Classification of pneumonia
According to causes
According to area involved
Etiology and risk factors
Is an inflammatory process of the lung
parenchyma that is commonly caused
by infectious agents.
Pneumonia are mainly affected the
microscopic air sac known as ALVEOLI .
It is cause by streptococcus pneumoniae.
In this condition accumulation of fluid in
6. classification of pneumonia
Pneumonia are classified into four
1Community – acquired pneumonia
2 hospital acquired pneumonia
3 pneumonia in the
4 aspiration pneumonia
7. Community acquired pneumonia
Most people get CAP by breathing in germ that live in the mouth
nose and throat
Streptococcus pneumonia are the most common cause of the CAP.
It is gram positive organism.
Viral pathogen include in pneumonia are –
Herpes simplex and adenovirus.
8. Hospital acquired pneumonia
HAP also known as nosocomial pneumonia.
This type of pneumonia due to exposed to the potential
bacteria from other sources
Ex. Respiratory therapy device and equipment transmission
of pathogen by the hand of health personnel
The common organism responsible for HAP include the
pathogen enterobacter species , Escherichia coli , H
influenza and staphylococcus.
9. Pneumonia in the immunocompromised
Pneumonia in the immunocompromised host occurs with use of-
Use of broad spectrum antimicrobial agents
Bacteria are –
Pseudomonas , e coli
10. Aspiration pneumonia
Aspiration pneumonia refers to entry of exogenous or
endogenous substance into the lower airway.
Gastric contents , exogenous or ingestion may impair in the
This lead to bact. growth and resulting pneumonia .
12. Classification of pneumonia (cont…)
According to areas involved
Lobar pneumonia; if one or more
lobe is involved
pneumonic process has originated
in one or more bronchi and extends
to the surrounding lung tissue.
Mode of transmission
Ways you can get pneumonia include:
Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses,
or mouth may spread to your lungs.
You may breathe some of these germs directly
into your lungs (droplets infection).
You breathe in (inhale) food, liquids, vomit, or
fluids from the mouth into your lungs (aspiration
Streptococcus pneumonia a major cause of
bacterial pneumonia , generally resides in the
The streptococci reach the alveoli. They
multiply in the alveolus and invade alveolar
epithelium. to inflammation and pouring of an
exudates into the air space.
WBCs migrates to alveoli, become more
This will lead to partial occlusion of alveoli and
bronchi causing decrease in alveolar oxygen
Venous blood that goes to affected areas
without being oxygenated and return to the
heart. This will lead to arterial hypoxemia and
even death due to interference with
Rapidly rising fever ( 39.5 to 40.5 degree)
Stabbing chest pain aggravated by respiration and
Tachypnea, nasal flaring
Patient is very ill and lies on the affected side to
24. Use of accessory muscles of respiration e.g. abdomen
and intercostal muscles
Cough with purulent, blood tinged, rusty sputum
Shortness of breath
low energy, and fatigue
Cyanosed lips and nail beds
Maintain a patent airway and
Obtain sputum specimens as
Use suction if the patient can’t
produce a specimen.
perform chest physiotherapy.
Nursing intervention (cont…)
Provide a high calorie, high protein diet of soft
To prevent aspiration during nasogastric tube
feedings, check the position of tube, and
administer feedings slowly.
To control the spread of infection, dispose
Nursing intervention (cont…) Provide a quiet, calm environment, with frequent rest
Monitor the patient’s ABG levels, especially if he’s
Assess the patient’s respiratory status. Auscultate
breath sounds at least every 4 hours.
Monitor fluid intake and output.
Evaluate the effectiveness of administered
Explain all procedures to the patient and family.
Removing secretion is important because
retained secretion interfere with gas exchange.
Coughing and breathing techniques.
Sterilization of respiratory therapy equipment
Suctioning of secretion in the unconscious who
have poor cough and swallowing reflexes, to
prevent aspiration of secretions and its