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“INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENT”
• Relationship Between Different
Components of Environment.
• Man – Environment Relationship.
• Impact of Technology on Environment.
• Environmental Degradation.
• Multidisciplinary Nature of
Environmental studies, its Scope And
Relationship Between Different
Components of Environment.
Biotic environment is made up
of all living organisms (plants,
animals & microorganisms)
include their reaction, inter-
reaction and interrelated
Abiotic environment or physical
environment is composed of
external factors like
temperature, humidity, water,
soil, minerals, gases etc. It
provides both habitation and
raw materials for the synthesis
of organic food.
• Interaction between Abiotic and Biotic
All living organisms depend upon their
environment for survival essentials:
3) breeding site.
• These biotic and abiotic components are in
dynamic state i.e. they constantly affect each
other and cannot be isolated from each other.
Man – Environment Relationship
• Relationship between man and environment
has variation. This relationship varies from
time to time and place to place.
• For example.. In the past human being was
afraid of lighting and thunder, dense forest,
major river and wild animal.
• But now human being is interacting with each
Relief of land :
Factors : ….
Relief of land
• In Himalayas due to steep
slop agriculture is done with
great difficulties ,industries
establishment also. So this
place are having very less
• Therefore very less
• Most of the area of the
earth are having population
density <2 person/km² due
to unfavorable climate.
• Ex. North Canada, Alaska,
Hot Sharah Desert.
• Fertile soil will attract
very dense population.
• Earlier settlement and
civilization was well
developed on the bank
of major rivers.
Ex. Nile, Ganga river.
• Adequate water supply
facilities and there by
food production is more.
• The presence of coal,
gold, iron, steel, in any
area will attract high
• Ex. Jharkhand in India.
• Gold mines in Australia.
Impact Of Technology On Environment
• New technology
EXPLOITATION OF NATURAL
• Innovation of engines
Consumption of fossil fuel
• We have technologies to
purify polluted water using
RO system, Aqua guard,..
• We have destroyed forest
but we have technologies to
grow fast growing trees.
• Invention of Sawing
• Fertilizers and Pesticides
Increase in food production
Pollution of land.
• Recycling technologies
recycling of paper, plastic
• Technologies to conserve
AIR, WATER, LAND, ETC..
• It refers to the damage caused to the
environment due to both natural and human
• The overall lowering of environmental
qualities due to the damage caused by both
natural and human activities in the basic
structure of environment at local, regional and
global levels adversely affecting all living
organisms including man.
Different Types Of
• So on….
• Water Degradation : Degradation in the
quality of water is a major & world wide
Source : 1. Point source.
2. Non point source.
• Land Degradation : Land degradation is a
process in which the value of the biophysical
environment is affected by combination of
human-induced processes acting upon the
• Air Degradation : W.H.O has stated Delhi and
Kolkata as highly polluted megacities for air
qualities. It is due to deforestation,
industrialization and urbanization.
• Forest Degradation : In India in 1980’s forest
cover was about 40% and now it is just 17-18
Multidisciplinary Nature of Environmental
Studies, Its Scope And Impact
• Environmental studies can be useful to various
1. Environmental studies for Engineers : By
studying ES engineers can find the
sustainable solutions for different global and
local environmental problems.
2. Environmental studies for Ecologist : By
studying interrelationship between different
Biotic and Abiotic components of ecosystem.
3. Environmental studies for Hydrologist : By
studying these course the Hydrologist can
study the quality of land water and aquatic
• Reference book: Mahajan Publication.
• And other reference books.