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Aadishabdam - Introduction to Carnatic Flute

A detailed introduction and analysis of the Carnatic flute, arguably the oldest existing classical flute today.

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Aadishabdam - Introduction to Carnatic Flute

  1. 1. An Introduction to the Carnatic Flute Copyright of Aadishabdam. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Objectives •  Understand the anatomy of the Carna0c Flute •  Understand the fundamental fingering of the musical notes •  Appreciate the historical development of the Carna0c Flute •  Appreciate the significant contribu0ons of the Carna0c Flute to Carna0c music
  3. 3. Synopsis •  Origins •  Techniques •  Performers •  Evalua0on •  Conclusion
  4. 4. Origins •  Topics •  Early Music •  Sangam Music •  Post-Sangam Music •  Vedic Music •  Modern Era
  5. 5. Origins – Early Music •  Evidently, archaeological findings proof that the flute had been the earliest musical instrument that has captured the imagina?on of music across many cultures in the world •  Built with a diverse range of materials from animal bones, to hollow wood tubes, bamboo & even metal, every major culture in the world has its musical origins from the flute •  The only excep?on that makes each flute unique from each other is the type of music that each flute is designed to play
  6. 6. Origins – Early Music •  Types of Early Flutes •  The earliest known flutes are made of animal bones and oHen produce limited tunes. Most surviving types are found throughout Europe & China •  Ancient cultures including the Assyrians, Egyp?ans, Chinese & Indians also developed flutes with mainly wood based materials
  7. 7. Origins – Early Music •  Early Bone Flute •  Fashioned from a griffon vulture's wing bone, this flute (shown from different angles and with finger holes enlarged in inset), is a 40,000-year- old flute, found in a German cave, bolsters the argument that music helped modern humans bond—to the detriment of compe?ng, presumably music-less Neanderthals •  Ar#cle Source: Na#onal Geographic.org
  8. 8. Origins – Early Music •  Pre-historic Double Flutes •  Assyrian and Egyp?an Tomb drawings •  Ar#cle Source: Gutenberg.org
  9. 9. Origins – Early Music •  Materials •  Bamboo however, became the preferred instrument in the East over centuries of evolu?on by Japanese, Chinese & Indian scholars •  Though Japanese & Chinese flutes have been redesigned today with metal parts, the Indian bamboo flutes remained exempt of such modifica?ons & they remained as an important music instrument in pre-historic Indian music ?ll the Sangam eras in South India
  10. 10. Origins – Sangam Music •  Sangam Music •  The Tamil Sangam is an associa?on of literary, ar?s?c luminaries comprising of royal patrons, barons, musicians, composers, dancers, ar?sans of fine art and literary scholars •  The Tamil Sangam Age can be divided into 3 periods: •  1st Sangam Age – circa 10527 B.C. •  2nd Sangam Age – 6000 B.C. - 3000 B.C. •  3rd Sangam Age – 1915 B.C. - 850 B.C. •  Each Sangam Age lasted several milleniums and was repeatedbly founded by the Pandya kings of the ancient Tamil state of Pandya in South India with their intellectual powerhouse at Madurai, where the city s?ll exists to this day. •  Source: The Interna#onal Tamil Language Founda#on
  11. 11. Origins – Sangam Music •  During the 3 Great Sangam ears, the evolu?on of Tamil music saw a new peak with the introduc?on of ragas, thalas, playing techniques & in the design of the flute •  The Silappadikaram is the first Indian trea?se, wricen in Tamil that introduces the classical flute with such important details where it men?ons that the protagonist of the story is an expert flau?st •  The introduc?on of scales like Harikhamboji, Kalyani, Mohaman, Valaji & Hindolam defined the flute fingering of all the 16 notes of South Indian music that is s?ll used today including the playing posture
  12. 12. Origins – Sangam Music •  The Silappadikaram quotes of 3 types of flutes: •  Kondraikulal •  Ambarkulal •  Mullaikulal •  The Sangam eras also showcased the importance of the with its associa?on with classical music thereby being the first civiliza?on to use the flute for classical music in the world •  It is to be noted that the Sangam era pre-dated the period of the vina, a successor to the Sangam lute. In addi?on, the flute became a standard instrument of assessing the competency of Sangam music bards for their patronage in royal courts & temples
  13. 13. Origins – Post Sangam Music •  Sarangadeva, a North Indian musicologist of repute, began to read & write extensive commentaries on Indian music & its instruments with some emphasis on the flute •  His work on the Sangitaratnakara became a technical masterpiece of Indian music literature that is only parallel to the Silappadikaram •  It is the only pre-Moghul Sanksrit literature that is highly regarded by both Hindustani musicians & Carna?c musicians ?ll today
  14. 14. Origins – Post Sangam Music •  15 varie?es of vamsa (flute) are men?oned by Sarangadeva. In prac?ce, only the Shanmukhavamsa types are in common use, the rest are either too short or too long for prac?cal applica?on Ekavira Shanmugha Mahananda Umpa? Muni Rudra Tripurusha Ashtadasangula Aditya Chaturmukha Vasu Manu Panchavaktra Nathendra Kalanidhi
  15. 15. Origins – Post Sangam Music •  AHer the fall of the last Sangam era, the pre-medieval kingdoms of South India devoted their scholars to compile & consolidate all remaining Sangam literature •  The Cholas in par?cular took a great leap in enshrining art by building numerous temples of art, & preserving important art manuscripts •  They were also the first & the last southern kingdoms to patronise Sangam music in the courts & temples before being absorbed into the Vedic tradi?ons in the early years of the first millenia A.D.
  16. 16. Origins – Vedic Music •  With the rise of the Vijayanagar empire & the decline of the Cholas, the influence of Vedic music took precedence as its vocal music tradi?on appealed more to the educated elite of the royal courts •  The flute declined in its importance as a classical music instrument giving way to the rise of string instruments which easily emulated the vocal nuances of Vedic music as opposed to the flute
  17. 17. Origins – Vedic Music •  In a ?me warp, the flute returned to its early origins in folk music while Indian music literature con?nued to expand in leaps & bounds under the Vijayanagar empire •  The art loving Moghuls however had a penchant for flute music & patronised flau?sts from South India. However no developments in flute took place in Moghul India. Recorded patronage of flute music was last noted in Jehangir’s Memoirs
  18. 18. Origins – Modern Era •  It was only in the closing years of the 19th century, that the flute gained its due classical status. The blind musical prodigy, Sharaba Shastri revived the instrument by easily playing the composi?ons of the Trinity with flair & quality. Even though, the instrument did not achieve the popularity of vocal music •  Playing on the 7-hole Carna?c flute, which is much similar to the modern bansuri form of North India, the blind musical genius, Sharaba Shastri, gave a concert worthy status to the Carna?c flute
  19. 19. Origins – Modern Era •  It was the 8-hole flute which eventually gave a vocal status to the Carna?c flute which was introduced by T.R. Mahalingam or becer known as the infamous flute prodigy, Flute Mali •  Influenced by the Nageswaram players using the same fingering techniques as the ancients used, Mali created the vocal nuances on the 8-hole flute, & added the 8th hole to reach the Anumandira Rishaba note which is rarely played and is extremely difficult. However, using flutes of different octaves of the same pitch has resolved the issue •  Today most Carna?c flau?sts employ the same techniques introduced by Mali
  20. 20. Techniques •  Topics •  Playing Styles •  Anatomy •  Basic Fingering •  Playing Posture •  Advisory
  21. 21. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Three - Finger System •  This method is one of the earliest tradi?ons in Tamil music. It was among the first accepted techniques in South Indian flute playing •  Becer known as the Mundru Viral Sadhakam, this technique allowed the flau?st to reach up to the thara sthayi dhaivatha, off- sekng the tonic note by one note •  Its tonic posi?on for Shadjam is the current Kaiski Nishada posi?on & the Panchama is the current Suddha Madhyama posi?on. By transposing, the rest of the notes can be played in this order
  22. 22. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Three - Finger System •  Some of its notable contribu?ons to the evolu?on of Carna?c flute playing are: •  Advoca?ng the use of transposed fingering which lasted ?ll the introduc?on of the cross-fingering technique by 'Flute Mali' •  Opening the avenue of playing semitone notes by its own limita?ons, leading to its eventual disuse.
  23. 23. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Parallel - Fingering System •  Introduced by the blind flute prodigy, Sharaba Shastri, it became the first accepted standard in performance flute music •  It involved playing the notes in a staccato manner •  Covered the full range of notes in Carna?c music •  Classical composi?ons could be played legibly on the flute without much difficulty
  24. 24. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Parallel - Fingering System •  Some of its notable contribu?ons to the evolu?on of Carna?c flute playing are: •  It is the first, ?me tested technique of serious flute playing in the modern performing era, giving the competent Carna?c flau?st the status of a soloist •  Opening the possibility of playing the gamakas (joining slides between notes) or semitone notes but hindered by its own limita?ons, it lead to the loss of its popularity with the introduc?on of the cross - fingering technique which allowed the playing of gamakas
  25. 25. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Cross - Fingering System •  Adopted from the Nadeswaram playing technique, cross-fingering is a method where air is allowed through a finger hole(s) leH open between closed finger holes •  In cross-fingering technique, semitones (sharp & flat notes) & quarter-tones (altered sharp & flat notes for sruthi specific playing) can be played appropriately •  Semitones can be played alternately with different fingering
  26. 26. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Cross - Fingering System •  Semitone produc?on using cross - fingering is discussed in the following examples: •  Assuming Suddha Rishaba (R1) is played with 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 7 finger- holes closed, it will be the same as playing 1st finger-hole closed & the 2nd par?ally closed •  Playing Suddha Dhaivatha (D1) with 1 – 4, 6 & 7 finger- holes closed, leaving the 5th finger-hole open, will yield the same note as playing 1 – 4 finger-holes closed & leaving the 5th par?ally opened
  27. 27. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Cross - Fingering System •  Semitone produc?on using cross - fingering is discussed in the following examples: •  Playing R1 with cross-fingering as discussed earlier, will yield a double note; R, R, when the 2nd finger-hole is tapped & released. In conven?onal play, R, R, is obtained by sliding the finger to S posi?on & back; R1, S, R1 •  Playing D1 with cross-fingering as discussed earlier, will yield a double note; D, D, when the 5th finger-hole is tapped & released. In conven?onal play, D, D, is obtained by sliding the finger to S posi?on & back; D1, P, D1
  28. 28. Techniques - Playing Styles •  Cross - Fingering System •  The produc?on of quarter-tones are explained as follows: •  Quarter-tones are produced by altering the extent of opening the finger-holes for the note for specific sruthi based on the 22-sruthi system in Carna?c music Opening Hole Shruthi 1/4 opened Ekashruthi 1/2 opened Dvishruthi 3/4 opened Trishruthi Fully opened Chatushruthi
  29. 29. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  In Asia, the bamboo has found itself many uses including the manufacture of furniture, medicine, tex?les, weapons, wri?ng instruments & surfaces & even bicycles •  As a musical instrument, it is ideally preferred because of its uniform shape, strength, durability & excellent acous?c proper?es. The Chinese, Japanese & the Indonesians have made a wide range of musical instruments from the bamboo alone •  In India, 2 types of bamboo are used in the manufacture of the flute: •  Assamese bamboo - bansuri (North Indian flute) •  Nilambur, Kerala bamboo - venu (South Indian flute)
  30. 30. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  Unknown to many, the bamboo is actually a type of grass & not a tree-like plant •  It belongs to the Poaceae grass family, a species of grass that appear to have proper?es of trees though biologically exhibit proper?es of grass plants •  There are over 1400 species of bamboo around the world & they can be seen in the countries of all the 3 tropic zones
  31. 31. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  There are no discrimina?ng factors for the choice of these 2 bamboos musically •  In the past, the geographical proximity of these materials at the respec?ve places prompted flute makers to select them at their convenience •  Today, however, both types of bamboo are being played by both North & South Indian flau?sts as well as making them into North & South Indian flutes
  32. 32. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  The most challenging part of the the manufacture involves primarily in the selec?on of the right type of bamboo •  Regardless of the type, flute makers look out for the following factors when selec?ng flute making bamboo: •  Uniformity (Preferaby, straight bamboos are selected) •  Cracks (Cracks will distrupt the boring process seriously) •  Reed Thickness (Nilambur bamboo is usually thicker) •  Length (longer flutes have lower pitch) •  Bore Diameter (small diameters require heavy blowing)
  33. 33. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  In Carna?c music, a thicker reed is oHen preferred as a rich tone is produced, which mimics the vocal form of the music extremely well •  Nevertheless, varying the length of an Assamese bamboo can also produce the same effect •  Competent Carna?c flau?sts use both bamboo types in their performances
  34. 34. Techniques - Anatomy •  Design & Construc0on •  The boring process is the next most tedious part. The bamboo flute cannot be bored using conven?onal boring machines as it will shacer the the en?re material •  Instead, a heated iron rod is pressed square to the surface of the bamboo pressing it un?l it passed through the reed •  The challenge is boring at the right distance between each hole. A wrong placement would require the en?re effort to be restarted as the notes will not fall in place
  35. 35. Techniques - Anatomy
  36. 36. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Shadjam •  Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  This is the 9-hole Carna?c flute, the closed fingers are the first 2 finger holes, followed by the rest un?l the 8th hole. The extreme leH as seen is the mouth hole & is closed at the leH end •  Played by closing the first 2 finger holes from the blow hole •  Thara sthayi Shadjam is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is heard
  37. 37. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Suddha Rishabam •  Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by par?ally closing the 2nd finger hole from the blow hole & closing the 1st hole •  Depending on the design of the flute, the extent of closing the hole is very subjec?ve •  Thara sthayi Rishabam is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is achieved
  38. 38. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Chatushruthi Rishabam •  Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by closing the 1st finger hole from the blow hole •  Thara sthayi Rishabam is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is achieved
  39. 39. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Sadharana Gandharam •  Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by par?ally closing the 1st finger hole from the blow hole •  Depending on the design of the flute, the extent of closing the hole is very subjec?ve •  Thara sthayi Ghandaram is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is achieved
  40. 40. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Antara Ghandaram •  Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played without closing any finger holes •  Thara sthayi Ghandaram fingering may vary with different flutes •  Thara sthayi Ghandaram is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is achieved
  41. 41. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Suddha Madhyamam •  Mandira, Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by closing all finger holes except the 1st & the 8th holes •  Thara sthayi Madhyamam is played by overblowing, un?l a shrill is achieved •  To play the Mandira sthayi, close the first 6 holes and blow soHly
  42. 42. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Prathi Madhyamam •  Mandira, Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 5 holes and par?ally closing the 6th hole. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Depending on the design of the flute, the extent of closing the 6th hole is very subjec?ve •  Thara sthayi Madhyamam is played by overblowing and closing the 1st, 2nd & 6th finger holes. The 3rd hole is par?ally closed
  43. 43. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Panchamam •  Mandira, Madhya & Thara Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 5 holes. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Thara sthayi Panchamam is played by overblowing and closing the 1st, 2nd & 6th finger holes •  Depending on the design of the flute, the fingering for Thara sthayi is very subjec?ve
  44. 44. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Suddha Dhaivatham •  Mandira & Madhya Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 4 holes and closing the 5th hole par?ally. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Thara sthayi Dhaivatham is usually never played due to the extremely high shrill sound and difficulty in overblowing unless flutes of different octaves of the same pitch are used
  45. 45. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Chatushruthi Dhaivatham •  Mandira & Madhya Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 4 holes. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Thara sthayi Dhaivatham is usually never played due to the extremely high shrill sound and difficulty in overblowing unless flutes of different octaves of the same pitch are used
  46. 46. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Kaakali Nishadam •  Mandira & Madhya Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 2 holes and par?ally closing the 3rd hole. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Thara sthayi Nishadam is usually never played due to the extremely high shrill sound and difficulty in overblowing unless flutes of different octaves of the same pitch are used
  47. 47. Techniques – Basic Fingering •  Kaisiki Nishadam •  Mandira & Madhya Sthayi •  Played by closing the first 3 holes. Blow soHly for Mandira sthayi •  Thara sthayi Nishadam is usually never played due to the extremely high shrill sound and difficulty in overblowing unless flutes of different octaves of the same pitch are used
  48. 48. Techniques – Advisory •  It is to be noted that the above demonstra?ons only serve as an introductory guide to the budding flute student •  Only the close guidance of a competent flau?st is important to achieve in playing the notes correctly •  Due to the distance between the holes of the flute & the thickness of the bamboo, fingering for certain swaras may vary
  49. 49. Performers •  Topics •  Sharaba Shastri •  Palladam Sanjeeva Rao •  Tirupamburam Swaminatha Pillai •  Tiruvidaimarudur Ramaswamy Mahalingam •  Tanjore Viswanathan •  Natesan Ramani •  Shashank Subramanyam
  50. 50. Performers •  Sharaba Shastri (1872 - 1904 A.D.) •  He hails from the direct disciplic lineage of Saint Thyagaraja through Manamunchavadi Venkatasubbaiyar (1803 - 1862 A.D.) & Muthuswami Dikshitar shisya parampara through the illustrious nadeswaram maestro, polyglot vocalist Kurainadu Ramaswami Pillai (1830 - 1925 A.D.) •  Even though he was blind, he was quickly recognised as a prodigy who had an uncanny sense of swara nyana (ability to grasp musical notes on the spot which is also known as "note wisdom"). He was also thought to have possessed "nada siddhi" or musical perfec?on, where reports have men?oned that he brought rains when playing raga Amrithavarshini & acracted snakes when playing raga Punnagavarali.
  51. 51. Performers •  Palladam Sanjeeva Rao (1882 - 1962 A.D.) •  The foremost disciple of Sharaba Shastri who spent his en?re life promo?ng the instrument on the concert circuit and established himself as the first professional Carna?c flau?st. •  However, he was unable to mimic the vocal nuances of Carna?c music. This prevented the instrument from being used as an accompanying medium in vocal concerts. The fingering widely used ?ll then was known as parallel fingering •  He was highly acclaimed as a musician and oHen discussed and debated cri?cally with Gudalur Narayanaswamy Iyer (the father of the legendary vocalist G. N. Balasubramaniam) and the likes of Ariyakudi Ramanjua Iyengar in the former’s residence. The young G. N. Balasubramaniam would precisely reproduce the notes played by Rao in singing them during music discussions
  52. 52. Performers •  Tirupamburam Swaminatha Pillai (1898 - 1961 A.D.) •  He hails from the direct shisya parampara of Muthuswami Dikshitar and his father, renowned vocalist and nadaswaram maestro learned from Panchanada Iyer, the direct disciple of Muthuswami Dikshitar together with Veena Dhanammal •  He was apt in singing, playing the nadeswaram and later switched to the flute. His style was very much similar to that of Flute Mali focussing on the gamakas of vocal music and the vilambakala bani of Muthuswami Dikshitar. Flute Mali himself was full of praise for the self-taught Swaminatha Pillai though the later did not give much concerts as Mali or Palladam Sanjeeva Rao. In his later years, he taught at the Central College of Music, Madras •  Swaminatha Pillai played a lot of Dikshitar kri?s in his concerts. The Chaturdasha Ragamalika, SrI Vishvanatham was introduced to the concert stage and popularised by him. The Navaroj kri? Has?vadanaya Namasthubyam was also popularised by him. He also pa?ently studied the 108 raga-talamalika of Ramaswami Dikshitar and taught it to deserving students
  53. 53. Performers •  Tiruvidaimarudur Ramaswamy Mahalingam (1926 - 1986 A.D.) •  He is hailed as the flau?st who had put back Carna?c flute to its original glory and stature in par with Carna?c vocal music and revamped the flute playing techniques popularised by Palladam Sanjeeva Rao •  A child prodigy and self-taught flau?st, he adopted the cross-fingering technique that is used by Nadeswaram ar?stes and effec?vely emulated the vocal nuances of Carna?c music •  Equally at ease in vocal and in the violin, his eccentric behaviour both in his personal and professional life put him on the cross hairs of cri?cism and ridicule. His long and close rela?onship with the Nadeswaram legend T. N. Rajarathinam Pillai was legendary and they both had prac?sed together and discussed many ideas on music •  His music was so admired that the legendary G.N. Balasubramaniam told Semmangudi Srinivasa Iyer in a concert that he might want to consider quikng singing aHer witnessing a mesmerising recital in a packed concert hall •  He stood against the commercialisa?on of the art warning that ar?s?c progress will be hampered and he refused the pres?gious Padma Bhushan award from the Government of India
  54. 54. Performers •  Natesan Ramani (1934 A.D.) •  One of the foremost disciples of Flute Mali, he first learnt vocal and flute music from his grandfather Azhayur Narayanaswamy Iyer who is a competent vocalist and flau?st and provided guidance to the legendary Ariyakudi Ramanajua Iyengar, the Father of the Modern Carna?c Concert format •  Under the guidance of Flute Mali, he honed his techniques and incorporated ideas from a legion of yesteryear legends including G. N. Balasubramaniam, Alathoor Brothers, Ramanuja Iyengar and the like to create a style that is uniquely his own •  He was the first Carna?c flau?st to introduce bass flutes and flutes of different octaves in the same pitch as well as transposed fingering in Carna?c music and was the first Carna?c instrumentalist to go on world tours •  He also changed the pitch of the instrument to 2.5 or D Sharp that he found suitable when playing alongside the veena and the violin •  He also popularised this pitch in Hindustani music and designed bass flutes for the legendary Hindustani flau?st Pt. Pannalal Ghosh, a protégé of Ustad Baba Allahudin Khan. In his later years, he gave numerous Jugalbhandi concerts with ar?stes like Dr. M. Balamuralikrishna, Palghat K. V. Narayanaswamy, Maharajapuram Santhanam, Pt. Hariprasad Chaurasia. Smt. S Rajam and the like. He currently runs the Ramani Academy of Flute
  55. 55. Performers •  Tanjore Viswanathan (1927 - 2002 A.D.) •  A prime disciple of Tirupamburam Swaminatha Pillai, he belongs to the family to Veena Dhanammal who was his grandmother and his sister is the legendary T. Balasarswathi who is regarded as the greatest Bharatanatyam dancer of the last century •  Unlike his contemporaries , he had established himself as a competent performer and academic, first studying ethnomusicology at UCLA on a Fulbright scholarship and upon comple?on of his PhD, teaching at UCLA, CALArts and Wesleyan University. Several of his students at Wesleyan University are currently teaching Carna?c music in the University •  He also derived a method of wri?ng gamakas in a nota?on form which he stressed would help flau?sts understand the vocal nuances of Carna?c music more easily •  He is the recipient of many awards including the Sangeetha Kalanidhi, the Sangeet Natak Academy Award and the pres?gious Na?onal Heritage Fellowship from the USA
  56. 56. Performers •  Shashank Subramanyam (1978 A.D.) •  A child prodigy and self-taught on the instrument, he had his ini?al schooling in Carna?c vocal music from the Carna?c vocal legends Palghat K. V. Narayanaswamy and R. K. Srikantan. He also learnt Hindustani classical vocal music under Pt. Jasraj •  He introduced the transposed fingering and double octave blowing method in Carna?c flute playing and further enriched the techniques introduced by Dr. N. Ramani including the use of mul?ple flutes of different octaves and bass flutes •  He has given numerous concerts including Jazz collabora?ons all over the world in numerous pres?gious venues. He had also conducted workshops and lecture demonstra?ons on the Carna?c flute in Europe and in the USA •  He is currently a “A-Top” rank grade ar?ste in the pres?gious All- India-Radio (AIR) grading system. He has performed with several legendary musicians in India and abroad
  57. 57. Evaluation •  Topics •  Major Issues •  Future of the Art
  58. 58. Evaluation •  Major Issues •  Mastery of the fingering is the most difficult in flute playing and requires relentless effort, prac?se and proper guidance from a competent teacher before a budding flau?st can decently play on the instrument without commikng any major errors •  Availability of concert worthy flutes are rare and do not come by easy as there are not many professional flute makers around today as compared to the past •  Not all ragas can be played with the same finesse. Fingering can change dras?cally to evoke the proper swarasthanas and gamakas of specific ragas regardless of their length and structure. Ragas like Ranjani, Hemavathi, Thodi, Bhairavi and Varali require complicated fingering to play properly
  59. 59. Evaluation •  Major Issues •  Playing the instrument requires mul?-tasking skills where the thala and raga being played on the instrument must be kept in check by the ar?ste together with proper breath control techniques •  Regular exercise in the form of yoga or otherwise, strong lung-heart health and intense concentra?on is mandatory for a performer to perform mul?-hour concerts and recitals •  Knowledge of and competency in vocal music is important to understand the vocal nuances of Carna?c music and will open avenues for budding ar?stes to learn new and rare composi?ons by themselves
  60. 60. Evaluation •  Future of the Art •  It is important to note the Carna?c flute has contributed immensely to the growth of Indian classical music in its early years and for this reason alone, it must be treasured for posterity •  Apart from India, competent Carna?c flau?sts in the West like Mr Joseph Gecer (Tirupamburam Swaminatha Pillai-style) of Wesleyan University and Mr Ludwig Pesch of Germany (Palladam Sanjeeva Rao-style) have fervently promoted Carna?c music especially the flute in the West and the lacer is also using Carna?c music in rehabilita?ve therapy
  61. 61. Conclusion The presenta0on serves as a plaorm to create an interest in the Carna0c flute to all classical music lovers & to appreciate the unique musical richness & value that the instrument possess.
  62. 62. References •  A renowned disciple of famed Mali, 2003. Available from: <hcp:// www.sify.com/carna?cmusic/season2003/interview.php? id=13360869&cid=13322235>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Gecer, J n.d., Joseph GePer - mul#-instrumentalist . Educator . Ethnomusicologist | about.me. Available from: <hcp://about.me/ josephgecer>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Kural, Interna#onal Tamil Language Founda#on, 2013. Available from: <hcp://www.kural.org/>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Miller, JL 2007, The Recent Revolu#on in Organ Building Being an Account of Modern Developments. Available from: <hcp:// www.gutenberg.org/files/21204/21204-h/21204-h.htm>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Nelson, D n.d., T. Viswanathan. Available from: <hcp:// dpnelson.web.wesleyan.edu/viswanathan.html>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Owen, J 2009, Bone Flute Is Oldest Instrument, Study Says. Available from: <hcp://news.na?onalgeographic.com/news/2009/06/090624- bone-flute-oldest-instrument.html>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Patrao, M 2009, music reviews. Available from: hcp:// <www.deccanherald.com/content/35850/music-reviews.html>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Pesch, L 2009, The Oxford Illustrated Companion to South Indian Classical Music, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, India.
  63. 63. References •  Pesch, L 2012, Ludwig Pesch >> carna#cstudent.org. Available from: <hcp://www.carna?cstudent.org/course/wordpress/more-about-the- course-and-the-tutors/ludwig-pesch>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Ram, L & Ramnarayan, V 2000, Ghandarva Ganam: G.N. Balasubramaniam Centenary Commemora#ve Volume, Swathi SoH Solu?ons, India. •  Ravi & Sridhar 2013, Tiruppamburam Swaminatha Pillai | Guruguha.org. Available from: <hcp://guruguha.org/wp/?p=1271>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Sambamoorthy, P, 1967, The Flute, Indian Music Publishing House, Madras, India. •  Sriram, V 2006, Carna#c Summer: Lives of Twenty Great Exponents, East West Books, Madras, India. •  Sriram , V 2013, A star in his #me - The Hindu. Available from: <hcp:// www.thehindu.com/features/friday-review/music/a-star-in-his-?me/ ar?cle4856358.ece>. [05 Nov 2014]. •  Ravi & Sridhar 2013, Tiruppamburam Swaminatha Pillai | Guruguha.org. Available from: <hcp://guruguha.org/wp/?p=1271>. [05 Nov 2014].

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