We live London.13. Would you like to go the cinema tonight?14. No, thanks. I was the cinema yesterday.15. We are going holiday next week.16. There is a bridge the river.17. The flight from Leipzig to London was Frankfurt.18. my wall, there are many picture postcards.
  53. 53. 53ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS19. Who is the person this picture?20. Come the sitting room, we want to watch TV.21. Munich lies 530 meters sea level.Activity 4:Exercise for InterjectionsMatch the following12345678910ahablahcheersdarneekgoodbyeouchpoohshooughscaredmeaningless talksee you soonget awayit is so easylooks beautifuldisgustpaina drinking toastgot hurt22.
  54. 54. 54ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSAppendix 4: ESP Questionnaire for needs analysisName: ________________________ Age: ________________ Sex: ___________Name of the Institution: ______________________________________________1. Why do you want to learn English Language?a) Demand of your jobb) For promotionc) All of the above2. Any other purpose for learning English?a) To improve Statusb) To move in society confidentlyc) You have urge to learn Englishd) To learn International modern teaching techniquese) All of the above3. For you which aspect of English is difficult?a) Your grammar is weakb) Your expression is weakc) Vocabulary is insufficientd) All of the above4. In your job, what medium will you use for this Language?a) Writingb) Speakingc) Readingd) Listeninge) All of the above5. What will be your Subject area in which you will use English Language?a) General Scienceb) Social Studiesc) Mathd) Any other/specify; ______________6. Who will be the people you use English with?a) Head of Institutionsb) Outsiders
  55. 55. 55ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSc) Studentsd) Colleagues7. What will be the physical setting in which English will be use?a) Classroomb) Play groundc) Officed) Staff roome) All of the above8. Students in your class are?a) Native studentsb) Foreigner studentsc) Bothd) None9. In what amount English will be used?a) Frequentlyb) Seldomc) In small amountsd) In large chunks10. In what context you will use English?a) Lecture and demonstrationb) Conversationc) Meetingsd) All of the above11. What kind of session you think should be there beside training course?a) Workshopsb) Seminarsc) Lectures by Expertsd) All of the aboveAnswer the following questions in two or three lines in English or Urdu1. What are the main obstacles you find in using English language?
  56. 56. 56ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________2. What are your job demands being English Teacher, Which skills are requiredmostly?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________3. What should be the contents of the course of ESP according to your preferences?____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Based on you existing knowledge, what is your current level in the following categories?Category Excellent Good Fair badVocabularyOverall GrammarSpeaking SkillReading SkillWriting Skill
  57. 57. 57ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSAPPENDIX 5: Training Evaluation FormI am a:  Area Supervisor  Data collector  StudentPlease indicate your impressions of the items listed below.StronglyAgreeAgree Neutral DisagreeStronglyDisagree1. The training met my expectations.     2. I will be able to apply the knowledgelearned.     3. The training objectives for each topicwere identified and followed.     4. The content was organized and easy tofollow.     5. The materials distributed werepertinent and useful.     6. The trainer was knowledgeable.     7. The quality of instruction was good.     8. The trainer met the training objectives.     9. Class participation and interactionwere encouraged.     10. Adequate time was provided forquestions and discussion.     11. How do you rate the training overall?Excellent Good Average Poor Very poor    
  58. 58. 58ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERS10. What aspects of the training could be improved?11. Other comments?THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION!
  59. 59. 59ESP COURSE DESIGN FOR TEACHERSBibliography: By Jacqueline Laks GormanIntroduction to ESP . - - --
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