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Cloud computing Fundamentals - behind the hood of cloud platforms

Fundamentals of Cloud, Why Cloud, Key Business Drivers, Characteristics of Cloud, Service Models, Deployment models Virtualisation, Containerisation

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Cloud computing Fundamentals - behind the hood of cloud platforms

  1. 1. Cloud Computing Hari Padmanaban
  2. 2. Man’s mind, once stretched to a new idea, never goes back to its original dimension. Wendell Holmes
  3. 3. • What is Cloud Computing? • Why Cloud? - Key Business Drivers • Benefits of Cloud – Tangibles and Intangibles • Capacity Planning and Scalability models • Cloud Characteristics • Cloud Service Models • Providers and Consumers of Service Models • Cloud Deployment Models • Virtualization in depth • Different types of Virtualization • Virtualization and Containerization • Cloud Architecture Agenda
  4. 4. What is Cloud Computing? Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
  5. 5. What is Cloud? On-demand, Scalable, multi-tenant, self-service compute and storage resources
  6. 6. Important steps that we take to set up a lab: • Internal engineering lab (dev, test, staging) • Production environment • Typical release cycles across projects • Any known constraints, inhibitors, bottle necks etc? • Time and cost for upgrades (think multiple customers)
  7. 7. Why Cloud? - Key Business Drivers
  8. 8. Why Cloud? - Key Business Drivers
  9. 9. Key Business Drivers IT organizations are grappling with limited budgets….
  10. 10. DATACENTER COSTS Deploy 10% Operate 25% Support10% Facilities 7% Network 11% SW 9% HW 23% 50% Labor Expense Reduces Labor costs Reduces Facilities, Network, Hardware, Software maintenance costs Plan 5% 20% 80% 50% Other Expenses Most companies today spend roughly about 80% of their IT budget on operations and maintenance. IT Budget – Spend Distribution
  11. 11. Key Business Drivers
  12. 12. Why does the shift from CapEx to OpEx matter? • Companies need to preserve cash and not burn cash (Angel Investing/VC Funding) • CapEx requires upfront investment even before the market needs are validated • OpEx allows you to pay on a monthly or yearly basis CapEx to OpEx
  13. 13. How Start Ups think and approach growth
  14. 14. Capacity Planning and Scalability
  15. 15. • Horizontal “scaling out” – Sharding data is partitioned across a collection of identically structured databases. Is managed using the Elastic Database client library. • Vertical scaling is accomplished using Azure PowerShell cmdlets to change the service tier, or by placing databases in an elastic pool. Horizontal and Vertical Scaling
  16. 16. Scaling Up vs Scaling Out
  17. 17. Availability of Services = Up Time
  18. 18. Cloud delivers both tactical and strategic value – so analyze both the hard and soft costs separately Quantify the true value of agility – should never overlook this while considering cloud adoption Be clear with the organization’s key drivers for cloud adoption: • Is there a mandate to reduce costs? • Losing market share to competition because of your inability to rapidly develop and deploy applications • Are your experiencing outages which is damaging your reputation among your customers • Need for advanced and economical business continuity and disaster recovery solutions • Want to expand your global footprint but worried about latency because of your current environment Benefits of Cloud : Tangibles and Intangibles
  19. 19. Value drivers that are often overlooked in typical ROI calculations include: Accelerated time to market Improved developer productivity Decreased provisioning time Reliable uptime and many more intangible benefits of cloud. Benefits of Cloud : Tangibles and Intangibles
  20. 20. National Institute of Standard & Technology Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
  21. 21. Cloud Model according to NIST
  22. 22. Five Essential Characteristics
  23. 23. On-demand self-service: A consumer can unilaterally provision computing capabilities, such as server time and network storage, as needed automatically without requiring human interaction with service provider. Broad network access: Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous thin or thick client platforms (e.g., mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations). Resource pooling: The provider’s computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers using a multi-tenant model, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and re-assigned according to consumer demand. There is a sense of location independence in that the customer generally has no control or knowledge over the exact location of the provided resources but may be able to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or datacenters). Examples of resources include storage, processing, memory, and network bandwidth. Five Essential Characteristics:
  24. 24. Rapid elasticity: Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to scale rapidly outward and inward commensurate with the demand. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be appropriated in any quantity at any time. Measured Service: Cloud systems automatically control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of service (e.g., storage, processing, bandwidth, and active user accounts). Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service. Five Essential Characteristics:
  25. 25. 3 Service Models
  26. 26. Service Models
  27. 27. Infrastructure: includes provisioning of hardware or virtual computers on which one generally has control over the OS; therefore allowing the execution of arbitrary software. Platform: indicates a higher-level environment for which developers write custom applications. Generally the developer is accepting some restrictions on the type of software they can write in exchange for built-in application scalability. E.g., libraries, database, middleware, Java,.Net, Python, NodeJs etc. Software (as a Service): is a model of software deployment where the software applications are provided to the customer as a service Service Models
  28. 28. 4 Deployment Models
  29. 29. Deployment Models
  30. 30. Deployment Models Public cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for open use by the general public. It may be owned, managed, and operated by a business, academic, or government organization, or some combination of them. It exists on the premises of the cloud provider. Private cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a single organization comprising multiple units. It may be owned, managed, and operated by the organization, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off the premises. Community cloud: The cloud infrastructure is provisioned for exclusive use by a specific community of consumers from organizations that have shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be owned, managed, and operated by one or more of the organizations in the community, a third party, or some combination of them, and it may exist on or off the premises. Hybrid cloud: The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more distinct cloud infrastructures (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities, but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load balancing between clouds)."
  31. 31. Cloud Usage report - Deployment Models
  32. 32. Cost savings: • Lower TCO • Pay for usage, avoid over provisioning/capacity Scalability: • Rapid expansion – Local & Global • DR (no need to pay for what can possibly not happen) Flexibility: • Change HW configuration on the fly or at least reboot • Adapt platform to baseline dynamically • Easily integrate systems in cloud Training: • Setup a lab instantly • Try new features/technology WHY PUBLIC CLOUD?
  33. 33. Evolution of Cloud Computing • Solving large problems with parallel computing • Network-based subscriptions to applications • Offering computing resources as a metered service • Anytime, anywhere access to virtualized IT resources delivered dynamically as a service. Software as a Service Utility Computing Cloud Computing Grid Computing Abstraction –> Simplification -> Capability Aggregation
  34. 34. Evolution of Cloud Computing While tracking the historical evolution, five core technologies have seemed to play an important role in the realization of Cloud computing. These are: Distributed systems, Virtualization, Web 2.0, service-oriented computing and utility computing. Distributed Systems: Clouds are essentially large distributed computing facilities that make their services available to third parties on demand. Characterization of a distributed system proposed by Tanenbaum: “A distributed system is a collection of independent computers that appears to its users as a single coherent system.”
  35. 35. Three major milestones have led to Distributed computing: Mainframe computing, Cluster computing and Grid computing. Mainframes: These were the first examples of large computational facilities leveraging multiple processing units. Mainframes were powerful, highly reliable computers specialized for large data movement and massive IO operations. They were mostly used by large organizations for bulk data processing such as online transactions, enterprise resource planning, and other operations involving the processing of significant amount of data. Clusters: Cluster computing started as a low-cost alternative to the use of mainframes and supercomputers. The technology advancement that created faster and more powerful mainframes and supercomputers has eventually generated an increased availability of cheap commodity machines as a side effect. Being built by commodity machines, they were cheaper than mainframes, and made available high-performance computing to a large number of groups, including universities and small research labs. 1) Distributed systems
  36. 36. Grid Computing: Grid computing appeared in the early 90s as an evolution of cluster computing. In analogy with the power grid, Grid computing proposed a new approach to access large computational power, huge storage facilities, and a variety of services. Users can “consume” resources in the same way as they use other utilities such as power, gas, and water. Grids initially developed as aggregation of geographically dispersed clusters by means of Internet connection. Cloud computing is often considered as the successor of Grid computing: In reality, it embodies aspects of all of these three major technologies (Mainframe, Cluster, Grid) It encompasses a collection of solutions allowing the abstraction of some of the fundamental elements for computing such as: hardware, runtime environments, storage, and networking. Virtualization is essentially a technology that allows creation of different computing environments. These environments are named as virtual, because they simulate the interface that is expected by a guest. 2) Virtualization
  37. 37. The Web is the primary interface through which Cloud computing deliver its services. It encompasses a set of technologies and services that facilitate interactive information sharing, collaboration, user-centered design, and application composition. This has transformed the Web into a rich platform for application development. Such evolution is known as “Web 2.0”. Web 2.0 brings interactivity and flexibility into Web pages, which provide enhanced user experience by gaining Web-based access to all the functions that are normally found in desktop applications. These capabilities are obtained by integrating a collection of standards and technologies such as XML, Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX), Web Services, and others. Eg of Web 2.0 applications are Google Documents, Google Maps, Flickr, Facebook 3) Web 2.0
  38. 38. A service is an abstraction representing a self-describing and platform agnostic component that can perform any function. Services are composed and aggregated into a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) , which is a logical way of organizing software systems to provide end users or other entities distributed over the network with services through published and discoverable interfaces. Utility computing is a vision of computing, defining a service provisioning model for compute services in which resources such as storage, compute power, applications, and infrastructure are packaged and offered on a pay-per-use basis. The idea of providing computing as a utility like natural gas, water, power, and telephone connection has a long history but has become a reality today with the advent of Cloud computing. 4) Service Oriented Computing 5) Utility Oriented Computing
  39. 39. Data Center and Virtualization Technologies
  40. 40. • Single OS image per machine • Software and Hardware tightly coupled • Running multiple applications on same machine often creates conflict • Underutilized resources • Hardware-Independence of Operating System and applications • Virtual machines can be provisioned to any system • Can manage OS and application as a single Virtualization in depth
  41. 41. Virtualization achieves multiple OS instances to run concurrently on a single computer. This needed a host OS to virtualize initially, which later evolved to work on a hardware directly. Bare Metal Hypervisor
  42. 42. Type 1 hypervisor is installed directly on bare-metal hardware, it doesn't require an additional OS, it is the OS, it is a light or minimal OS. Ex:. KVM, Xen, Azure, Vmware ESXi ⦿ Advantages: System is thin, the hypervisor has direct access to the HW, higher density hardware.  Disadvantages: Really, Really large VMs are not supported, HW should support virtualization technology, costlier and Really bad console interface. Type 2 is more of an application installed on an operating system and not directly on the bare-metal. Ex: VirtualBox and VMware Workstation ⦿ Advantages: Run on a greater array of HW because the underlying Host OS is controlling HW access, Easy user interface, Data can be secured on the desktop.  Disadvantages: Decreased security, Loss of Centralized Management, Lower VM Density, Cannot support as many VMs as the first type. Types of Virtualization
  43. 43. Features of VMware server Virtualization
  44. 44. From Virtualization to Cloud
  45. 45. Containerization over Virtualization
  46. 46. Hypervisor vs Docker A hypervisor or virtual machine monitor (VMM) is a piece of computer software, firmware or hardware that creates and runs virtual machines
  47. 47. Containerization over Virtualization: Why it differs?
  48. 48. Cloud Computing Reference Architecture