2. • Human body is rather like a highly technical
and sophisticated machine.
• It operates as a single unit
• Body is made up of a 9 of systems that work
• Each system is associated with a specific
function that is normally essential for well-
being of the individual.
• Should one system fail, as consequences may
greatly reduce ability of body to function
• Combined working of body systems ensures
• science of body structures and relationship of
those structures to each other.
i. First studied by dissection: act of carefully
cutting apart body structures to study their
ii. Also studied today with advanced imaging
such as X-Ray, MRI, and CT Scan
• study of how body systems work,
• ways in which their integrated activities
maintain life and health of individual
• study of abnormalities and
pathophysiology considers how they affect
body functions, often causing illness
7. As a nurse why need to learning anatomy and
• To identify development ,structure ,function of
• To lean variation of general structure and function
• To before apply nursing care assessment ,planning
implementation and evaluation of illness
8. Anatomy is broken up into subdivisions
Study of structures that emerge from time of
fertilized egg through eighth week in utero.
Ii. Developmental biology:
Structures that emerge from time of fertilized
egg to adult form
Microscopic structure of tissues
9. Iv. Surface anatomy:
• Anatomical landmarks throughout the surface
of body through visualization or palpation
v. Gross Anatomy:
• Structures that can be examined without
using a microscope
vi. Systemic Anatomy:
• Structures of specified systems of the body,
such as the nervous system or the
12. vii. Regional Anatomy:
Specified regions of the body, such as the head
viii. Radiographic Anatomy:
Body structures that can be visualized with X -
ix. Pathological Anatomy:
Structural Changes associated with disease
14. Physiology can also be broken up into subdivisions”
functional properties of nerve cells
Hormones and how they control body
iii. Cardiovascular Physiology:
Functions of the heart and blood vessels
How the body defends itself against disease-
15. v. Respiratory Physiology:
• Functions of the air passageways and the lungs
vi. Renal Physiology:
• Functions of the kidneys
vii. Exercise Physiology:
• Changes in cell and organ function as a result of muscular
• Functional changes associated with disease and aging
16. Levels of Organization
Particles → atom →molecule→macromolecule
→ organelle →cell → tissue→ organ → organ
system → organism.
18. Anatomical Terminology
• Superior :- means the part is above another or
closer to head (cranial ).
• Inferior: means the part is below another or
towards the feet (caudal).
• Anterior:- means towards the front (eyes are
anterior to the brain) -[ventral].
• Posterior: means toward the back (the
pharynx is posterior to the oral
cavity) - [dorsal].
20. • Medial : relates to the imaginary
midline dividing the body into equal
right and left halves (the nose is medial
to the eyes).
• Lateral: means to words side with respect to
imaginary midline (the ears are lateral to the
• Ipsilateral: same side (the spleen and
descending colon are ipsilateral ).
• Contralateral : Increases to the opposite side (the
spleen and gallbladder are contralateral ).
22. • Proximal : is used to describe a part that is
closer to trunk of body or closer to
another specified point of reference
than another part (the elbow is
proximal to wrist).
• Distal: it means that a particular body part is
farther from trunk or farther from
another specified point of reference
than another part (fingers are distal to
23. • Superficial: means situated near surface.
Peripheral also means outward or near the
• Deep: is used to describe parts that are more
• Axial part : includes the head, neck, and trunk.
• Appendicular part : Includes the limbs
which are attached to the body's axis
25. • Abdominal = region between thorax and pelvis.
• Antebrachial = the forearm.
• Antecubital = the front of elbow.
• Axillary = the armpit.
• Brachial = the upper arm.
• Celiac = the abdomen.
• Cephalic = the head.
26. • cervical = the neck.
• costal = the ribs.
• cubital = the elbow.
• femoral = the thigh.
• gluteal = the buttock.
• lumbar = the lower back.
27. Anatomical Position
• Anatomists and physiologist look at the
human body from this standard starting point
known as anatomical position.
–The human body standing erect
–Face facing forward
–arms by sides
–palms facing forward
–feet flat on the floor and turn out very
29. Body cavities and their contents
Body cavities – hollow spaces within the human
body that contain internal organs.
a) dorsal cavity:
located toward back of body, is divided
into cranial cavity ( holds brain)
vertebral or spinal cavity (holds spinal
b) ventral cavity:
located toward front of body, is
divided into abdominopelvic cavity and
thoracic cavity by diaphragm
31. • Abdominopelvic cavity is subdivided into
– Abdominal cavity (which holds liver, gallbladder,
stomach, pancreas, spleen, kidney,small, and
– pelvic cavity (which holds urinary bladder and
• Thoracic cavity is subdivided into
– pleural cavity (which holds lungs)
– pericardial cavity (which holds the heart).
33. Cranial cavity
• its boundaries are formed by bones of skull
• Anteriorly – 1 frontal bone
• Laterally – 2 temporal bones
• Posteriorly – 1 occipital bone
• Superiorly – 2 parietal bones
• Inferiorly – 1 sphenoid and 1 ethmoid bone
and parts of frontal, temporal and occipital
35. Thoracic cavity
• Its boundaries are formed by thoracic cage and
• Anteriorly – sternum and costal cartilages of ribs
• Laterally – 12 pairs of ribs and intercostal muscles
• Posteriorly – thoracic vertebrae
• Superiorly – structures forming root of neck
• Inferiorly – diaphragm, a dome-shaped muscle.
37. Abdominal cavity
• It cabins most of trunk and its boundaries are:
• Superiorly – diaphragm, which separates it from
• Anteriorly – muscles forming anterior
• Posteriorly – lumbar vertebrae and muscles
forming posterior abdominal wall
• Laterally – lower ribs and parts of muscles of
• Inferiorly – it is continuous with pelvic cavity
40. Pelvic cavity
• pelvic cavity is roughly funnel shaped ,
• Superiorly – it is continuous with the
• Anteriorly – pubic bones
• Posteriorly – sacrum and coccyx
• Laterally – innominate bones
• Inferiorly – muscles of pelvic floor
42. Abdominopelvic region is divided into regions and
1. Nine Regions
a. Top right: right Hypochondriac (right lobe of
liver , large colon pats , r kidney
b. Top center: epigastric (liver l
c. Top left: left hypochondriac(stomach,
43. d. Middle right: right lumbar(asendin c,r kidney pats)
e. Middle center: umbilical(trasverse colon,
ureters, pats of kidney)
f. Middle left: left lumbar (descending colon,)
g. Bottom right: right inguinal( cecum,)
h. Bottom center: hypogastric (bladder ,uterus)
i. Bottom left: left inguinal(ilium jejunum)
49. • Cells is smallest functional units of the body.
• They are grouped together to form
tissues,(connective ,muscular ,nerves ,
• each of which has a specialised function,
• Different tissues are grouped together to
• Organs are grouped together to form systems,
• each of which performs a particular function that
maintains homeostasis and contributes to health of
• Human body include system
– Muscular system
– Skeletal system
– Nerves system
– Respiratory system
– Elementary system
– Digestive system
– Endocrine system
– Reproductive system
– Circulatory system
52. The cell
• Human body develops from a single cell
called zygote, which results from mixture
of ovum and spermatozoon
• Cell division follows and, as fetus grows,
cells with different structural and functional
• All with the same genetic make-up as the
53. • Individual cells are too small
• Can be seen when thin slices of tissue are
stained magnified using a microscope
54. Cell are consist of three main part
i plasma membrane
• plasma membrane enclosing a number of
organelles suspended in a watery fluid called
• Organelles, factually have individual and highly
57. Plasma membrane
• Consists of two layers of phospholipids with
proteins and sugars embedded
• Lipid cholesterol is also present.
• Phospholipid molecules have a head, which is
electrically charged and hydrophilic
• Tail which has no charge and is hydrophobic
• Phospholipid bilayer is arranged like sandwich
58. • Hydrophilic heads aligned on outer surfaces of
• Hydrophobic tails forming a central water-
• These differences influence the transfer of
substances across membrane
60. Membrane proteins
• Those proteins that extend all way through
membrane provide channels that allow passage
of, for example, electrolytes and non-lipid
• Protein molecules on surface of plasma
membrane perform several functions
• Branched carbohydrate molecules
attached to outside of some membrane
• protein molecules give cell its
61. • They can act as receptors for hormones and
other chemical messengers some are
• Transmembrane proteins form channels that
are filled with water and allow very small,
water-soluble ions to cross the membrane
• Some are involved in pumps that transport
substances across the membrane
• All body cells have a nucleus, with exception of
• skeletal muscle fibres and some other cells
contain several nuclei.
• Largest organelle and is contained within nuclear
envelope, a membrane similar to plasma
• But with tiny holes through which some
substances can pass between it and the
64. • Nucleus contains the body’s genetic material, in
form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA,) this directs
all its metabolic activities.
• In a non-dividing cell DNA is present as a fine
network of threads called chromatin
• But when cell prepares to divide chromatin
forms distinct structures called chromosomes .
65. • Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is also found in nucleus.
Which are in general involved in protein
• Within nucleus is a roughly spherical structure
• Which is involved in synthesis and assembly of
components of ribosomes.
• Membranous, sausage-shaped structures in the
• Sometimes described as the ‘power house’ of cell
• They are central to aerobic respiration which
chemical energy is made available in the cell.
• This is in form of ATP, which releases energy
most active cell types have greatest number of
mitochondria, liver, muscle And spermatozoa.
• These are tiny granules composed of RNA and
protein. From amino acids, using RNA as model
• When present in free units or in small groups in
the cytoplasm, the ribosomes make proteins for
use within the cell.
• These include enzymes required for
70. • Metabolic pathways consist of a series of
steps, each driven by a specific enzyme.
• Ribosomes are also found on outer surface of
nuclear envelope and rough endoplasmic
reticulum where they manufacture proteins
for export from the cell.
72. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
• Endoplasmic reticulum is an extensive series
of interconnecting membranous canals in the
• There are two types: smooth and rough.
Smooth ER synthesises lipids and steroid
hormones, and detoxification of some drugs.
• Some of lipids are used to replace and repair
plasma membrane and membranes of
73. • Rough ER is covered with ribosomes.
• These are site of synthesis of proteins,
• some of which are ‘exported’ from
cells,(enzymes and hormones)
• The golgi apparatus consists of masses of
closely folded flattened membranous sacs .
• It is present in all cells but is larger in those
that synthesise and export proteins.
74. • Proteins move from endoplasmic reticulum to
golgi apparatus where they are ‘packaged’
into membrane-bound vesicles.
• The vesicles are stored and,
• When needed, they move to plasma
membrane and Fuse with it.
• Contents are expelled (secreted) from the
Cell. This process is called exocytosis
• Lysosomes are small membranous vesicles
pinched off from the Golgi apparatus.
• They contain a variety of enzymes involved in
breaking down remains of organelles and
large molecules and small parts are either
recycled, or extruded from the cell as waste
• This consists of an extensive network of
tiny protein fibres
– These are the smallest fibres.
– They provide structural support, maintain
the characteristic shape of the cell and
permit contraction, e.g. actin in muscle cells
80. • ii Microtubules.
• These are larger contractile protein fibres
• that are involved in movement of organelles
• chromosomes during cell division cell
• Iii Centrosome.
• This directs organisation of microtubules
within the cell.
• It consists of a pair of centrioles and plays an
important role in cell division
81. iv Cell extensions
These project from plasma membrane in some
types of cell and their main components are
microtubules, which allow movement. They
a microvilli –
– tiny projections that contain microfilaments.
– They cover the exposed surface of certain
types of cell, e.g. absorptive cells that line
83. B cilia –
–microscopic hair-like projections containing
microtubules that lie along free borders of
–.They beat in harmony moving substances
along surface, e.g. mucus upwards in respiratory
C flagella –
– single, long whip-like projections, containing
– microtubules, which form the ‘tails’ of
– that drive them through the female
85. Physical function of cell
• Development and reproduction
86. Development and reproduction
• Increase cell grows in size, volume and well
function is call cell development
• Many damaged, dead, worn out cells can be
replaced by growth and division of other similar
• Cell division occurs varies with different types of
• This is normally carefully regulated to allow
effective maintenance and repair of body tissues.
87. • At end of their natural lifespan, ageing cells are
programmed to ‘self destruct
• Their components are removed by phagocytosis; a
process known as apoptosis
• Cells with nuclei have 46 chromosomes and divide by
mitosis, a process that results in two new genetically
identical daughter cells. only exception meiosis
• two cell divisions is known as cell cycle, which has
two phases that mitosis (M phase) and interphase
• This is longer phase and three separate stages
• first gap phase (G1) –
–cell grows in size and volume.
–This is usually longest phase and most
variable in length.
– Sometimes cells do not continue round the
cell cycle but enter a resting phase (G0)
–during this time cells carry out their specific
functions, e.g. secretion, absorption
89. • (S phase) synthesis of DNA–
–Chromosomes replicate forming two identical
copies of DNA.
–S phase , which cell now has 92
• second gap phase – (G2)
–there is further growth and preparation for
• Replicated chromatin becomes tightly coiled and
easier to see under microscope.
• Each of original 46 chromosomes is paired with
its copy in a double chromosome unit.
• Two chromatids are joined to each other at
92. • This consists of two centrioles separated by
mitotic spindle, which is formed from
• The centrioles travel, one to each end of the cell,
• Nuclear envelope disappears
• The chromatids align on centre of the spindle,
attached by their centromeres.
• Centromeres separate, and one of each pair of sister
chromatids (now called chromosomes again)
• Migrates to each end of spindle as microtubules
• That form the mitotic spindle contract
• Mitotic spindle disappears, chromosomes uncoil and
nuclear envelope reforms.
• Following telophase, cytokinesis occurs:
• The cytosol, Intracellular organelles and plasma
• Forming two identical daughter cells.
• Tissues consist of large numbers of same type of
• these are classified according to the size, shape
and functions of their basic cells.
• four main types of tissue each with subtypes.
1 epithelial tissue or epithelium
2 connective tissue
3 muscle tissue
4 nervous tissue
99. 1 Epithelial tissue
• covers body and lines cavities, hollow organs
and tubes. also found in glands
• structure of epithelium is closely linked to its
–protection of underlying structures from
dehydration, chemical and mechanical
100. • Cells are very closely packed and the
intercellular substance, matrix, is minimal.
• Cells usually lie on a basement membrane,
which is an inert connective tissue made by
epithelial cells themselves
• Epithelial tissue may be:
A. simple: a single layer of cells
B. stratified: several layers of cells.
101. Simple epithelium
• Simple epithelium consists of a single layer of
• Divided into three main types.
• It is usually found on absorptive or secretory
surfaces, where single layer enhances these
processes, and occasionally on surfaces subject
• The types are named according to shape of
cells, which differs according to their functions.
• More active tissue, taller the cells.
102. Type of simple epithelium tissue
i simple squamous
ii simple cuboidal
iii simple columnar
Iv pseudostratified columnar epithelium;
i simple squamous
• composed of a single layer of flattened cells
The cells fit closely together like flat stones,
• forming a thin and very smooth membrane
across which diffusion occurs easily.
103. It forms the lining of the following structures
• Heart – where it is known as endocardium
• Blood vessels where it is also known
• Lymph vessels as endothelium
• Alveoli of the lungs
• Lining the collecting ducts of nephrons in the
105. ii Simple cuboidal epithelium
• consists of a single layer of cuboidal (cube-like)
• These cuboidal cells have large, round and
• found on surface of ovaries, lining of nephrons,
walls of renal tubules, and parts of eye and
• On these surfaces, cells perform secretion and
107. iii Columnar epithelium
• formed by a single layer of cells, rectangular in
shape, on a basement membrane.
• It lines many organs and regularly has
adaptations that make it well suitable to a specific
• lining of stomach is formed from simple columnar
epithelium without surface structures.
• free surface of columnar epithelium lining the
small intestine is covered with microvilli.
• Microvilli provide a very large surface area for
absorption of nutrients from small intestine.
109. iv Pseudostratified epithelium
• type of epithelium that, though covering only a
single layer of cells,
• The term pseudostratified is derived from the
appearance of this epithelium in section which
conveys the mistaken (pseudo means almost or
impending) impression that there is more than
one layer of cells,
110. • when in fact this is a true simple epithelium since
all the cells rest on the basal lamina.
• Not all ciliated cells extend to the luminal
surface; such cells are capable of cell division
providing replacements for cells lost or damaged.
• Pseudostratified epithelia function in secretion or
absorption. If a specimen looks stratified but has
cilia, then it is a pseudostratified ciliated
epithelium, since stratified epithelia do not have
113. B. Stratified epithelia
• Stratified epithelia consist of several layers of
cells of various shapes.
• Continual cell division in lower(basal) layers
pushes cells above nearer and nearer to surface
• Basement membranes are usually absent.
• main function of stratified epithelium
• is to protect underlying structures from
mechanical wear and tear
• There are two main types:
I. stratified squamous
II. Transitional epthilia
114. Stratified squamous epithelium.
• composed of several layers of cells.
• In deepest layers cells are mainly columnar
• They grow towards surface, they become
flattened and are then shed.
• They are two type
• Keratinised stratified epithelium
• Non-keratinised stratified epithelium
115. Keratinised stratified epithelium.
• This is found on dry surfaces exposed to wear
and tear, ex. Skin, hair and nails.
• Surface layer consists of dead epithelial cells
that have lost their nuclei and contain the
• waterproof protective layer that prevents
drying of the live cells underneath.
• The surface layer of skin is rubbed off and is
replaced from below
118. Non-keratinised stratified epithelium
• This protects moist surfaces subjected to wear
and tear, and prevents them from drying out,
e.g. the conjunctiva of eyes,
• lining of mouth, pharynx, oesophagus vagina.
121. Transitional epithelium
• type of stratified epithelium – tissue
consisting of multiple layers of epithelial cells
• can contract and expand as needed.
• It is so named because of this function in the
transition of degree of distension.
• It has a basement membrane.
• found in urothelium, including that of renal
pelvis, urinary bladder, ureters, superior
urethra, and prostatic and ejaculatory ducts of
123. 2 Connective tissue
• Most abundant tissue in the body.
• Connective tissue cells are more widely
separated from each other than in epithelial
• intercellular substance (matrix) is present in
considerably larger amounts.
• There are usually fibres present in matrix,
124. • which may be of a semisolid jelly-like stability
or dense and rigid, depending upon position
and function of tissue
• All connective tissue consists of three main
Fibers (elastic and collagenous fibers)
125. • Not all authorities include blood or lymph as
connective tissue because they lack the fiber
• Most types of connective tissue have a good
• Major functions of connective tissue are:
Binding and structural support
127. Cells in connective tissue
• Different types of cell involved include:
fibroblasts, fat cells, macrophages, leukocytes
and mast cells.
• A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that
synthesizes the extracellular matrix and
collagen, elastic fibres
• matrix of extracellular material produces
structural framework (stroma) for animal
• plays a critical role in wound healing.
130. Fat cells.
• Also known as adipocytes,
• These cells occur singly or in groups in many
types of connective tissue and are especially
abundant in adipose tissue.
• They vary in size and shape according to the
amount of fat they contain.
• Large irregular-shaped cells
• Type of white blood cell, of the immune system
• Digests cellular debris, foreign substances,
microbes, cancer cells, process called
133. • These large phagocytes are found in
essentially all tissues
• They patrol for potential pathogens by
• Various names e.G., Histiocytes, kupffer cells,
alveolar macrophages, microglia, and others,
but all are part of the mononuclear phagocyte
• Normally found in small numbers in healthy
connective tissue but neutrophils migrate in
significant numbers during infection
• When they play an important part in tissue
• Plasma cells develop from b-lymphocytes, a
type of white blood cell .
• They synthesise and secrete specific defensive
antibodies into the blood and tissues
137. Mast cells.
• These are similar to basophil leukocytes.
• They are found in loose connective tissue, under
fibrous capsule of some organs, e.g. Liver and
spleen, blood vessels.
• Their cytoplasm is packed with granules
containing heparin, histamine and other
substances, which are released when cells are
damaged by disease or injury.(Degranulation).
139. Loose (areolar) connective tissue
• Most generalised of all connective tissue.
• Matrix is described as semisolid with many
fibroblasts and some fat cells, mast cells and
macrophages widely separated by elastic and
• It is found in almost every part of the body
providing elasticity and tensile strength.
140. • It connects and supports other tissues, for
• under the skin
• between muscles
• supporting blood vessels and nerves
• in the alimentary canal
• in glands supporting secretory cells.
142. Reticular connective tissue
• Reticular fibers are synthesized by special
fibroblasts called reticular cells ,wBC also
• Fibers are thin branching structures
• Reticular connective tissue is found around
kidney, spleen, lymph nodes,peyer's patches
and in bone marrow
• Fibers form a soft skeleton (stroma) to support
• Adipose tissue is held together by reticular
144. Adipose tissue
• Adipose tissue consists of fat cells (adipocytes),
containing large fat globules, in a matrix of areolar
• There are two types:
145. White adipose tissue.
• This makes up 20–25% of body weight in
adults with a normal body mass index
• More is present in obesity and less in those
who are underweight.
• Adipose tissue secretes the hormone leptin
• kidneys and eyeballs are supported by adipose
tissue, also found between muscle fibres And
under skin, Acts as a thermal insulator and
146. Brown adipose tissue.
• Present in the newborn.
• It has a more extensive capillary network than
white adipose tissue.
• When brown tissue is metabolised, it produces
less energy and considerably more heat than
other fat, contributing to the maintenance of
• Sometimes small amounts are present in adul
blood cells (monocytes and lymphocytes).
147. Dense connective tissue
• This contains more fibres and fewer cells than
loose connective tissue
• Its two type
I. Fibrous tissue
II. Elastic tissue
148. i Fibrous tissue
• This tissue is made up mainly of closely filled
bundles of collagen fibres with very little matrix.
• Fibrocytes ( inactive fibroblasts) are few in
number and lie inbetween the bundles of fibres.
• Fibrous tissue is found:
• forming the ligaments, which bind bones
• as an outer protective covering for bone, called
149. • as an outer protective covering of some
kidneys, lymph nodes and brain
• muscle fascia, which extend out there the
muscle to become tendon that attaches the
muscle to bone.
151. Elastic tissue
• Elastic tissue is skillful of significant extension
• There are few cells and matrix consists mainly of
masses of elastic fibres secreted by fibroblasts.
• It is found in organs where stretching or
adjustment of shape is required,
e.g. in large blood vessel walls, trachea and
bronchi, and the lungs.
• Cartilage is stronger than other connective
• Cell (chondrocytes) are thin and lie embedded
in matrix reinforced by collagen and elastic
• There are three types of cartilage
155. Hyaline cartilage
• it is a smooth bluish-white tissue.
• chondrocytes are arranged in small groups within
cell nests and matrix is solid and smooth.
• Its provides flexibility, support and smooth surfaces
for movement at joints.
• It is found:
on ends of long bones that form joints
forming costal cartilages, which attach
the ribs to the sternum
forming part of the larynx, trachea and
• This consists of thick crowds of white collagen fibres
in a medium similar to that of hyaline cartilage with
cells widely isolated.
• It is a hard, somewhat flexible, supporting tissue
as pads between bodies of vertebrae,
between articulating surfaces of bones of
knee joint, called semilunar cartilages
on rim of bony sockets of hip and shoulder
joints, deepening cavities without restricting
159. Elastic fibrocartilage
• This flexible tissue consists of yellow elastic
• in a solid matrix with chondrocytes lying
• It provides support and maintains shape of,
• Part of tunica media of blood vessel walls
• Bone cells (osteocytes) are surrounded by a
medium of collagen fibres supported by
inorganic salts, especially calcium and
• This provides bones with their
characteristic strength and rigidity.
• Bone also has significant capacity for
growth in first two decades of life ,and for
rebirth throughout life.
162. • Two types of bone can be identified by the
compact bone – solid or dense
spongy or cancellous bone –’spongy’ or
fine honeycomb appearance
• It is bony framework of the body.
• It forms the cavities and fossae that protect
some structures, forms the joints and gives
attachment to muscles.
164. Muscle tissue
• This tissue is able to contract and relax,
providing movement within body and of body
• Muscle contraction requires a blood supply that
will provide sufficient oxygen, calcium and
nutrients and remove waste products.
• There are three types of specialised contractile
cells, ( fibres)
skeletal muscle fiber
smooth muscle fiber
cardiac muscle fiber
165. Skeletal muscle
• It is described as skeletal because it
forms those Muscles that move bones ,
• striations (bands) can be seen on
• voluntary as it is under conscious
• Diaphragm is made from this type of
muscle to accommodate a degree of
voluntary control in breathing.
166. But may also be controlled subconsciously. For
example,cycling, and diaphragm maintains
breathing while asleep
• These fibres are cylindrical, contain several nuclei
and can be up to 35 cm long.
• Muscle contraction is stimulated by motor nerve
impulses originating in the brain or spinal cord
and ending at the neuromuscular junction .
168. Smooth muscle
• It is described as non-striated, visceral or
• Some smooth muscle has intrinsic ability to
initiate its own contractions (automaticity),
e.g. peristalsis .
• It is innervated by autonomic nervous system .
Additionally, some hormones and local
metabolites stimulate its contraction.
169. • A degree of muscle tone is always present,
meaning that smooth muscle is only
completely relaxed for short periods.
• Contraction of smooth muscle is slower and
more nonstop than skeletal muscle.
• It is found in walls of hollow organs
• regulating diameter of blood vessels and parts
of respiratory tract
170. • propelling contents along, e.g. ureters, ducts of
glands and the alimentary tract
• expelling contents of the urinary bladder and
• cells are seen to be spindle shaped with only
one central nucleus.
• Bundles of fibres form sheets of muscle, such as
those found in the walls of above structures.
171. Smooth muscle. A. Diagram. B. Fluorescent light micrograph showing actin, a
contractile muscle protein (green), nuclei (blue)
and capillaries (red).
173. Cardiac muscle
• found only in the heart wall.
• It is not under conscious control but, when
viewed under a microscope, cross-stripes like
skeletal muscle can be seen.
• Each fibre (cell) has a nucleus one or more
• ends of the cells and their branches are in very
close contact with together cells.
• Microscopically these ‘joints’, or intercalated
discs, appear as lines
174. • This arrangement gives cardiac muscle
appearance of a sheet of muscle rather than a
very large number of individual fibres
• Cardiac muscle fibres do not need to be
• Heart has an intrinsic pacemaker system, that it
beats in a coordinated manner without external
176. Nervous tissue
• There are two types of nervous tissue, neurones
• Neurones (excitable cells) are working units of
nervous system that generate and transmit
• Neurones (non-excitable cells)are supported by
177. • Cooperatively known as neuroglia, which is
formed from different types of glial cells.
• There are massive numbers of both cell types,
1 trillion glial cells and 10 times more
• Neurones are commonly discussed to simply
as nerve cells.
178. • There are three type of nerves Sensory ,motor
• Bundles of axons bound together are called
• Neurones cannot divide and for survival they
need a continuous supply of oxygen and
glucose. Unlike many other cells,
180. Tissue regeneration
• Regeneration is possible depends on normal rate
of takings of particular types of cell.
• Those with a rapid income regenerate most
• There are three general categories
I. tissues in which cell replication is a continuous
process regenerate quickly-these include
epithelial cells ,
skin, mucous membrane, secretory
glands, uterine lining and reticular tissue
181. ii Other tissues retain ability to replicate, but do so
infrequently; - liver, kidney,fibroblasts and smooth
iii Some cells are normally unable to replicate
including nerve cells and skeletal and cardiac
muscle cells meaning that damaged tissue cannot
• Extensively damaged tissue is usually replaced by
fibrous tissue, meaning that the functions of the
original tissue are lost.
• A membrane is a selective barrier;
• It allows some things to pass through but stops
others. Such things may be molecules, ions, or
other small particles.
• Biological membranes include cell membranes
,nuclear membranes, and tissue membranes,
such as mucosae , serosae and synovial
• Synthetic membranes are made by humans for
use in laboratories and industry (such as
183. Epithelial membranes
• These membranes are sheets of epithelial tissue
and supporting connective tissue
• cover or line many internal structures or
The main ones are mucous membrane,
185. i Mucous membrane
• This is moist lining of alimentary, respiratory and
genitourinary tracts and is sometimes as mucosa.
• consists of epithelial cells,
• some one produce a secretion called mucus, a oily
• As it accumulates cells become enlarged and
finally burst, discharging mucus onto free surface.
That cell known as goblet cells .
• Organs lined by mucous membrane have a
moist slippery surface.
• Mucus protects from drying, and mechanical
and chemical injury.
• In respiratory tract it traps inhaled particles,
preventing them from entering alveoli
188. ii Serous membrane
• Serous membranes, or serosa, secrete serous
• They consist of a double layer of loose areolar
connective tissue lined by simple squamous
• parietal layer lines a cavity and visceral layer
surrounds organs within the cavity.
• two layers are separated by serous fluid
secreted by epithelium.
• There are three sites where serous membranes
a. pleura lining thoracic cavity and
b. pericardium lining pericardial cavity and
c. peritoneum lining abdominal cavity and
Surrounding abdominal organs .
• serous fluid between visceral and parietal layers
enables an organ to glide freely within cavity
without being damaged by friction between it
and adjacent organs.
• ex ..heart changes its shape and size during
each beat and friction damage is prevented
by arrangement of pericardium and its
192. iii Synovial membrane
• This membrane is found lining joint cavities
and surrounding tendons,
• Which could be injured by rubbing against
E.g. Over the wrist joint.
• It is made up of a layer of fine, flattened
epithelial cells on a layer of slight connective
• Synovial membrane secretes clear, adhesive,
oily synovial fluid,
• Which acts as a lubricant to joints and helps to
maintain their stability
• Organs are collections of tissues with similar
• many organs that live in organ systems.
• Organs are composed of main tissue,
parenchyma, and "irregular" tissues, stroma.
• main tissue is that which is unique for the
specific organ, such as the myocardium, the
main tissue of the heart,
194. • but sporadic tissues include the nerves, blood
vessels, and connective tissues.
• Functionally-related organs often cooperate
to form whole organ systems.
• Organs be present in all organisms.
• A hollow organ is an internal organ that forms
a hollow tube, or pouch such as the stomach,
intestine, or bladder
• 79 organs have been identified in the human
body in the whole system vice
195. Write your answer in space provided or on a separate
sheet of paper.
1) Since epithelial tissues are avascular, explain how
these tissues receive nourishment.
2) A fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin A, is moving down its
concentration gradient into a cell. What type of
membrane transport is responsible for its
movement? Describe this process.
3) Discuss the four stages of mitosis.
196. 4) Discuss the three steps in protein synthesis.
5) List, describe, and state the functions of the three
major elements of the cytoplasm.
6) List the three different types of RNA and identify
7) Differentiate between the two types of
197. 8) Explain why an intravenous solution should be
isotonic for a patient.
9) Explain the differences among the three types
of muscle tissue.
10) Identify the five molecules found in the plasma
membrane and state their functions