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M1 - Research Philosophy and Methods.pptx


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M1 - Research Philosophy and Methods.pptx

  1. 1. Research Methodology Philosophy of Research/Research Design Dr Hassan Ali Assistant Professor Department of Physics University of Narowal
  2. 2. Presentation Outline – Philosophy of Research Purpose of Research Defining Research and Development Classification of Research and Development Cycle Research Onion Creating R&D Strategy – Fundamental Principles Aligning R&D with Organizational Business Strategy Role of Innovation & Creativity in R&D Strategy
  3. 3. Learning Objectives 1. Learners should be able to understand the research philosophy, differentiate between research and development, and develop appropriate strategies to align with the research goals. 2. Learners can formulate appropriate research problems and hypotheses, design achievable objectives and develop the research process.
  4. 4. What does it means by Research?
  5. 5. Definition of Research There are many definitions of research that could be found from different perspectives, some of them are:  An endeavour to DISCOVER new or collate old facts etc by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation. [Oxford Concise Dictionary]  A collection of methods and methodologies that researchers apply systematically to produce scientifically based knowledge about the social world. [Neuman]  According to Clifford Woody research comprises defining and redefining problems, formulating hypotheses or suggested solutions; collecting, organising and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating hypothesis.
  6. 6. Motivation for Conducting Research  The possible motives for doing research may be either one or more of the following: 1. Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits; 2. Desire to face the challenge in solving unsolved problems, i.e., concern over practical problems initiates research; 3. Desire to get the intellectual joy of doing some creative work; 4. Desire to be of service to society; 5. Desire to get respectability.  However, this is not an exhaustive list of factors motivating people to undertake research studies, many more factors such as directives of government, employment conditions, curiosity about new things, desire to understand causal relationships, social thinking and awakening, and the like may as well motivate people to perform research operations.
  7. 7. Motivation for Conducting Research
  8. 8. Research Philosophy  The term research philosophy relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge.  Your research philosophy contains important assumptions about the way in which you view the world (problems).
  9. 9. Research Continuum Model
  10. 10. Why is R&D important?  Crucial to survival  Fast-changing environment  Continuous technology change  Competition  Changing consumer preferences  Fundamental to “marketing”  Advantage is markets come from:  Understanding what markets need (MR)  In case of technology – selling what is possible to make  Efficient production processes
  11. 11. Classification and Evolution of R&D The R&D model assumes that science has a monopolyover knowledge, technology is an outcome of science, and economic development is due to technology development. The R&D model confines innovation to technology and then the technology to R&D.
  12. 12. R&D versus D+D (Design and Development) Three examples underline the main difference between R&D and D+D: Atomic Bombs, Airplane and Light Bulb. 1. The A-Bomb probably is the best example of an R&D invention.  Basic Research was done by AlbertEinstein, who had no clue about its final application. 2. The invention (design) of Aircraft is a good example of D+D.  The Wright brothers knew the final goal, a heavier-than-air aircraft from day one, and they did everything to get it. 3. The invention of the Light bulb by Edison is another example of a D+D case.  The idea was to make an electric-based light source (bulb) that can compete with the gas-based light source.  D+D always starts with a product in mind and goes back to get it.
  13. 13. The Combined Model of IR&D and D+D  The new model combines Basic Research, Industrial Research and Development (IR&D) and D+D (Design and Development).  D+D is one of the key aspects of Technology Innovation/Development and it is not the same or inferior to R&D.  D+D often acts as a link between successful R&D and Production to satisfy Market/Customer needs.
  14. 14. Research Onion  The research onion was developed by Saunders et al. (2007) in order to describe the stages through which the researcher must pass when formulating an effective methodology.  First, the research philosophy requires definition.  This creates the starting point for the appropriate research approach, which is adopted in the second step.  In the thirdstep,the research strategy is adopted, and the fourth layer identifies the time horizon.  The fifth step represents the stage at which the data collection methodology is identified. The benefits of the research onion are thus that it creates a series of stages under which the different methods of data collection can be understood, and illustrates the steps by which a methodological study can be described.
  15. 15. The Research Process Introduction Research Design Basics Problems and Issues inResearch Design
  16. 16. Introduction to Research Process
  17. 17. Research Design Basics
  18. 18. Research Design Basics
  19. 19. Formulating Research Problem Statement  According sentence to Kerlinger , ‘A problem is an interrogative or statement that asks what relation exists between two or more variable.  The answer to question will provide what is having sought in the research.  R.S. Woodworth defines problem as ‘a situation for which we have no ready & successful response by instinct or by previous acquired habit.  We must find out what to do’, i.e. the solution can be found out only after an investigation.
  20. 20. Formulating Research Problem Statement
  21. 21. Formulating Research Problem Statement Formulating RP
  22. 22. Development of Hypothesis and Research Objectives  Hypothesis is the research’s prediction of the outcome of the research study. That is the expected relationship between the study variables.  Thus, RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS translates the research purpose into a clear prediction of the expected results or outcome of the study.  It provides direction for the type of research (i.e. design, sampling, data collection .. etc.).  Suggests the type of statistical analysis to be used in the study.  Identifies the variables to be manipulated and/or measured. Research hypothesis should be stated clearly, concisely, measurably, and in the present tense.
  23. 23. Development of Hypothesis and Research Objectives Three criteria should be considered in developing hypothesis: 1. A relationship should be addressed in each hypothesis. 2. The variable/condition/relationship must be testable or measurable. 3. The aim of the research guides what is included in the research hypothesis.
  24. 24. Development of Hypothesis and Research Objectives Research objective is a concrete statement describing what the research is trying to achieve.  A well-worded objective will be SMART, i.e. Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, & Time-bound.  Research objective should be Relevant, Feasible, Logical, Observable, Unequivocal & Measurable.  Objective is a purpose that can be reasonably achieved within the expected timeframe & with the available resources.
  25. 25. Six assumptions of qualitative designs (Merriam 1988: 19-20) 1. Qualitative researchers are concerned primarily with process, rather than outcomes or products. 2. Qualitative researchers are interested in meaning. 3. The qualitative researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis. Data are mediated through this human instrument, rather than through inventories, questionnaires, or machines.
  26. 26. 4. Qualitative research involves fieldwork. The researcher physically goes to the people setting, site, or institution to observe or record behavior in its natural setting. 5. Qualitative research is descriptive in that the researcher in interested in process, meaning and understanding gained through words or pictures. 6. The process of qualitative research is inductive in that the researcher builds abstractions, concepts, hypotheses, and theories from details.
  27. 27. Quantitative Methods  Quantitative Descriptive  Descriptive statistics: graphical and numerical techniques for summarizing data.  QuantitativeAnalytic  Inferential statistics: procedures for making generalizations about characteristics of a population based on information obtained from a sample taken from that population