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Superior subordinate communication (chapter 9)

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  1. 1. Superior- Subordinate Communication (Chapter 9) Dr. Lora Helvie-Mason, COMS 404 1
  2. 2. Before you read… • Internally reflect on the chapters, theories, and scenarios you have explored so far this semester. • Consider previous interactions you have had where you were the superior and where you were the subordinate in an organization. • Examine what you currently know about superior- subordinate communication. 2
  3. 3. How/Why: Superior- Subordinate Communication • Information is exchanged for a variety of reasons • Information flows both ways • Communication plays a critical role in shaping and maintaining an acceptable superior-subordinate relationship 3
  4. 4. Superior/Subordinate Relationship For the subordinate • The supervisor may serve as a role model • The supervisor may have formal power to reward/punish • The supervisor mediates the formal downward communication • The supervisor may develop a personal relationship with the subordinate For the supervisor • The subordinate serves as a channel of informal communication from other subordinates (both task/personal issues) • The subordinate’s satisfaction with the relationship may have a direct impact on the supervisor’s satisfaction with the relationship • The supervisor’s performance is eventually dependent on the performanc of the subordinate 4
  5. 5. Misunderstandings: Superiors/Subordinates Superiors (sups) and subordinates (subs) often have vastly different perceptions of and meanings for important behavioral and organizational activities • ―Semantic-information distance‖ – the gap in information and understanding between superior/subordinate on specific issues • Also known as ―perceptual incongruence‖ • This distance can stunt the growth of the sup/sub relationship • It can have negative individual, relational, and organizational effects (job satisfaction, conflict, etc.) 5
  6. 6. Deliberate Communication • Upward distortion – when subs are hesitant to communicate negative news to sups they may distort the news in order to make it seem more positive • Afraid they are the cause or will be held responsible • Afraid news will be perceived as criticism of sup • Ramifications (promotion, job security, etc.) 6 Think about it… Have you ever experienced upward distortion?
  7. 7. Deliberate Communication • Strategic ambiguity – sup uses ambiguity to communicate with the sub to promote positive outcomes • Allowing multiple interpretations by leaving out contextual cues • Can be beneficial, but can also be problematic 7 • Strategic ambiguity allows for meaning projection • Strategic ambiguity leads to restricted code • Strategic ambiguity allows people to regulate what and how much they want to share (Eisenberg, 1984)
  8. 8. Deliberate Communication Upward Distortion • Can contribute to gap in understanding between sup/sub • More ethically suspect • Conscious effort to mislead • Misrepresents reality Strategic Ambiguity • Can contribute to gap in understanding between sup/sub • Less ethically suspect • Does not seek to mislead or damage • Could cause undue stress 8
  9. 9. Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) • Sups have a limited amount of time and resources • Can’t spend the same amount of energy on every sub • Different/distinct relationships form with individual subs • Relationship between sup/sub is on a continuum from leader-member exchange (LMX), or in- group, relationships, to middle-group relationships, to supervisory exchange (SX) or out-group, relationships 9
  10. 10. LMX to SX relationships • Based on Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) which noted leaders form vertical linkages with their followers. VDL noted some subs fell into ―in-group‖ (LMX) or ―out-group‖ (SX) categories • LMX (in-group) have mutual trust, reciprocal support, liking, and greater interaction • SX (out-group) are primarily role-defined relationships • Middle-group vary in their levels of these characteristics 10 Leader #1 Sub A Sub B Sub C
  11. 11. LMX • Subs in LMX relationships with their Sups tend to stay in organization longer, are more satisfied, and receive higher performance ratings than other Subs • Developing an LMX relationship depends upon: • Liking by the leader • Perceived ability of the Sub by the leader • Maintenance communication takes place to preserve an acceptable and lasting relational state • Four tactics of maintenance communication: 1. Personal 2. Contractual 3. Regulative 4. Direct 11
  12. 12. Power differences Sups in high/med LMX relationships seek to minimize power differences • Value congruence • Non-routine problem solving • Insider markets • Support • Coaching Sups use four communication patterns to maximize power differences • Performance monitoring • Face-threatening acts • Competitive conflict • Power games 12
  13. 13. Sup/Sub relationship: TRUST • Both Sup and Sub can be vulnerable. Trust matters! • Both parties must contribute to the development, maintenance, and growth of trust. • Whitener, et al., (1998) suggested five categories of managerial behavior that influence the subordinate’s perception of a supervisor’s trustworthiness. • Behavioral consistency enables the subordinate to predict future behavior. • Behavioral integrity involves telling the truth and keeping promises. • Sharing and delegating of control satisfies subordinates with their level of participation in decision making. • Communication conveys accurate information, explains decisions, and demonstrates openness. • Demonstration of concern makes evident benevolence toward others. 13
  14. 14. Sup/Sub relationship: Immediacy Immediacy is any communication that indicates interpersonal warmth and closeness • Sups convey immediacy to Subs in a variety of ways: • Values subordinate input on job and in personal matters. • Attentive to subordinate both verbally and nonverbally. • Expresses confidence in the subordinate’s ability. • Shows a personal interest in the subordinate. • Expresses verbal appreciation for commendable work. • Demonstrates a willingness to assist the subordinate. 14 Think about it… Why is immediacy important?
  15. 15. Sup/Sub relationship: Feedback • Involves both TASKS and PERSONAL elements • Feedback from Sup to Sub can have a positive impact on motivation, satisfaction, commitment, and performance • Don’t just provide feedback—seek it! • Sups need feedback, too. • Feedback is important for managerial effectiveness 15
  16. 16. Sup/Sub relationship: Compliance-gaining • At work, Subs (and Sups!) have to comply with directives, policies, and procedures • Sups are most likely to use several tactics for compliance- gaining: • Assertiveness • Coalition • Higher authority • Friendliness • Simply issuing an order is not an effective means of gaining employee compliance 16
  17. 17. Sup/Sub relationship: Humor 17
  18. 18. Upward Influence • Subordinates differ in their upward-influence tactics based on whether they are in an LMX or SX relationship (Krone, 1991) • Strategies for upward influence: • Open persuasion: an overt form of influence where desired outcomes are fully disclosed, this strategy is characterized by empathic listening, open argument for proposed course of action, and logical reasoning. • Strategic persuasion: an influence technique that uses either open influence or clearly stated outcomes. • Manipulation: a disguised attempt at upward influence. 18 U P W A R D I N F L U E N C E
  19. 19. Technology & Sups/Subs • Social presence • Degree of sociability present in the use of the media • Warmth, personalness, sensitivity • Example: Talking face-to-face (high social presence) allows facial expressions, touch, posture, and other non-verbals to help convey message. Emails, despite emoticons, are harder to interpret (lower social presence). • Media richness • Speed of feedback • Degree of formality • Tone • Accessibility 19 What types of news/information should be convened with high social presence? Which types are okay to convey with lower social presence?
  20. 20. Effects of Culture Hofstede (1984) detailed five value orientations related to culture that can impact the Sub/Sup relationships: 1. Time orientation 2. Power distance 3. Uncertainty avoidance 4. Individualism/collectivism 5. Masculine/feminine traits 20
  21. 21. Think about it… 21

Transcripción

  1. 1. Superior- Subordinate Communication (Chapter 9) Dr. Lora Helvie-Mason, COMS 404 1
  2. 2. Before you read… • Internally reflect on the chapters, theories, and scenarios you have explored so far this semester. • Consider previous interactions you have had where you were the superior and where you were the subordinate in an organization. • Examine what you currently know about superior- subordinate communication. 2
  3. 3. How/Why: Superior- Subordinate Communication • Information is exchanged for a variety of reasons • Information flows both ways • Communication plays a critical role in shaping and maintaining an acceptable superior-subordinate relationship 3
  4. 4. Superior/Subordinate Relationship For the subordinate • The supervisor may serve as a role model • The supervisor may have formal power to reward/punish • The supervisor mediates the formal downward communication • The supervisor may develop a personal relationship with the subordinate For the supervisor • The subordinate serves as a channel of informal communication from other subordinates (both task/personal issues) • The subordinate’s satisfaction with the relationship may have a direct impact on the supervisor’s satisfaction with the relationship • The supervisor’s performance is eventually dependent on the performanc of the subordinate 4
  5. 5. Misunderstandings: Superiors/Subordinates Superiors (sups) and subordinates (subs) often have vastly different perceptions of and meanings for important behavioral and organizational activities • ―Semantic-information distance‖ – the gap in information and understanding between superior/subordinate on specific issues • Also known as ―perceptual incongruence‖ • This distance can stunt the growth of the sup/sub relationship • It can have negative individual, relational, and organizational effects (job satisfaction, conflict, etc.) 5
  6. 6. Deliberate Communication • Upward distortion – when subs are hesitant to communicate negative news to sups they may distort the news in order to make it seem more positive • Afraid they are the cause or will be held responsible • Afraid news will be perceived as criticism of sup • Ramifications (promotion, job security, etc.) 6 Think about it… Have you ever experienced upward distortion?
  7. 7. Deliberate Communication • Strategic ambiguity – sup uses ambiguity to communicate with the sub to promote positive outcomes • Allowing multiple interpretations by leaving out contextual cues • Can be beneficial, but can also be problematic 7 • Strategic ambiguity allows for meaning projection • Strategic ambiguity leads to restricted code • Strategic ambiguity allows people to regulate what and how much they want to share (Eisenberg, 1984)
  8. 8. Deliberate Communication Upward Distortion • Can contribute to gap in understanding between sup/sub • More ethically suspect • Conscious effort to mislead • Misrepresents reality Strategic Ambiguity • Can contribute to gap in understanding between sup/sub • Less ethically suspect • Does not seek to mislead or damage • Could cause undue stress 8
  9. 9. Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX) • Sups have a limited amount of time and resources • Can’t spend the same amount of energy on every sub • Different/distinct relationships form with individual subs • Relationship between sup/sub is on a continuum from leader-member exchange (LMX), or in- group, relationships, to middle-group relationships, to supervisory exchange (SX) or out-group, relationships 9
  10. 10. LMX to SX relationships • Based on Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) which noted leaders form vertical linkages with their followers. VDL noted some subs fell into ―in-group‖ (LMX) or ―out-group‖ (SX) categories • LMX (in-group) have mutual trust, reciprocal support, liking, and greater interaction • SX (out-group) are primarily role-defined relationships • Middle-group vary in their levels of these characteristics 10 Leader #1 Sub A Sub B Sub C
  11. 11. LMX • Subs in LMX relationships with their Sups tend to stay in organization longer, are more satisfied, and receive higher performance ratings than other Subs • Developing an LMX relationship depends upon: • Liking by the leader • Perceived ability of the Sub by the leader • Maintenance communication takes place to preserve an acceptable and lasting relational state • Four tactics of maintenance communication: 1. Personal 2. Contractual 3. Regulative 4. Direct 11
  12. 12. Power differences Sups in high/med LMX relationships seek to minimize power differences • Value congruence • Non-routine problem solving • Insider markets • Support • Coaching Sups use four communication patterns to maximize power differences • Performance monitoring • Face-threatening acts • Competitive conflict • Power games 12
  13. 13. Sup/Sub relationship: TRUST • Both Sup and Sub can be vulnerable. Trust matters! • Both parties must contribute to the development, maintenance, and growth of trust. • Whitener, et al., (1998) suggested five categories of managerial behavior that influence the subordinate’s perception of a supervisor’s trustworthiness. • Behavioral consistency enables the subordinate to predict future behavior. • Behavioral integrity involves telling the truth and keeping promises. • Sharing and delegating of control satisfies subordinates with their level of participation in decision making. • Communication conveys accurate information, explains decisions, and demonstrates openness. • Demonstration of concern makes evident benevolence toward others. 13
  14. 14. Sup/Sub relationship: Immediacy Immediacy is any communication that indicates interpersonal warmth and closeness • Sups convey immediacy to Subs in a variety of ways: • Values subordinate input on job and in personal matters. • Attentive to subordinate both verbally and nonverbally. • Expresses confidence in the subordinate’s ability. • Shows a personal interest in the subordinate. • Expresses verbal appreciation for commendable work. • Demonstrates a willingness to assist the subordinate. 14 Think about it… Why is immediacy important?
  15. 15. Sup/Sub relationship: Feedback • Involves both TASKS and PERSONAL elements • Feedback from Sup to Sub can have a positive impact on motivation, satisfaction, commitment, and performance • Don’t just provide feedback—seek it! • Sups need feedback, too. • Feedback is important for managerial effectiveness 15
  16. 16. Sup/Sub relationship: Compliance-gaining • At work, Subs (and Sups!) have to comply with directives, policies, and procedures • Sups are most likely to use several tactics for compliance- gaining: • Assertiveness • Coalition • Higher authority • Friendliness • Simply issuing an order is not an effective means of gaining employee compliance 16
  17. 17. Sup/Sub relationship: Humor 17
  18. 18. Upward Influence • Subordinates differ in their upward-influence tactics based on whether they are in an LMX or SX relationship (Krone, 1991) • Strategies for upward influence: • Open persuasion: an overt form of influence where desired outcomes are fully disclosed, this strategy is characterized by empathic listening, open argument for proposed course of action, and logical reasoning. • Strategic persuasion: an influence technique that uses either open influence or clearly stated outcomes. • Manipulation: a disguised attempt at upward influence. 18 U P W A R D I N F L U E N C E
  19. 19. Technology & Sups/Subs • Social presence • Degree of sociability present in the use of the media • Warmth, personalness, sensitivity • Example: Talking face-to-face (high social presence) allows facial expressions, touch, posture, and other non-verbals to help convey message. Emails, despite emoticons, are harder to interpret (lower social presence). • Media richness • Speed of feedback • Degree of formality • Tone • Accessibility 19 What types of news/information should be convened with high social presence? Which types are okay to convey with lower social presence?
  20. 20. Effects of Culture Hofstede (1984) detailed five value orientations related to culture that can impact the Sub/Sup relationships: 1. Time orientation 2. Power distance 3. Uncertainty avoidance 4. Individualism/collectivism 5. Masculine/feminine traits 20
  21. 21. Think about it… 21

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