5. -Professionals has not come up
yet with the specific definition of
LD. All that they agreed is that a
group does not acquire learning
for a variety of reasons.
6. -LD was identify as a group
neurological disorder/condition that
results from the problem of storing,
processing and producing
- difficulty acquiring school skills or
7. They have the imperfect ability
8. Characteristics of Learning disability
*Trouble learning time
*Difficulty learning facts
*Confusing basic words
*Problems with planning
*Difficulty acquiring knowledge
*Having hard time learning phonetics
10. Genetic links
It is not uncommon to find that several
members of the same members have
A damage to the brain may affect
11. Tobacco , Alcohol and Drug use
Babies would be at risk for Learning
The use of drug may affect the receptor
Problems during pregnancy
-Mothers immune system may attack
-Umbilical cord my be twisted
12. Toxins in the environment
Lead and mercury particularly may
disrupt the brain cell growth
Stress in Childs environment
Corticosteroids release into
bloodstream during stress damage the
13. Learning Disabilities: Facts and Statistics
Approximately 5% of all students in the public
schools have a LD
2.8 million students are currently receiving special
education services for learning disabilities in the
LD is the most common disability present today
80% of all disabilities
14. Five common learning disability
Visual processing disorder
Non- Verbal learning disability
=A language-based learning disability
=Involves a cluster of symptoms resulting in
difficulty with specific language skills,
=The core difficulty is with word recognition
and reading fluency, spelling, and writing.
=Dyslexia is diagnosed in people of all levels of
=There are no known causes of dyslexia.
=Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher,
tutor, or therapist specially trained in using a
multisensory, structured language approach.
19. WHAT HOW DO YOU FEEL, CAN
YOU READ IT CLEARLY AND
What you feel while reading or
trying to read it is actually how a
child with DYSLEXIA feel and
20. Tips to help individuals with dyslexia:
A student with dyslexia can be given extra time to
complete tasks, help with taking notes, and work
assignments that are modified appropriately.
Teachers can give taped tests or allow dyslexic
students to use alternative means of assessment.
Students can benefit from listening to books on tape,
using text reading computer programs, and from
writing on computers.
=Dysgraphia is a learning disability that affects
writing abilities. It can manifest itself as
difficulties with spelling, poor handwriting, and
trouble putting thoughts on paper.
22. Common signs of Dysgraphia include:
= Tight, awkward pencil grip and body position
= Illegible handwriting
=Avoiding writing or drawing tasks
=Tiring quickly while writing
=Saying words out loud while writing
=Unfinished or omitted words in sentences
=Difficulty organizing thoughts on paper
=Difficulty with syntax structure and grammar
=Large gap between written ideas and understanding
demonstrated through speech.
25. Dysgraphia Empathy Activity
On your paper, re-write the following
statement using the pencil provided and your
non-dominant hand. You will be given one
minute to complete this task. Write neatly!!
The quick brown fox jumps
over the lazy dog.
26. Tips to help individuals with dysgraphia:
Use paper with raised lines for a sensory guide
to staying within the lines.
Try different pens and pencils to find one that's
Practice writing letters and numbers in the air
with big arm movements to improve motor
memory of these important shapes. Also
practice letters and numbers with smaller hand
or finger motions.
27. Tips to help individuals with dysgraphia:
Encourage proper grip, posture and paper
positioning for writing. It's important to
reinforce this early as it's difficult for students
to unlearn bad habits later on.
Be patient and positive, encourage practice
and praise effort - becoming a good writer
takes time and practice.
Dyscalculia is a term referring to a wide range of
lifelong learning disabilities involving math and
Some warning signs for dyscalculia include:
Good at speaking, reading, and writing, but slow
to develop counting
difficulty reading numbers, or recalling numbers
in sequence and order
=Trouble reading the clock and understanding time
=Difficulty remembering schedules
=trouble estimating how long something may take
=poor sense of direction
=trouble counting days before vacation
31. Tips for children with Dyscalculia
Introduce new skills beginning with concrete
examples and later moving to more abstract
For language difficulties, explain ideas and
problems clearly and encourage students to ask
questions as they work.
32. Use a step by step approach
Build on children's strength
Encourage children to avoid fear with numbers
33. Visual processing Disorder
A visual processing, or perceptual, disorder refers to a
hindered ability to make sense of information taken in
through the eyes.
This is different from problems involving sight or
sharpness of vision.
Difficulties with visual processing affect how visual
information is interpreted, or processed by the brain.
34. Some visual processing disorders include:
The ability to differentiate objects based on
their individual characteristics
Enlarge print for books, paper, and worksheets.
Create a “window” using an index card which can be
used to block out peripheral material which can be
distracting while reading.
Use paper that structured (dark, bold lines)
Paper that is divided into large sections can be used
for writing math problems
39. Teaching Style
Try to avoid the student’s weakness
For example, if you write something on the
board, verbalize what is being written
40. Non-verbal Learning Disabilities
A non-verbal learning disorder (NLD) is a
neurological syndrome consisting of specific
ASSETS AND deficits.
Early speech and vocabulary development
Remarkable rote memory skills
Attention to detail
Early reading skills development
Excellent spelling skills
Also, these individuals have the verbal ability to express
41. motoric (lack of coordination, severe balance
problems, and difficulties with graph motor skills).
visual-spatial-organizational (lack of image, poor
visual recall, faulty spatial perceptions, and
problems with spatial relations).
social (lack of ability to comprehend nonverbal
communication, difficulties adjusting to transitions
and novel situations, and deficits in social judgment
and social interaction).
sensory (sensitivity in any of the sensory modes:
visual, auditory, tactile, taste or olfactory)
42. Other disability associating LD.
Dyspraxia (Sensory Integration Disorder):
difficulties with motor coordination; fine motor skills
Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAP):
difficulties interpreting auditory information; a
disorder where the information is taken in through
the ears but is not accurately processed by the brain
(the brain does not process what is actually
43. Dysnomia: Difficulty in using words;
problems between storage in the brain
and retrieval from the brain when words
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder: difficulties with
concentration and focus; impulsivity
45. Slow down instruction
Use eye contact to make sure student is engaged
Write rules and instructions on the board with bold
Have students reiterate instructions or rules of games
Modify equipment to fit the specific LD
Practice small games before playing on larger scale
46. Provide many opportunities of differentiated
Have students model the skill being learned
Humor will lighten anyone’s anxiety
Have a student act out position in a game before hand
Peer partners can be effective
Maintain consistent class routines
Know your student and build rapport!