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5G Technology stands for 5th generation mobile technology. 5G denote the next major
phase of mobile telecommunication standards beyond the upcoming 4G standards. 5G
technology will change the way most high bandwidth users access their phones. With 5G
pushed over a VOIP enabled device, people will experience a level of call volume and data
transmission never experienced before. 5G technology is offering the service in Product
Engineering, Documentation, supporting electronic transactions, etc... As the customer
become more and more aware of the mobile phone technology, he or she will look for a
decent package all together including all the advanced features a cellular phone can have.
Hence the search for new technology always the main motive of the leading cell phone
giants to out innovate their competitors. The goal of a 5G based telecommunication
network would ideally answer the challenges that a 4G model would present once it has
entered widespread use.
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The world has seen a lot of changes in the realm of communication. Today we no more use
landlines as we once did. Everyone possesses a mobile phone that functions 24X7. Our
handsets not only keep us connected with the world at large but also serve the purpose of
entertainment gadget. From 1G to 2.5G and from 3G to 5G this world of
telecommunications has seen a number of improvements along with improved performance
with every passing day.5G is a name which is used in some of the research paper and going
to become a next major phase of mobile telecommunication beyond the current 4G
standard. It is a concept which is only theory not real.It changes the way we are using
wireless gadget by providing very high bandwidth and it adds a no of advantages over the
present 4g technology.
The 5th generation is envisaged to be a complete network for wireless mobile internet,
which has the capability to offer services for accommodating the application potential
requirements without suffering the quality. The ultimate goal of 5G is to design a real
wireless world that is free from obstacles of the earlier generations.
5G technology will change the manner in which cellular plans are offered worldwide. A
new revolution is about to begin. The global cell phone is around the corner. The global
mobile phone will hit the localities who can call and access from one country to another’s
local phone with this new technology. The way in which people are communicating will
altogether upgrade. The utilization of this gadget will surely move a step ahead with
improved and accessible connectivity around the world. Your office will shrink into your
handset with this cell phone that is going to resemble PDA (personal digital assistant) of
twenty first century.
5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer
priceless handset to their customers. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the
world market. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and
Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high
connectivity. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building
and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections. The current
trend of 5G technology has a glowing future.
Even today there are phones with gigabytes of memory storage and the latest operating
systems .Thus one can say that with the current trends, the industry has a real bright future
if it can handle the best technologies and can produce affordable handsets for its customers.
Thus you will get all your desires unleashed in the near future when these smart phones
take over the market. 5G Network's router and switch technology delivers Last Yard
Connectivity between the Internet access provider and building occupants. 5G's technology
intelligently distributes Internet access to individual nodes within the building.
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5G Wireless Systems is a complete wireless communication with almost no limitation;
somehow people called it REAL wireless world. But till present day 5G wireless system
concept is only theory and not real, so it is not applicable for use.
5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a
technology used in research papers and projects to denote the next major phase of mobile
telecommunication standards beyond 4G. 5G is not officially used for any specification or
official document yet made public by telecommunication companies or standardization
bodies. New standard releases beyond 4G are in progress by standardization bodies, but are
at this time not considered as new mobile generations but under the 4G umbrella. The
implementation of standards under a 5G umbrella would likely be around the year of
2020.However, still no international 5G development projects have officially been
launched, and there is still a large extent of debate on what 5G is exactly about. Prior to
2012, some industry representatives have expressed skepticism towards 5G but later took a
New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral
bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30 kHz, 2G up to 200 kHz, 3G up to 20 MHz,
and 4G up to 100 MHz), If 5G appears, and reflects these prognoses, the major difference
from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than
increased peak bit rate; for example higher number of simultaneously connected devices,
higher system spectral efficiency (data volume per area unit), lower battery consumption,
lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage
area, lower latencies, higher number of supported devices, lower infrastructure deployment
costs, higher versatility and scalability or higher reliability of communications.
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1. Worldwide cellular phone: Phone calls in any country can be done like a local call
2. Extra Ordinary data capabilities: Data capabilities of 5G systems are very much
greater than existing generations and hence more data can be processed
3. High connectivity: The connectivity of 5G systems may range up to 40 Gbps
4. Greater flexibility: The mobile phones standardized in 5G will have the same data
handling flexibility as wired systems
5. Greater amount of clarity will be present the in audio transferred in 5G wireless
6. Uses MC CDMA(Multi Carrier Code Division Multiple Access )
7. Use of Super core
8. HAPS:5G systems will support HAPS (High Altitude Platform Stations) where
UAVs(Unmanned Air vehicles) will act as intermediate transceiver stations and thus
this implementation will increase the effective range of communication
9. Use of IPV6: Instead of the traditional IPV4 addressing, the new IP mode which is
the IPV6 addressing will be used which will reduce the chances of having the
condition where address exhaustion can occur.
10. Use of Millimeter wavebands: The portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between
the IR and the microwave will be used for data propagation.
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EVOLUTION FROM 1G TO 5G
First Generation wireless technology (1G) is the original analog (An analog or analogue signal is
any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a
representation of some other time varying quantity), voice-only cellular telephone standard,
developed in the 1980s. The prominent ones among 1G system were advanced mobile phone
system (AMPS), Nordic mobile telephone (NMT), and total access communication system
One such standard is NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone), used in Nordic countries, Switzerland,
Netherlands, Eastern Europe and Russia. Others include AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone
System) used in the North America and Australia, TACS (Total Access Communications System)
in the United Kingdom, C-450 in West Germany, Portugal and South Africa, Radiocom 2000 in
France, and RTMI in Italy. In Japan there were multiple systems. Three standards, TZ-801, TZ-
802, and TZ-803 were developed by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation), while
a competing system operated by DDI (Daini Denden Planning, Inc.) used the JTACS (Japan Total
Access Communications System) standard.
1G speeds vary from that of a 28k modem (28kbit/s) to a 56k modem (56kbit/s).
Antecedent to 1G technology is the mobile radio telephone, or 0G
Developed in 1980s & completed in early 1990s
Based on analog system
Speed up to 2.4 kbps
AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone System) was launched by the US & it was the 1G mobile
Allows user to make voice calls in 1 country
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2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Second generation 2G
cellular telecom networks were commercially launched on the GSM standard in Finland in 1991.
2G network allows for much greater penetration intensity. 2G technologies enabled the various
mobile phone networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS
(Multi Media Messages). 2G technology is more efficient. 2G technology holds sufficient
security for both the sender and the receiver. All text messages are digitally encrypted. This
digital encryption allows for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can
receive and read it.
Second generation technologies are either time division multiple access (TDMA) or code
division multiple access (CDMA). TDMA allows for the division of signal into time slots.
CDMA allocates each user a special code to communicate over a multiplex physical channel.
Different TDMA technologies are GSM, PDC, iDEN, IS-136. CDMA technology is IS-95. GSM
(Global system for mobile communication) is the most admired standard of all the mobile
technologies. GSM technology was the first one to help establish international roaming. This
enabled the mobile subscribers to use their mobile phone connections in many different countries
of the world’s is based on digital signals ,unlike 1G technologies which were used to transfer
analogue signals. GSM has enabled the users to make use of the short message services (SMS) to
any mobile network at any time. SMS is a cheap and easy way to send a message to anyone, other
than the voice call or conference. This technology is beneficial to both the network operators and
the ultimate users at the same time.
In comparison to 1G's analog signals, 2G's digital signals are very reliant on location and
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If a 2G handset made a call far away from a cell tower, the digital signal may not be enough to
reach it. While a call made from a 1G handset had generally poor quality than that of a 2G
handset, it survived longer distances. This is due to the analog signal having a smooth curve
compared to the digital signal, which had a jagged, angular curve. As conditions worsen, the
quality of a call made from a 1G handset would gradually worsen, but a call made from a 2G
handset would fail completely.
2.5G ("second and a half generation") is used to describe 2G-systems that have implemented a
packet-switched domain in addition to the circuit-switched domain. It does not necessarily
provide faster services because bundling of timeslots is used for circuit-switched data services
(HSCSD) as well. The first major step in the evolution of GSM networks to 3G occurred with the
introduction of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). CDMA2000 networks similarly evolved
through the introduction of 2.5G
GPRS1 networks evolved to EDGE networks with the introduction of 8PSK encoding. Enhanced
Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-
SC) is a backward-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data
transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE was deployed on GSM
networks beginning in 2003—initially by AT&T in the United States.
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family and it is an upgrade that provides a
potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks
Developed in late 1980s & completed in late 1990s
Based on digital system
Speed up to 64 kbps
Services such are digital voice & SMS with more clarity
Semi global facility
2G are the handsets we are using today, with 2.5G having more capabilities
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2.3 3RD GENERATION
International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT--2000), better known as 3G or 3rd
Generation, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunications
services fulfilling specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. The use of 3G
technology is also able to transmit packet switch data efficiently at better and increased
bandwidth. 3G mobile technologies proffers more advanced services to mobile users. The
spectral efficiency of 3G technology is better than 2G technologies. Spectral efficiency is the
measurement of rate of information transfer over any communication system. 3G is also known
Several telecommunications companies market wireless mobile Internet services as 3G,
indicating that the advertised service is provided over a 3G wireless network. Services advertised
as 3G are required to meet IMT-2000 technical standards, including standards for reliability and
speed (data transfer rates). To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak
data rates of at least 200 kbit/s (about 0.2 Mbit/s). However, many services advertised as 3G
provide higher speed than the minimum technical requirements for a 3G service. Recent 3G
releases, often denoted 3.5G and 3.75G, also provide mobile broadband access of several Mbit/s
to smartphones and mobile modems in laptop computers.
Developedbetweenlate 1990s & early2000s until presentday
In 2005, 3G is ready to live up to its performance in computer networking (WCDMA,
WLAN and Bluetooth) and mobile devices area (cell phone and GPS)
Transmission speed from 125 kbps to 2 Mbps
Superior voice quality
Good clarity in video conference
Data are sent through technology called packet switching
Voice calls are interpreted using circuit switching
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Fast Communication,Internet,MobileT.V,E-mail,PDA,informationsurfing,on-line shopping/banking,
Multi MediaMessagingService (MMS),3D gaming,Multi-Gamingetc
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2.4 4TH GENERATION
4G refers to the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards. It is a successor to 3G and 2G
families of standards. The fourth generation (4G) is a conceptual framework and a discussion
point to address future needs of a high speed wireless network that can transmit multimedia and
data to and interface with wire-line backbone network perfectly just raised in 2002. The speeds
of 4G can theoretically be promised up to 1Gbps.
Some of the applications of 4G are:
I. Mobile TV – a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the
subscriber's phone where it can be watched.
II. Video on demand – a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone.
III. Video conferencing – subscribers can see as well as talk to each other.
IV. Tele-medicine – a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially
V. Location-based services – a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the
phone, or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends.
VI. Mobile ultra-broadband (gigabit speed) access and multi-carrier transmission.
VII. Mobile WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access).
Developed in 2010
Faster & more reliable
Speed up to 100 Mbps
Both cellular and broadband multimedia services everywhere
Easy global roaming
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2.5 5TH GENERATION
5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G technology has changed the
means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a
high value technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G
technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.
The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. 5G
technologies which are on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000
lunar modules. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get
broadband internet access.
GSMHistory.com has recorded three very distinct 5G network visions having emerged by 2014:
A super-efficient mobile network that delivers a better performing network for lower investment
A super-fast mobile network comprising the next generation of small cells densely clustered
together to give a contiguous coverage over at least urban areas and gets the world to the final
frontier for true “wide area mobility
A converged fiber-wireless network that uses, for the first time for wireless Internet access, the
millimeter wave bands (20 – 60 GHz)
Next major phase of mobile telecommunication & wireless system
10 times more capacity than others
Expected speed up to 1 Gbps
More faster & reliable than 4G
Lower cost than previous generations
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2.6 COMPARISION OF ALL GENERATIONS
2.6.1. Comparison in Tabular Form
2G 3G 4G 5G
1970/1984 1980/1989 1990/2002 2000/2010 2017/2020
2 Kbps 14-64 Kbps
2 Mbps 200 Mbps 1 Gbps
Unified IP and
devices with AI
TDMA,CDMA CDMA CDMA CDMA
Circuit Circuit and
Packet All packet All packet
PSTN PSTN Packet
HANDOFF Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal
Table 2.1 Comparison of various generations
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WWWW: A World Wide Wireless Web is capable of supporting a comprehensive
wireless-based Web application that includes full graphics and multimedia capability at
beyond 4G speeds.
WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing allows many independent signals to be
transmitted simultaneously on one fiber with each signal located at a different
wavelength. Routing and detection of these signals require devices that are wavelength
selective, allowing for the transmission, recovery, or routing of specific wavelengths in
WCDMA: Wideband CDMA is a technology for wideband digital radio
communications of multimedia and other capacity demanding applications.
PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network is a regular voice telephone network.
Spread Spectrum: It is a form of wireless communication in which the frequency of the
transmitted signal is deliberately varied over a wide range. This results in a higher
bandwidth of the signal than the one without varied frequency.
TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access is a technology for sharing a medium by
several users by dividing into different time slots transmitting at the same frequency.
UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecommunications System is the third generation mobile
telephone standard in Europe.
WAP: Wireless Application Protocol defines the use of TCP/IP and Web browsing for
DAWN: Advanced technologies including smart antenna and flexible modulation are
keys to optimize this wireless version of reconfigurable ad hoc networks.
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2.6.3 Summary in Tabular Form
GENERATION 1G 2G 3G 4G 5G
YEARS 1970/1984 1980/1989 1990/2002 2000/2010 2017/2020
KEYWORDS Analog Digital Global world
Max. data rate:
Min data rate:
Min data rate:
Table 2.2 Summary in Tabular form
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3.1 COMPARISION WITH OSI MODEL
Let us compare the protocol stack of 5G wireless with the OSI Model using the table given
OPEN TRANSPORT PROTOCOL
UPPER NETWORK LAYER
LOWER NETWORK LAYER
DATA LINK LAYER
OPEN WIRELESS ARCHITECTURE
Table.3.1 Comparison of 5G network layers with OSI layers
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3.1.1 Open wireless architecture (OWA)
Physical layer + Data link layer = OWA
OSI layer 1 i.e. Physical layer & OSI layer 2 i.e. Data link layer define the wireless
For these two layers the 5G mobile network is likely to be based on Open Wireless
3.1.2 Network layer
All mobile networks will use mobile IP.
Each mobile terminal will be FA (Foreign Agent).
A mobile can be attached to several mobiles or wireless networks at the same time.
The fixed IPv6 will be implemented in the mobile phones.
Separation of network layer into two sub-layers:
(i) Lower network layer (for each interface)
(ii) Upper network layer (for the mobile terminal)
Fig.3.1 Network layer of 5G wireless
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3.1.3 Open transport protocol (OTP)
Transport layer + Session layer = OTP
Wireless network differs from wired network regarding the transport layer.
In all TCP versions the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion.
In wireless, the loss is due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface.
5G mobile terminals have transport layer that is possible to be downloaded & installed
which is based on Open Transport Protocol.
3.1.4 Application layer
Presentation layer + Application layer = Application layer (5G)
Provides intelligent QoS (Quality of Service) management over variety of networks.
Provides possibility for service quality testing & storage of measurement information in
information database in the mobile terminal.
Select the best wireless connection for given services.
QoS parameters, such as, delay, losses, BW, reliability, will be stored in DB (Database) of
3.2 FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE
Below figure shows the system model that proposes design of network architecture for 5G mobile
systems, which is all-IP based model for wireless and mobile networks interoperability. The
system consists of a user terminal (which has a crucial role in the new architecture) and a number
of independent, autonomous radio access technologies. Within each of the terminals, each of the
radio access technologies is seen as the IP link to the outside Internet world. However, there
should be different radio interface for each Radio Access Technology (RAT) in the mobile
terminal. For an example, if we want to have access to four different RATs, we need to have four
different accesses - specific interfaces in the mobile terminal, and to have all of them active at the
same time, with aim to have this architecture to be functional applications and servers somewhere
on the Internet. Routing of packets should be carried out in accordance with established policies
of the user.
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Fig.3.2 Functional Architecture
Application connections are realized between clients and servers in the Internet via sockets.
Internet sockets are endpoints for data communication flows. Each socket of the web is a unified
and unique combination of local IP address and appropriate local transport communications port,
target IP address and target appropriate communication port, and type of transport protocol.
Considering that, the establishment of communication from end-to-end between the client and
server using the Internet protocol is necessary to raise the appropriate Internet socket uniquely
determined by the application of the client and the server. This means that in case of
interoperability between heterogeneous networks and for the vertical handover between the
respective radio technologies, the local IP address and destination IP address should be fixed and
unchanged. Fixing of these two parameters should ensure handover transparency to the Internet
connection end-to-end, when there is a mobile user at least on one end of such connection. In
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order to preserve the proper layout of the packets and to reduce or prevent packets losses, routing
to the target destination and vice versa should be uniquely and using the same path. Each radio
access technology that is available to the user in achieving connectivity with the relevant radio
access is presented with appropriate IP interface. Each IP interface in the terminal is characterized
by its IP address and net mask
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Fig.3.3 Protocol layout for the elements of the proposed architecture of 5G
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and parameters associated with the routing of IP packets across the network. In regular inter-
system handover the change of access technology (i.e., vertical handover) would mean changing
the local IP address. Then, change of any of the parameters of the socket means and change of the
socket, that is, closing the socket and opening a new one. This means, ending the connection and
starting a new one. This approach is not-flexible, and it is based on today’s Internet
communication. In order to solve this deficiency we propose a new level that will take care of the
abstraction levels of network access technologies to higher layers of the protocol stack. This layer
is crucial in the new architecture. To enable the functions of the applied transparency and control
or direct routing of packets through the most appropriate radio access technology, in the proposed
architecture we introduce a control system in the functional architecture of the networks, which
works in complete coordination with the user terminal and provides a network abstraction
functions and routing of packets based on defined policies. At the same time this control system
is an essential element through which it can determine the quality of service for each transmission
technology. He is on the Internet side of the proposed architecture, and as such represents an ideal
system to test the qualitative characteristics of the access technologies, as well as to obtain a
realistic picture regarding the quality that can be expected from applications of the user towards a
given server in Internet (or peer). Protocol setup of the new levels within the existing protocol
stack, which form the proposed architecture, is presented in Figure (Protocol Layout for the
Elements of the Proposed Architecture). The network abstraction level would be provided by
creating IP tunnels over IP interfaces obtained by connection to the terminal via the access
technologies available to the terminal (i.e., mobile user). In fact, the tunnels would be established
between the user terminal and control system named here as Policy Router, which performs
routing based on given policies. In this way the client side will create an appropriate number of
tunnels connected to the number of radio access technologies, and the client will only set a local
IP address which will be formed with sockets Internet communication of client applications with
Internet servers. The way IP packets are routed through tunnels, or choosing the right tunnel,
would be served by policies whose rules will be exchanged via the virtual network layer protocol.
This way we achieve the required abstraction of the network to the client applications at the
mobile terminal. The process of establishing a tunnel to the Policy Router, for routing based on
the policies, are carried out immediately after the establishment of IP connectivity across the
radio access technology, and it is initiated from the mobile terminal Virtual Network-level
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3.3 UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING
5G would be about "ubiquitous computing", that is, having the ability to access the applications
want from any platform, anywhere, any time. To create such an environment, one needs to
integrate various applications, emerging from various engineering practices. Human life will be
surrounded by intelligent sensors, which will bring radical change to human life’s daily
approaches of doing things, as:
Your intelligent car will send SMS to your cell phone, from your car.
Your home security camera is attached to secured internet. So that you can view your sitting
room on your laptop/mobile phone screen, by accessing secure website.
You are receiving regular MMS from your hospital about your medication need and next doctor
3.4 FLATTER IP CONCEPT
At regular interval, semiconductor manufacturers advance to a new generation with smaller
feature sizes. This allows them to incorporate more functions into a given area of silicon and,
hence, more features or new capabilities into electronic devices like cell phones, Increased
processing capacity will be allow Mobile devices (cell phones, PDAs, etc) to do more tasks
(instructions per minute) then before. This will lead to even the Flatter IP network. As Flat IP has
shifted some of the BSC/RNC’s radio resource functions to Base station, Flatter IP will shift
some of the RR functions, to Mobile devices from Base station. Finally your cell phone will not
be just access device but, it will also perform some of the Radio Resource Management functions.
With the shift to flat IP architectures, mobile operators can
Reduce the number of network elements in the data path to lower operations costs and capital
Partially decouple the cost of delivering service from the volume of data transmitted to align
infrastructure capabilities with emerging application requirements.
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Minimize system latency and enable applications with a lower tolerance for delay; upcoming
latency enhancements on the radio link can also be fully realized.
Evolve radio access and packet core networks independently of each other to a greater extent
than in the past, creating greater flexibility in network planning and deployment.
Develop a flexible core network that can serve as the basis for service innovation across both
mobile and generic IP access networks.
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HARDWARE OF 5G
5G technologies are proposed to use UWB (Ultra Wide Band) networks with higher BW
at low energy levels. This BW is of 4000 Mbps, which is 400 times faster than today’s wireless
networks. It uses smart antenna either Switched Beam Antennas or Adaptive Array Antennas. It
uses CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access).
4.1 MILLIMETER WAVE BANDS
Extremely high frequency (EHF) is the ITU designation for the band of radio frequencies in the
electromagnetic spectrum from 30 to 300 gigahertz, above which electromagnetic radiation is
considered to be low (or far) infrared light, also referred to as terahertz radiation. Radio waves in
this band have wavelengths from ten to one millimeter, giving it the name millimeter band or
millimeter wave, sometimes abbreviated MMW or mmW.
Fig. 4.1 Illustration ofposition ofmm wave band in EM spectrum
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Compared to lower bands, radio waves in this band have high atmospheric attenuation; they are
absorbed by the gases in the atmosphere. Therefore they have a short range and can only be used
for terrestrial communication over about a kilometer. In particular, signals in the 57–64 GHz
region are subject to a resonance of the oxygen molecule and are severely attenuated. Even over
relatively short distances, rain fade is a serious problem, caused when absorption by rain reduces
signal strength. In climates other than deserts absorption due to humidity also has an impact on
propagation. While this absorption limits potential communications range, it also allows for
smaller frequency reuse distances than lower frequencies. The small wavelength allows modest
size antennas to have a small beam width, further increasing frequency reuse potential.
Millimeter waves travel solely by line-of-sight, and are blocked by building walls and attenuated
by foliage. The high free space loss and atmospheric absorption limits propagation to a few
kilometers. Thus they are useful for densely packed communications networks such as personal
area networks that improve spectrum utilization through frequency reuse.
They show "optical" propagation characteristics and can be reflected and focused by small metal
surfaces around 1 ft. diameter, and diffracted by building edges. Multipath propagation,
particularly reflection from indoor walls and surfaces, causes serious fading. Doppler shift of
frequency can be significant even at pedestrian speeds. In portable devices shadowing due to the
human body is a problem
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Fig.4.2 Plot showing the attenuation in the EHF region
This band is commonly used in radio astronomy and remote sensing. Ground-based radio
astronomy is limited to high altitude sites such as Kitt Peak and Atacama Large Millimeter Array
(ALMA) due to atmospheric absorption issues. Satellite-based remote sensing near 60 GHz can
determine temperature in the upper atmosphere by measuring radiation emitted from oxygen
molecules that is a function of temperature and pressure. The ITU non-exclusive passive
frequency allocation at 57-59.3 is used for atmospheric monitoring in meteorological and climate
sensing applications,and is important for these purposes due to the properties of oxygen
absorption and emission in Earth’s atmosphere. Currently operational U.S. satellite sensors such
as the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) on one NASA satellite (Aqua) and four
NOAA (15-18) satellites and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMI/S) on
Department of Defense satellite F-16 make use of this frequency range.
Millimeter wave radar is used in short-range fire control radar in tanks and aircraft, and
automated guns (CIWS) on naval ships to shoot down incoming missiles. The small wavelength
of millimeter waves allows them to track the stream of outgoing bullets as well as the target,
allowing the computer fire control system to change the aim to bring them together.
The U.S. Air Force has developed a nonlethal weapon system called Active Denial System
(ADS) which emits a beam of radiation with a wavelength of 3 mm. The weapon is reportedly not
Frequency in Ghz
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dangerous and causes no physical harm, but is extremely painful and causes the target to feel an
intense burning pain, as if their skin is going to catch fire.
Uses of the millimeter wave bands include point-to-point communications, intersatellite links,
and point-to-multipoint communications.
Because of shorter wavelengths, the band permits the use of smaller antennas than would be
required for similar circumstances in the lower bands, to achieve the same high directivity and
high gain. The immediate consequence of this high directivity, coupled with the high free space
loss at these frequencies, is the possibility of a more efficient use of the spectrum for point-to-
multipoint applications. Since a greater number of highly directive antennas can be placed in a
given area than less directive antennas, the net result is higher reuse of the spectrum, and higher
density of users, as compared to lower frequencies.
4.2. ADAPTIVE ARRAY TRANSCEIVERS
Adaptive arrays are one of the key technologies expected to dramatically improve the
performance of future wireless communications systems because they have the potential to
expand coverage, increase capacity, and improve signal quality.An antenna array consists of N
identical antenna elements arranged in a particular geometry, where the geometry of the array
determines the amount of coverage in a given spatial region. A very widely used array type is the
uniform linear array.
For a given array geometry, the phases and amplitudes of the currents exciting the elements
determine the gain of the array in a certain direction. In order to better estimate a signal arriving
from a particular direction, the phases and amplitudes of the currents on the antenna array
elements can be electronically adjusted such that received signals from this direction add in
phase, and maximum gain is achieved in that direction. Due to the reciprocal nature of antennas,
this approach is also applicable to focus the array beam for transmission.
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Adaptive array transceivers (also known as smart antennas, multiple antennas and, recently,
MIMO) are antenna arrays with smart signal processing algorithms used to identify spatial signal
signature such as the direction of arrival (DOA) of the signal, and use it to calculate beamforming
vectors, to track and locate the antenna beam on the mobile/target. The antenna could optionally
be any sensor.
Smart antenna techniques are used notably in acoustic signal processing, track and scan RADAR, radio
astronomy and radio telescopes, and mostly in cellular systems like W-CDMA and UMTS.
Smart antennas have two main functions: DOA estimation and Beamforming.
4.2.2 Direction of Arrival estimation
The smart antenna system estimates the direction of arrival of the signal, using techniques such as
MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification), estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance
techniques (ESPRIT) algorithms, Matrix Pencil method or one of their derivatives. They involve
finding a spatial spectrum of the antenna/sensor array, and calculating the DOA from the peaks of
this spectrum. These calculations are computationally intensive.
Beamforming is the method used to create the radiation pattern of the antenna array by adding
constructively the phases of the signals in the direction of the targets/mobiles desired, and nulling
the pattern of the targets/mobiles that are undesired/interfering targets. This can be done with a
simple FIR tapped delay line filter. The weights of the FIR filter may also be changed adaptively,
and used to provide optimal beamforming, in the sense that it reduces the MMSE between the
desired and actual beampattern formed. Typical algorithms are the steepest descent, and LMS
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To change the directionality of the array when transmitting, a beamformer controls the phase and
relative amplitude of the signal at each transmitter, in order to create a pattern of constructive and
destructive interference in the wavefront. When receiving, information from different sensors is
combined in a way where the expected pattern of radiation is preferentially observed. n the
receive beamformer the signal from each antenna may be amplified by a different "weight."
Different weighting patterns (e.g., Dolph-Chebyshev) can be used to achieve the desired
4.2.4 DSP based implementation of Adaptive array transceiver
A block diagram of the adaptive array system is shown in the figure . The antenna segment of the
multi-sensor testbed consists of a custom made linear array of three quarter-wavelength
monopoles spaced half a wavelength apart. The elements drive a set of identical analog front
ends. Rather than using direct sampling at RF, the analog tuning segment performs down-
conversion to IF for bandpass digitization. The analog tuner downconverts signals at an RF of
2050 MHz. It has a noise figure of 5 dB, and provides 75 dB of spurious free dynamic range in a
2 MHz IF bandwidth with a minimum detectable signal of -111.4 dB.
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The RF bandpass filter provides rejection of out of band interference. The RF low noise amplifier
(LNA) increases the level of the signal before it reaches the mixer and basically determines the
noise figure of the receiver.
Following RF amplification, the signal is mixed down to IF. A common clean LO-signal is used
to drive the mixers of all the branches of the analog tuners. Post-mixer bandpass filtering
provides rejection of undesired out-of-band signals, mixer spurious products, and RF and LO
After amplification of the analog IF signal, IF digitization using harmonic sampling takes place.
Once the IF signal has been digitized, the digital down-converter is used to demodulate the
desired signal to its complex baseband in-phase and quadrature components. By relieving the
DSP from the processing burden associated with the down conversion functions, more
computational power becomes available for the tasks required for array processing. Digital down
conversion not only eliminates the need for another IF stage but it also overcomes many of the
problems related to analog down conversion and low pass digitization.
Thus,afterpropersignal conditioning,the IFsignal is downconverted,downsampled,andfilteredfor
basebandprocessingwiththe adaptivearrayalgorithminthe TMS320C541 EVM evaluationboard.The
inputto the signal-processingsegmentisnow acomplex-basebanddatastream.Data acquisitionfrom
the digital downconversion (DDC) boardsisinterruptdriven.The DDCstriggeraninterruptservice
routine atregularintervalseverytime down-convertedin-phaseandquadrature samplesfromthe
antennaelementsbecome available fortransfertothe EVM.This meansthatthere shouldbe a digital
interface whichshouldbe usedforcommunicationsbetweenthe EVMandthe digital down-conversion
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Fig.4.4 Block diagram of Adaptive array system based on DSP implementation
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The EVM access each one of the DDC boards and proceeds to store the baseband samples in a
data buffer. Once the buffer has been filled, interrupts are disabled. The DSP then processes
every n-th set of samples in the received block, updates the steering vector according to CMA,
and transfers the steering vector to the host PC for display of the array patterns. When the end of
the data buffer is reached, interrupts are enabled and the processor returns to data acquisition
As a result, the DSP is able to manipulate through signal processing the shape of the array beam
pattern to optimize system performance.
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4.2.5 Practical realizations in the communication field
Samsung Electronics announced that it has successfully developed the world’s first adaptive array
transceiver technology operating in the millimeter-wave Ka bands for cellular communications.
The implementation of a high-speed 5G cellular network requires a broad band of frequencies;
much like an increased water flow requires a wider pipe. While it was a recognized option, it has
been long believed that the millimeter-wave bands had limitations in transmitting data over long
distances due to its unfavorable propagation characteristics. However, Samsung’s new adaptive
array transceiver technology has proved itself as a successful solution. It transmits data in the
millimeter-wave band at a frequency of 28 GHz at a speed of up to 1.056 Gbps to a distance of up
to 2 kilometers. The adaptive array transceiver technology, using 64 antenna elements, can be a
viable solution for overcoming the radio propagation loss at millimeter-wave bands, much higher
than the conventional frequency bands ranging from several hundred MHz to several GHz.
Samsung plans to accelerate the research and development of 5G mobile communications
technologies, including adaptive array transceiver at the millimeter-wave bands, to commercialize
those technologies by 2020
Similarly Sweden based IC manufacturing giant ST Ericsson has also developed a practical
system employing mm waveband for communication. Compared to what Samsung did, ST
Ericsson managed a data bandwidth of 5 Gbps but at a lower frequency of 15 Ghz which is well
below the conventional mm wave band territory nonetheless the data bandwidth which was
achieved at ST Ericssons’s test facility situated at Kista ,Sweden speaks about the sure possibility
of making wireless communication as a clear alternative for wired communication systems.
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SOFTWARE OF 5G
5G will be single unified standard of different wireless networks, including LAN
technologies, LAN/WAN, WWWW- World Wide Wireless Web, unified IP & seamless
combination of broadband.
Software defined radio, Packet layer, Implementation of Packets, Encryption, Flexibility,
Anti-Virus and Cognitive radio links.
5.1 COGNITIVE RADIO
A cognitive radio is an intelligent radio that can be programmed and configured dynamically. Its
transceiver is designed to use the best wireless channels in its vicinity. Such a radio automatically
detects available channels in wireless spectrum, then accordingly changes its transmission or
reception parameters to allow more concurrent wireless communications in a given spectrum
band at one location. This process is a form of management. In response to the operator's
commands, the cognitive engine is capable of configuring radio-system parameters. These
parameters include "waveform, protocol, operating frequency, and networking". This functions as
an autonomous unit in the communications environment, exchanging information about the
environment with the networks it accesses and other cognitive radios (CRs). A CR "monitors its
own performance continuously", in addition to "reading the radio's outputs"; it then uses this
information to "determine the RF environment, channel conditions, link performance, etc.", and
adjusts the "radio's settings to deliver the required quality of service subject to an appropriate
combination of user requirements, operational limitations, and regulatory constraints".
Traditional regulatory structures have been built for an analog model and are not optimized for
cognitive radio. Regulatory bodies in the world (including the Federal Communications
Commission in the United States and Ofcom in the United Kingdom) as well as different
independent measurement campaigns found that most radio frequency spectrum was inefficiently
utilized which can be solved by the implementation of Cognitive Radio.
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5.2 VIRTUALISED ARCHITECTURE
Radio access infrastructures based on cloud architecture technologies will provide on-demand
resource processing, storage and network capacity wherever needed. Software-defined air
interface technologies will be seamlessly integrated into 5G wireless access network
architectures. The evolution of RAN sites will develop toward a “hyper transceiver” approach to
mobile access, and will help realize the joint-layer optimization of how radio resources are
Core network evolution will revolve around how to enable more flexibility for the creation of
new services and new applications. Cloud computing will become the foundation of core
networks, and will open the network to allow the leveraging of innovations as they are developed.
5G core networks will also be equipped to seamlessly integrate with current 3G and 4G core
New designs for all-spectrum radio access nodes will require breakthroughs in fundamental radio
technologies like the air interface, RAN (Radio access network), radio frequency transceiver and
devices. New radio backhaul and new fiber access for the ﬁxed network will be an integral part of
next generation commercial network solutions. There are two major types of virtualization
architecture: hosted and bare-metal. In hosted architecture, an operating system (OS) is installed
on the hardware first. Next software called a hypervisor or virtual machine monitor is installed.
This software is used to install multiple guest operation systems, or virtual machines, on the
hardware. Applications are then installed and run on the virtual machines in the same way as on a
physical machine. With bare-metal architecture, the hypervisor is installed directly on the
hardware rather than on top of an underlying operating system. Virtual machines and their
applications are installed on the hypervisor in the same way as with hosted architecture. In either
case, the guest operating systems communicate with the hypervisor rather than the underlying
hardware. Either type of virtualization architecture, or a combination of both, can be used when
incorporating virtualization into your data center
5G is presently in its early research stages. New IMT spectrum is expected to be agreed upon for
the World Radio Communication Conference (WRC) in 2015. ITU is currently at work on IMT
spectrum requirements for 2020 and beyond. After WRC-15, ITU will have a clearer path for
determining network system and technology and software implementation.
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THE 5G NANOCORE
Sophisticated technology has enabled an age of globalization. Technological convergence is the
tendency for different technological systems to evolve towards performing similar tasks. What
Nicholas Negroponte labelled the transformation of "atoms to bits," the digitization of all media
content. When words, images and sounds are transformed into digital information, it expands the
potential relationships between them and enables them to flow across platforms.
The 5G Nanocore is a convergence of below mention technologies. These technologies have their
own impact on exiting wireless network which makes them in to 5G.
• Cloud Computing.
• All IP Platform.
Nanotechnology is the application of Nano science to control process on nanometer scale. i.e.
between 0.1 and 100nm.The field is also known as molecular nanotechnology (MNT). MNT
deals with control of the structure of matter based on atom-by-atom and molecule by molecule
engineering. The term nanotechnology was introduced by Nori Taniguchi in 1974 at the Tokyo
international conference on production engineering. Nanotechnology is the next industrial
revolution, and the telecommunications industry will be radically transformed by it in a few
years. Nanotechnology has shown its impact on both mobile as well as the core network. Apart
from this it has its own impact on sensor as well as security. This is considered as a most
significant in telecommunication.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both
current work and concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to
the projected ability to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools being
developed today to make complete, high performance products.
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6.2 NANO EQUIPMENT (NE)
Mobile phone has become more than a communication device in modern world it has turned into
an identity of an individual. In 5G Nanocore these mobile are referred as Nano Equipment as they
are geared up with nanotechnology. One of the central visions of the wireless industry aims at
ambient intelligence: computation and communication always available and ready to serve the
user in an intelligent way. This requires that the devices are Mobile. Mobile devices together with
the intelligence that will be embedded in human environments – home, office, public places –
will create a new platform that enables ubiquitous sensing, computing, and communication
Specifications of Nano Equipment are given as follow:
• Self Cleaning – the phone cleans by itself
• Self powered – the phone derives its energy/power from the sun, water, or air.
• Sense the environment – the phone will tell you the weather, the amount of air pollution present,
• Flexible – bend but not break
• Transparent – “see through” phones
6.3 CLOUD COMPUTING
Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote server to maintain data
and applications. In 5G network this central remote server will be our content provider. Cloud
computing allows consumers and business to use applications without installation and access
their personal files at any computer with internet access.
Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale,
similar to a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network. At the foundation of cloud computing
is the broader concept of converged infrastructure and shared services.Cloud computing, or in
simpler shorthand just "the cloud", also focuses on maximizing the effectiveness of the shared
resources. Cloud resources are usually not only shared by multiple users but are also dynamically
reallocated per demand. This can work for allocating resources to users. For example, a cloud
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computer facility that serves European users during European business hours with a specific
application (e.g., email) may reallocate the same resources to serve North American users during
North America's business hours with a different application (e.g., a web server). This approach
should maximize the use of computing power thus reducing environmental damage as well since
less power, air conditioning, rackspace, etc. are required for a variety of functions. With cloud
computing, multiple users can access a single server to retrieve and update their data without
purchasing licenses for different applications.
The same concept is going to be used in Nanocore where the user tries to access his private
account form a global content provider through Nanocore in form of cloud. The development of
cloud computing provides operators with tremendous opportunities. Since cloud computing relies
on the networks, it shows the significance of networks and promotes network development. It
also requires secure and reliable service providers, capabilities that operators have deep expertise
in. Operators can enter the cloud computing market and create new value-added services and
experiences by integrating industry content and applications in the digital supermarket model.
This could make our user to obtain much more real-time application to utilize his 5G network
efficiently. Secure and reliable service can be provided with the help of quantum cryptography.
Cloud computing customer avoids capital expenditure for the Nanocore thereby also reducing the
cost of purchasing physical infrastructure by renting the usage from a third party
Provider(Content Provider). The Nanocore devours the resources and pay for what it uses.
6.4 ALL IP NETWORK
As already discussed for converging different technologies to form a single 5G Nanocore, We
require a common platform to interact, Flat IP architecture act as an essential part of 5G network.
The All-IP Network (AIPN) is an evolution of the 3GPP system to meet the increasing demands
of the mobile telecommunications market. To meets customer demand for real-time data
applications delivered over mobile broadband networks, wireless operators are turning to flat IP
network architectures. Primarily focused upon enhancements of packet switched technology,
AIPN provides a continued evolution and optimization of the system concept in order to provide
a competitive edge in terms of both performance and cost.
The drive to all IP-based services is placing stringent performance demands on IP-based
equipment and devices, which in turn is growing demand for multicore technology.
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RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTS
7.1 THE METIS PROJECT
METIS stands for mobile and wireless communication enablers for twenty twenty. The main
objective of METIS is to lay the foundation for, and to generate a European consensus on the
future global mobile and wireless communications system. METIS will provide valuable and
timely contributions to pre-standardization and regulation processes, and ensure European
leadership in mobile and wireless communications.The overall technical objective of the METIS
project is to develop a concept for the future mobile and wireless communications system that
supports the connected information society by combining the results of the following technical
objectives.METIS will provide fundamentally new solutions which fit the needs beyond 2020.
Research will be conducted on network topologies, radio links, multi-node, and spectrum usage
techniques. Horizontal topics will be used to integrate the research results into a system concept
that provides the necessary flexibility, versatility and scalability at a low cost. METIS is co-
funded by the European Commission as an Integrated Project under the Seventh Framework
Programme (FP7).for research and development.
METIS has outlined the following 5G scenarios that reflect the future challenges and will serve as
guidance for further work:
1. “Amazingly fast”, focusing on high data-rates for future mobile broadband users,
2. “Great service in a crowd”, focusing on mobile broadband access even in very crowded
areas and conditions,
3. “Ubiquitous things communicating”, focusing on efficient handling of a very large
number of devices with widely varying requirements,
4. “Best experience follows you”, focusing on delivering high levels of user experience to
mobile end users, and
5. “Super real-time and reliable connections”, focusing on new applications and use cases
with stringent requirements on latency and reliability.
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7.2 DIFFERENT STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
• In May 12 2013, South Korean technology giant Samsung claimed it has made breakthroughs
in the development of next-generation networking technology, and was able to transmit data
at a speed of 1Gbps through the 28 gigahertz (GHz) band
• In 2013, the European Commission contributed $77 million for the development of a 5G
network in 2020. Three leading universities are working collaboratively to bring the project
into completion, namely, the University of Dresden in Germany, the Kings College of
London, and the University of Surrey. South Korea, on the other hand is quite aggressive to
reach this technological achievement, investing $1.5 billion to be launched in 2020 and a pilot
network to roll out in 2017.
• In July 2013, India and Israel have agreed to work jointly on development of fifth generation
(5G) telecom technologies.
• On 1 October 2013, NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone), the same company to launch
world first 5G network in Japan, wins Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications
Award for 5G R&D efforts.
• On 6 November 2013, Huawei announced plans to invest a minimum of $600 million into
R&D for next generation 5G networks capable of speeds 100 times faster than modern LTE
• May 2014: Japanese operator NTT DoCoMo announced plans to conduct "experimental
trials" of emerging 5G technologies together with six vendors: Alcatel-Lucent Ericsson,
Fujitsu, NEC, Nokia and Samsung .
• February 24 2014: Broadcom introduces First 5G Wi-Fi 2x2 MIMO Combo Chip for Smart
phones. It Doubles Smartphone Wireless Performance While Improving Power Efficiency
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• July 2 2014 In a live, over-the-air demonstration of pre-standard equipment, the Swedish
company Ericsson achieved 5Gbps throughput in the 15 GHz frequency band using advanced
MIMO technology at its lab in Kista, Sweden.
• July 8 2014 South Korean telecom company SK Telecom joins hands with Ericsson after it
signed a MOU with the latter on development of 5g technology.
• July 10 2014: Huawei , a leading global information and communications technology (ICT)
solutions provider, announced today that it has been elected to join the board of the 5G
Infrastructure Association in Europe.
• July 15 2014: Electronics giant Philips revealed that it is developing smart cell towers to
accommodate the probable 5g transceivers.
• August 30, 2014: Nokia announces to build 5G test network in Oulu. Finnish mobile
technology company Nokia plans to build a high-speed 5G data transfer test network. The
company has already made a decision-in-principle on the matter and named two staffers to
take forward construction of the network, with actual testing to begin early next year.
• August 30, 2014: Intel prototyped a chip-based antenna array that can sit in a milk-carton-
sized cellular base station. The technology could turbocharge future wireless networks by
using ultrahigh frequencies. Intel’s technology, known as a millimeter wave modular antenna
array is being perfected even more. The technology could take ultrafast capabilities that
Samsung and researchers at New York University demonstrated last year using bench top-
scale equipment and pack it into a box-sized gadget. The idea is that cities would be carpeted
with such small stations—with one every block or two—and be capable of handling huge
amounts of data at short ranges. Any one such cell could send and receive data at speeds of
more than a gigabit per second over up to few hundred meters—and far more at shorter
distances—compared to about 75 megabits per second for the latest standard, known as 4G
LTE. For mobile cellular communications, both the Intel and Samsung technologies could
eventually use frequencies of 28 or 39 gigahertz or higher.
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BENEFITS OF 5G TECHNOLOGIES
High speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit.
Support interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and other broadband
services, more effective and more attractive, Bi directional and accurate traffic statistics.
Global access, service portability, and scalable mobile services.
The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error.
5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost
5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.
Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast
The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate.
Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast
The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology.
The 5G technology also support virtual private network.
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The development of the mobile and wireless networks is going towards higher data rates and all-
IP principle. Currently, there are many available radio access technologies, which provide
possibility for IP-based communication on the network layer, as well as there is migration of all
services in IP environment, including the traditional telephony and even television, besides the
traditional Internet services, such as web and electronic mail as most used among the others. On
the other side, mobile terminals are obtaining each year more processing power, more memory
on board, and longer battery life for the same applications (services). It is expected that the initial
Internet philosophy of keeping the network simple as possible, and giving more functionalities to
the end nodes, will become reality in the future generation of mobile networks, here referred to
The proposed architecture for future 5G mobile networks can be implemented using components
of the shelf (existing and standardized Internet technologies) and its implementation is
transparent to the radio access technologies, which makes it very likeable solution for the next
generation mobile and wireless networks. The 5G terminals will have software defined radios
and modulation schemes as well as new error-control schemes that can be downloaded from the
Internet. The development is seen towards the user terminals as a focus of the 5G mobile
networks. The terminals will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and
the terminal should be able to combine different flows from different technologies.
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10.1 IEEE REFERENCES
Cheng-Xiang Wang ;Haider, F. ; Xiqi Gao ; Xiao-Hu You ; Yang Yang ; Dongfeng Yuan ;
Aggoune, H. ; Haas, H. ; Fletcher, S. ; Hepsaydir, E. “Cellular architecture and key technologies
for 5G wireless communication networks ” in Communications Magazine, IEEE (Volume:52 ,
Issue: 2 ), 2014, pp. 122-130
Theodore S.Rappaport,Wonil Roh& KyungwhoonCheun,“SmartAntennasCould Open Up New
SpectrumFor5G ” in IEEE spectrum,[online],2014,http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/wireless/smart-
Ariel Bleicher“5G Service on Your 4G Phone?”inIEEE spectrum, [online],2014,
JoshRomeroand StephenCass“CES2014 Trends:Wireless NetworksNeed to Learn to Cooperate”in
IEEE spectrum,[online],2014, http://spectrum.ieee.org/podcast/telecom/wireless/ces-2014-trends-
Yanikomeroglu,H.“Towards5Gwireless cellular networks:Viewson emerging conceptsand
technologies”inSignal Processing and Communications Applications Conference (SIU), 2012
Janevski, T. “5G Mobile PhoneConcept ” inConsumer Communications and Networking
Conference, 2009. CCNC 2009. 6th IEEE ,2009,pp. 1-2
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10.2 ONLINE REFERENCES
Scott Bicheno, “SK Telecom and Ericsson demonstrate potential 5G tech” [online], 2014,
Irvine, “Broadcom Doubles Wi-Fi Speed of Devices with First Six Stream 802.11ac MIMO
Platform” [online], 2014, http://www.broadcom.com/press/release.php?id=s840231
Charlie Osborne, “EU, South Korea join forces to develop 5G technology” [online], 2014,
Liam Tung, “5G trials kick off with Nokia, Samsung and more in Japan”
[online], 2014, http://www.zdnet.com/5g-trials-kick-off-with-nokia-samsung-and-more-in-japan-
Ryan Huang, “South Korea to invest $1.5B to build 5G network by 2020”
[online], 2014, http://www.zdnet.com/south-korea-to-invest-1-5b-to-build-5g-network-by-2020-
7000025429/Sue Marek ,“5G momentum is growing faster than expected”,[online],2014,
Tammy Parker, “Huawei,LG Uplusjointresearch center will targetLTE-A,small cells and 5G”, [online],
Tammy Parker, “Ericsson: 5G will require lots of new spectrum above 10
“SK Telecom planning 'hyper-connected infrastructure' for 5G”,2014,[Online],2014,
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Michael Carroll, “Ericssonmaintainsglobal 5Gstandardspush withSKTelecompartnership”,
“Ericsson 5G delivers 5 Gbps speeds”,[online],2014,http://www.ericsson.com/news/1810070
“5G: A Technology Vision - Huawei”,[online white paper],2014,
“Nokia to build 5G test networkin Oulu”,[online],2014,
Guy Daniels, “Nokia, Intel and European telcosbehind MiWaveSsmall cell projectfor