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The Case of the Rohingya in Myanmar ppt

  1. Myanmar: What has been happening since the 2021 coup? CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN THE ASEAN PART 2
  2. Where is Myanmar? Myanmar, also known as Burma, is in South East Asia. It neighbours Thailand, Laos, Bangladesh, China and India. It has a population of about 54 million, most of whom are Burmese speakers, although other languages are also spoken. The biggest city is Yangon (Rangoon), but the capital is Nay Pyi Taw. The main religion is Buddhism. There are many ethnic groups in the country, including Rohingya Muslims. The country gained independence from Britain in 1948. It was ruled by the armed forces from 1962 until 2011, when a new government began ushering in a return to civilian rule.
  3. When did the military coup take place? The military seized control on 1 February 2021 following a general election which Aung San Suu Kyi's NLD party won by a landslide. It had backed the opposition, who were demanding a re-run of the vote claiming widespread fraud. The election commission said there was no evidence to support these claims.
  4. What has happened since the coup? Opposition activists have formed the Campaign for Civil Disobedience (CDM) and have helped organise strikes and mass protests against the coup. The military has put them down with live fire, water cannons and rubber bullets. What started as civil disobedience has now turned into essentially a civil war across Myanmar. Local militias calling themselves People's Defence Forces, or PDFs, have attacked military convoys and assassinated officials.
  5. Who is Aung San Suu Kyi?
  6. Who is Aung San Suu Kyi? Aung San Suu Kyi became world-famous in the 1990s for campaigning to restore democracy. In 2015, she led the NLD to victory in Myanmar's first openly contested election in 25 years. Myanmar's democracy icon who fell from grace Ms Suu Kyi has been sentenced to six years in jail for violating the country's official secrets act, possessing illegal walkie- talkies and publishing information that may "cause fear or alarm". She was sentenced to six years in jail. She is 76 years old. Ms Suu Kyi is going on trial again, accused of corruption over the purchase of a helicopter, among other charges.
  7. Who is in charge now?
  8. Military commander-in-chief Min Aung Hlaing has taken power. He has long wielded significant political influence, successfully maintaining the power of the Tatmadaw - Myanmar's military - even as the country moved towards democracy. He has received international condemnation and sanctions for his alleged role in the military's attacks on ethnic minorities. Gen Hlaing has said the military is on the side of the people and would form a "true and disciplined democracy". The military says it will hold a "free and fair" election once the state of emergency is over.
  9. ASEAN’s Response to Myanmar Coup Is Failing
  10. NON-INTERFERENCE POLICY Many in the international community are now questioning whether ASEAN has a productive role to play in responding to the coup. After all, its policy of non-interference in internal affairs has impeded ASEAN’s response to human rights challenges and threats to democracy throughout the region for a long time. Their response to the coup in Myanmar is no exception.
  11. Why ASEAN would still uphold the noninterference principle?
  12. Rohingya the forgotten people
  13. Country of origin : Burma ,Arakan Rohingya
  14. Rohingya Countries of residence : Bangladesh, India, Thailand, Malaysia, China, UAE, Saudi Arabia
  15. Total population : approx 1.5 million in Burma, approx 200,000 in Bangladesh Rohingya
  16. Language : Rohingyan, Bengali, Arakanese Religion : Islam Rohingya
  17. Who are the Rohingyas? (1) • The Rohingyas are one of the most persecuted communities in the world. Persecuted v. meaning to treat someone cruelly or unfairly over a period of time, especially because of their religious or political beliefs:
  18. Who are the Rohingyas? (2) They have been living in the state of Arakan since the 8th century. They haven't been recognised as citizens of The Union of Burma since Burmese independence in 1948, instead they are known as 'non citizens‘. They have been under extreme scrutiny by the Burmese government.
  19. The Burmese Junta have discriminated the Rohingya, because they are not similar in …. o Looks o speak a different language o have a different religion. Why are the Rohingyas in trouble? (3)
  20. • As a means of clamping down on the Rohingya, the Junta have restricted even the most basic of rights such as education, marriage and citizenship. Why are the Rohingyas in trouble? (4)
  21. Why are the Rohingyas in trouble? (5) o The Burmese government endorse the Burmese culture and the Buddhist faith for their national citizens. o But the Rohingyas fall outside of this ideal criteria because they want to retain their own culture and the Muslim faith. o As a result, the Rohingyas, sidelined and marginalised, have to live with their derogatory national status of 'non-citizens‘.
  22. o Between 1978 and 1992, approximately 200,000 Rohingyas left Burma to escape the tyranny of the Burmese military. The exodus o Most of them moved to southern Bangladesh where they remain as refugees. o In one of the most densely populated countries in the world, life in Bangladesh proved just as hard as it did in Burma.
  23. Situation in Bangladesh o In Bangladesh, the Rohingyas are faced with hardly any protection from their host country. o Another camp 15 miles away, in Leda Bazaar where approximately 25,000 Rohingya live, is where our focus has been. o A burden to the densely populated country, the Rohingyas are denied humanitarian aid which forces them to turn to other means of income such as drug trafficking. o There is one registered camp situated meters away from the registered camp where 90,000 refugees live.
  24. • Human rights abuses against the Rohingyas in Burma. Human rights abuses against the Rohingyas in Burma (1)
  25. • In 1962, the Rohingyas were systematically denied of political, civil, economic and social human rights. Human rights abuses against the Rohingyas in Burma (2) • This affects their education and access to medication. • Nowadays, the Rohingyas in Burma cannot commute from one village to another due to the security forces known as 'Nasaka' who patrol their movement at various checkpoints.
  26. • Rohingyas are denied citizenship despite living in Arakan for centuries because Muslims are portrayed as 'relics of a colonial past'. Human rights abuses against the Rohingyas in Burma (3) • This stems from the fact that Muslims supported the British during the colonial period because they were promised autonomy in Rakhine previously known as Arakan.
  27. • Rohingyas have been subject to the systematic use of rape as a weapon of war, forced labour, and land confiscation. Over 3,500 villages have been destroyed since 1996. Human rights abuses against the Rohingyas in Burma (4)
  28. What is the best solution f o r solving Rohingya issues ? o This issue is very complex, we should try to deal with more than simply government policy, but a cultural divide as well. o The intolerance spans throughout the general populace, thus you see violence against Rohingya, not only by authorities, but by 'lynch mobs' as well. o The answer is two-fold; government policy change, and community development. o Community cohesiveness must include the Rohingyas, as opposed to them, or any Muslim, being an easy targets for xenophobia. ating and iving conditions o The government must set examples by integr showing tolerance, while equally, improving l and industry in local communities.
  29. ASEAN RESPONSE TO ROHINGYA CRISIS ASEAN’s efforts to resolve the Rohingya have limited it to specific elements of the crisis, such as humanitarian assistance and the repatriation of refugees from Bangladesh, two issues that unsurprisingly command the support of the Myanmar government. Meanwhile, it has mostly ignored the underlying questions such as the restoration of citizenship rights and enforced ethnic segregation, which in turn are based on ethnic and sectarian divisions with deep roots in Myanmar’s modern history.
  30. IN SHORT The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has failed to respond effectively to the Rohingya crisis in Myanmar thanks to a lack of leadership and the 10-member organisation's inability to grasp the scale of the human rights abuses
  32. Thank you
  33. Refferences o http://www.restlessbeings.org/projects/rohingya o http://merhrom.wordpress.com/2012/07/31/news- update-from-arakan-state/ o http://www.thestateless.com/2012/07/rohingya-say- they-are-being-terrorized.html o http://islamicforumeurope.com/images_uploaded/2 012/08/img3456.pdf
  34. Any Questions
  35. FEDERALISM 101 A Presentation of the DILG Task Team on Federalism 60
  36. What is Federalism? A system of government under which significant government powers are shared between the federal government and the Regional governments 61
  37. How Is Federalism Different From Presidential- Unitary System? In a PRESIDENTIAL- NITARY system of government, owers and resources are under he control of the central overnment In FEDERALISM, the powers and resources of the government are shared by the federal government and the Regional government 62
  38. Unitary & Federal Countries It is notable that the most stable and progressive countries have federal forms of government. 63 Federal Countries BANGLADESH PHILIPPINES AFGHANISTAN KHAZAKSTAN AUSTRIA GERMANY CANADA UNITED STATES AUSTRALIA Unitary Countries LEBANON Source: Wikipidia
  39. Least & Most Corrupt Countries Majority of countries belong to the most corrupt have unitary form of government while the least corrupt are mostly federal Least Corrupt Countries Most Corrupt Countries NORTH KOREA AFGHANISTAN SOUTH SUDAN SOMALIA ERITREA VENEZUELA LIBYA IRAQ SYRIA DENMARK SWEDEN FINLAND AUSTRALIA UNITED KINGDOM LUXEMBOURG SINGAPORE SWITZERLAND NORWAY as per Transparency International
  41. Distribution and Sharing of Powers Federal • National security • Civil, political, intellectual, property, human rights • Foreign relations • National elections • External trade • Citizenship • Currency/monetary system • Immigration, extradition • Supreme Court decisions Regional • Regional elections • Regional Supreme Court, Metropolitan Trial Courts • Licensure of public utilities • Administration and enforcement of Regional laws • Regional socio-economic planning • Regional Finance • Regional infrastructure • Health • Education • Environment • Social Welfare • Energy • Tourism • Peace & Order Shared
  42. How Will Federalism Help The Country? Let us count the ways… 67
  43. Establishing Powerful Economic Regions Federalism is not simply a ‘political’ undertaking, it is also an economic effort. 68 By creating federal regions we shall immediately establish centers of power, finance and development throughout the country.
  44. Equalization Fund An Equalization Fund shall be established by the Federal Government to provide more funding support for those regions in need to accelerate their development and progress 69
  45. Local Empowerment Federalism allows regions to exercise right to self-determination such as to address their problems based on their own geographic, cultural, social and economic conditions 70
  46. Incentives to Live, Work & Invest Outside Manila Federalism will promote economic opportunities in the regions and provide incentives for Filipinos to live and work in regions outside Metro Manila. More investors may also decide to put up their businesses outside Manila thus creating more jobs and opportunities to attract more people away from the congested mega cities. 71
  47. Feasible Solution To The Mindanao Issues The creation of the Bangsamoro Regional Government within a federalist system will address concerns of our Muslim brothers and sisters who crave more autonomy over the governance and administration of Muslim Mindanao. 72
  48. Federalism on Political Dynasties In federalism with a strong political party system, political dynasties will become irrelevant. Political leaders will become more accountable to their constituents. Regional governments will no longer have any excuse for delays in services or projects. 73
  49. Decentralization and Devolution of Powers Under the unitary system, we only have one center of power, finance and development: the Imperial Metro-Manila. Under Federalism, more powers are decentralized and devolved to local government 74
  50. Power To Collect and Spend Taxes For Own Development Right now, local government units can only collect real estate taxes and business permit fees. In federalism, they can retain most of their revenue income collection And they can spend the money on programs and policies according to their needs. 75
  51. Proposed Sharing of Revenues Under the present system, 80% of the revenue collections goes to the National Government and only 20% is distributed to Local Government Units. 76 In federalism, the distribution will be reversed
  52. Estimated Sharing of Internal Revenue Allotment (IRA) Under Federalism DESCRIPTION PRESENT SHARING PROPOSED SHARING UNDER FEDERALISM % DIFFE- RENCE SAMPLE REVENUE PhP1,000,000,000.00 PhP1,000,000,000.00 NATIONAL GOVT SHARE 60% PhP600,000,000 30% PhP300,000,000 -50% Regional GOV'T SHARE none 21% PhP 210,000,000 PROVINCIAL GOV'T SHARE 9.2% PhP92,000,000 CITIES SHARE 9.2% PhP92,000,000 14.6% PhP 146,363,636 +63% MUNICIPALITIES SHARE 13.6% PhP136,000,000 21.36% PhP 216,363,636 +63% BRGY SHARE 8.0% PhP80,000,000 12.72% PhP 127,272,727 +63% 77
  53. Basic Features of Presidential- Parliamentary Political System THE EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT ARE MERGED. (Reason: The Separation of Power causes intense rivalry and competition for power between the executive and legislative in a system that has turned very adversarial like Congressional Investigations of executive policies and actions, which unnecessarily delay and obstruct legislation. ) 78 • THERE SHALL BE A BICAMERAL LEGISLATIVE BODY. (Senate to act as Principal Inter-governmental Institution and there will be two (2) Senators elected per region).
  54. Basic Features, cont’d There is a President who will be elected at large and is nominated by a political party following established procedures. He shall be the head of the state and Commander-In-Chief; The President shall also have the authority to dissolve the Parliament under specific circumstances; There shall be a Prime Minister (PM) who shall be nominated by the majority of the members of the Parliament and appointed by the President. The PM shall be the head of government and can be removed by electing a new Prime Minister anytime during the term. 79
  55. Cabinet Members The President appoints the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Defense and the military officers with the rank of full colonel and above. Majority of the cabinet members are chosen by the Prime Minister from among the members of the parliament. 80
  57. Proposed Regional Governments It is proposed that there shall be as many federal regions as there are as many ethno-linguistic groups in the Philippines. However, Regional Governments shall be provided by the Federal Constitution following territorial, population & GDP requirements to determine sustainability. A Regional Government may be formed by at least 3 provinces or highly urbanized cities provided that it satisfies requirements provided by the constitution. Cordillera, Bangsamoro are deemed qualified as Regional Governments, Other autonomous territories for Indigenous People (IP’s) shall also be provided 82
  58. What Will Happen To The Local Government Units Under A Federal System? The local government units shall form part of the Regional Government. 83
  59. What Will Happen To The Judiciary Under Federalism? Each region shall also have its own Regional Supreme Courts and adopt its judicial systems There shall be a Federal Supreme Court 84
  60. 85 Timeline
  61. MODE TO REVISE OUR CONSTITUTION 86 • CON-ASS or Constituent Assembly, constituted by the incumbent Congressmen and Senators • CON-COM or Constitutional Commission, which will be composed by the Men and Women of integrity, patriotism and experts in their respective fields whose members are directly appointed by the President.
  62. Projected Timeline It is probable that the constitutional revision shall have been completed not later than 2018 and submitted to the people thru a plebiscite by 2019, coinciding with the Mid-Term National Election; From June, 2019 to 2020, sub-national government units (regions), in accordance with the ratified Federal Constitution, will make their respective Regional organic laws, submit for approval to Parliament and shall be ratified by the people thru a plebiscite 87
  63. The Shift to Federal Republic of The Philippines By 2020 to 2021, the process of effective, actual transition from unitary to a federal government should take place. On May 2022, we will probably elect the President of the new Federal Republic of the Philippines, together with the Members of Parliament; Federal President may be installed on June 30, 2022, and immediately thereafter, the first Prime Minister and Members of the Cabinet will be confirmed by the Parliament 88
  64. Thank you! 89