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Epidemiology, prevention
and control of road traffic
accidents
Presented by :Dr saba M Mansoor
Guided by :Dr Hemant Kumar
1
Road Traffic
Accidents
2
The Neglected
Epidemic ???????
3
1. DEFINITION ,HISTORY& INTRODUCTION
2. CLASSIFICATION
3. MAGNITUE OF THE PROBLEM –
4. RISK FACTORS
5. GLOBAL STATUS ON RO...
ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) are
also known as Road Traffic
injuries,Motor vehicle collision, Motor...
Definition
A Road Traffic Accident (RTA) can be
defined as, an event that occurs on a
way or street open to public traffic...
 Thus RTA is a collision between
vehicles; between vehicles and
pedestrians; between vehicles and
animals; or between veh...
HISTORY
8
 Ohio City claims the first accident in
1891, engineer James Lambert was
driving a gasoline-powered buggy, when
he ran in...
10
 The first recorded fatalities by car came in
1896 . Bridget Driscoll stepped off of a
London curb and struck a gas-power...
INTRODUCTION
12
Motorization has
enhanced the lives of
many individuals and
societies, but the benefits
have come with a price.
13
Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs)are
Major Global Health problems
and 8th leading cause of death
leading to more than 1.2 milli...
 RTAs in India are major
but a Neglected Public
Health Problem .
 In 2011. 1.45 lakh
people lost their lives
while nearl...
While the situation in many countries
in now improving, India still holds the
dubious distinction of being only
country wh...
In India, during last ten years the
population has increased only 1.6 %
per year but the, RTAs have
increased at the rate ...
Therefore there is urgent need to
revamp the alarming Road safety
situation in India and accord it the
same priority as ot...
CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS
 The Road Accidents can be classified in
the following manners:
 Classification of Persons b...
ACCIDENT CLASSIFICATION BY VEHICLE
TYPE
 Motorized two Wheeler accident
 Motorized three wheeler accident
 Car/Jeep/Van...
ACCIDENT CLASSIFICATION BY NUMBER
OF VEHICLES
 Single-vehicle accident
 Two-vehicle accident
 Three-vehicle accident
 ...
GLOBAL BURDEN
22
Road traffic accident take the lives
of nearly 1.24 million people
every year,and injure 20–50
million more.
23
WHO.Global...
More than 1.24 million people are
killed in Road Accidents, every year.
24
RTAs are the 8th leading cause of
death globally and the leading cause
of death for people aged 15–29
years.
Young adults ...
One child is killed in Road Accidents,
every three minutes in the World.
26
 3 to 4 % of Gross National Product
is lost in Road Accidents.
27
For males aged 15-44, road traffic injuries
rank second (behind HIV/AIDS) leading
cause of premature death and ill health
...
Over 90% of road traffic
deaths and injuries occur
in low- income and
middle-income countries, which
haveonly 48% of the w...
There are large disparities in road traffic
death rates between regions. The risk of
dying as a result of a road traffic i...
ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS
DEATHS ( PER 100,000)
Death rate due to Road Traffic accidents
is highest in Namibia (53.4/ 100,000...
Half of the world’s road traffic deaths
occur among motorcyclists (23%),
pedestrians (22%) and cyclists (5%)
– i.e. "vulne...
In addition to the grief and
sufferingthey cause, road traffic
crashes result in considerable
economic losses to victims, ...
Further, road traffic accidents are
predicted to resultin the
death of around 1.9 million
people annually by 2020, and by ...
As of now, only 15% of
countries havecomprehensive
laws relating to five key risk
over-speeding, drinking and driving,
and...
The world can prevent 5 million
deaths and 50 million serious injuries
by 2020 by scaling up investment in
road safety, at...
INDIN SCENARIO
37
 India has one of the largest road
networks in the world, of 3.314 million
kilometers, consisting of National
Highways, E...
INDIAN SCENARIO
According to official statistics, during the
year 2011, there were around 5 lakh
road accidents, which res...
Number of road accidents and number
of persons Involved: 2002 to 2011
40National statistics of road traffic accidents in I...
41
42
43
2011P*
Number of persons killed per ten
thousand vehicles during 1970-2011
44
KARNATAKA SCENARIO
 During 2013 there have been 42107
RTAs across the state claiming the
9510 lives,which included 8145 m...
 Pedestrians, bicyclists and two-
wheelers, who comprise the most
vulnerable group, accounted for
40% of all fatalities.
...
ROAD ACCIDENT DEATHS BY VARIOUS
MODES OF TRANSPORT DURING 2012
47
 This is attributable partly to an
increase in the number of vehicles
on the road, and partly to the
absence of a coordin...
For instance while the population of
India increased by 17.64 percent
over the past ten years, the
number of licensed vehi...
 In the United States, which has close to 300
million people and more than 250 million
vehicles, the number of deaths per...
MAIN CAUSES OF ROAD ACCIDENTS
 Over Speeding
 Drunken Driving
 Using Mobile Phones while Driving
 Child Restraint
 No...
a) Driver fatigue,
b) Not obeying or following traffic rules.
c) The attitudes of the “right of the might”
bigger vehicles...
HUMAN FACTORS IN RTA
 Human factor contributes significantly to
increasing number of road accidents in
India.
 Most driv...
DRUNKEN DRIVING
 Globally, some 480,000 deaths and 20
million of people get injured by
drunken driving every year.
 In m...
Contd...
In contrast, studies in low- and
middle-income countries like India
have shown that between 33% and
69% of fatall...
DRIVER FATIGUE
 Driver fatigue is a very dangerous
condition created when a person is
suffering symptoms of fatigue resul...
GLOBAL STATUS
REPORT
57
WHO: GLOBAL STATUS REPORT ON
ROAD SAFETY- 2013”
 Eighty-eight countries have reduced
the number of deaths on their roads ...
 Half of all road traffic deaths are
among pedestrians,cyclists and
motorcyclists.
 However, less than 35% of low- and
mi...
RTA DEATHS BY REGION
 The African region has the highest
road traffic fatality rate injury is
highest in the African Regi...
RTA DEATHS PER 100 000 POPULATION
: BY REGION
African
Region
61
African
Region
Eastern
Mediterranean
Region
Western
Pacific...
RTA DEATHS BY POPULATION
REGISTERED VEHICLES AND COUNTRY
INCOME
62
Eighty per cent of road traffic deaths occur in
middle-...
Population, road traffic deaths, and
registered motorized vehicles by country
income status
Population, roadtraffic deaths,...
NEW ROAD SAFETY LAWS: PROGRESS
 New road safety comprehensive
legislation for all five risk factors have
been passed in 28...
65
DRUNKUN DRIVING
Drinking and driving increases the risk of
crash, as well as the severity of resulting
injuries.
The dri...
Contd…
89 countries, covering 66% of the
world’s population (4.55 billion
people), now have a comprehensive
drink–driving...
Drink–drive laws, by country/area
68
Blood alcohol concentration ≤0.05 g/dl
Blood alcohol concentration >0.05 g/dl
No drin...
INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE
 In European countries, head injuries
contribute to approximately 75% of
deaths among mo...
Contd....
 155 countries (covering 88% of the
world’s population) have laws in place
for for helmet; both for drivers and...
INCREASING SEAT-BELT USE
 Failure to use a seat-belt is a major risk
factor for road traffic injuries and deaths
among veh...
Contd..
 Comprehensive seat-belt laws in
place in hundred and 111 countries,
(69% of the world’s population, 4.8
billion ...
seat-belt wearing is
mandatory by law. there is
no exemption for anybody,
73
seat-belt wearing is
mandatory by law.
there ...
INCREASING THE USE OF CHILD
RESTRAINTS
 Child restraint systems protect infants
and young children from injury during a
c...
75
The majority of high-income countries
(88%) have child-restraint laws in place,
while such laws are far less common in
low...
USE OF MOBILE PHONE
Drivers using mobile phone are four times
more vulnerable than those not using a
phone. The Risk is s...
STATUS
REPORT
: INDIA
78
SAFE ROAD USER
 Penalty/demerit point system in place - No
National speed limits - Yes
 Local authorities can set lower ...
DRUNKUN DRIVING
 National drink–driving law - Yes
 BAClimit–
 General population - 0.03g/dl
 BAC limit–young or novice...
HELMET USE
National motor cycle helmet law -
Yes Applies to drivers and passengers
- Yes Helmet standard mandated
- Yes
En...
SEAT-BELT
 National seat-belt law - Yes
 Applies to front and rear seat occupants - Yes
 Enforcement 01 345678910
 Sea...
NATIONAL CHILD RESTRAINT LAW
AND USE OF MOBILE PHONES
National child restraint law Enforcement -No
National law on mobile ...
POST-CRASH CARE
Emergency Room based injury surveillance
Emergency system - No
Access telephone number(s)
- Multiple numbe...
DATA
Reported road traffic fatalities in
(2010)
= 133938 (85%M,15%F)
Estimated GDP lost due to road traffic
crashes = 3%
85
DEATHS BY ROAD USER CATEGORY
Occupants 4-wheeled cars and
light vehicles (16%)
86
Occupants 4-wheeled cars
and light vehic...
PREVENTION OF
ROAD TRAFFIC
ACCIDENTS
87
 Road deaths and injuries are
preventable.
 A wide range of effective road safety
interventions exist and a scientific
s...
HUMAN FACTOR
 Drunken Driving increses the RTA risk five
times. Drivers need to be educated on this
aspect.
 Issuing of ...
Contd...
 Carry out periodic medical checkup
especially vision and hearing for the drivers.
 Training on first aid shoul...
DRUNKEN DRIVING
 India has the highest number of road
accidents in the world killing nearly
1,34,000 people every year. O...
SAFE ALCOHOL LIMITS
 For an average adult male who weighs
about 65 Kg ; may have beer (660
ml),whisky (60 ml) or wine (20...
BREATH ALYZERS
 A breathalyzer or breathalyser is a device for
estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a
breath sampl...
LEGISLATIONS
94
ROAD TRANSPORT AND SAFETY
BILL- 2014.
Bill aims to "provide a framework for safer,
faster, cost effective and inclusive
mo...
Contd...
 The Bill will pave the way for
Vehicle Regulation and Road
Safety Authority prescribing
minimum safety standard...
MOTOR VEHICLE AMENDMENT
BILL 2014
The revised proposed bill has been
passed in parliament on 18 dec 2014.
 First offence ...
Contd…
 Any subsequent offence shall result in
the cancellation of the licence, and
impounding of the vehicle which may
e...
Causing death of a child in certain
circumstances will result in "Rs. 3
lakh fine, and imprisonment for a
term not less th...
Emergency medical care to victims of
accidents and other emergencies
 Honourable Supreme Court of India in its
order date...
Contd…
 Whether or not such a person has medical
insurance or is a member of any medical
scheme of the person's employer ...
102
H’BLE SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVE
HAND OUT ON H’BLE SUPREME COURT
DIRECTIVE
103
VEHICLES
 Well-maintained vehicles with good breaks,
lighting, tyres etc. will reduce accidents.
 Older vehicles and hig...
CONDITION OF ROADS
 Roads should be well maintained with
frequent relaying of road surfaces and
markings of road safety s...
PEDESTRIAN SAFETY
 More than one fifth of the people killed on
the world’s roads each year are not
travelling in a car, o...
Contd..
Pedestrian deaths and injuries are
often preventable, and proven
interventions exist, yet in many
locations pedest...
Policy and planning reforms that
support pedestrian safety
Controlling vehicle speed, developing
traffic- calming measures...
MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENT
VICTIMS
 The importance of the “Golden Hour” in
giving adequate treatment to the accident
victim i...
Contd...
 Provision of ambulances and trained
health personals in shifting and
transporting the injured person to
nearby ...
FIRST AID IN ROAD ACCIDENTS
Many deaths can be prevented with
First-Aid if causalities are treated
immediately.
The basic ...
THE “GOLDEN HOUR”
The first hour after the trauma is called
the “golden hour.”. If proper first aid is
given, road acciden...
THE
WHO
INITIATIVE
113
MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN RTA
PREVENTION
WHO has drawn a “Global Plan for the
Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–
2...
Contd......
“Decade of Action for Road Safety
2011–2020” was officially proclaimed by
the United Nations General Assembly
...
FIVE PILLARS
1. Pillar 1 Road safety management
2. Pillar 2 Safer roads and mobility
3. Pillar 3 Safer vehicles
4. Pillar ...
ROAD SAFETY WEEK
Road Safety Week” is observed
throughout the country every year in
the month of January in order to
highl...
COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
 Effective community participation also
plays a key role in the prevention of RTA.
 Everybody sh...
ROAD SAFETY INFORMATION
SYSTEMS
Information of RTI is primarily
collected by the Police department
and sufficient informat...
BLOOMBERG PHILANTHROPIES
GLOBAL ROAD SAFETY PROGRAMME
 Former New York City mayor Michael
Bloomberg is to donate $125m ov...
121
CONCLUSION
1. Enforce laws to prevent drunken driving ( 70 %
of RTA deaths can be averted)
2. Prevent over-speeding and en...
TAKE HOME MESSAGE
123
124
A symbol for all: the
road safety “tag”
The road safety “tag” is the new
global symbol for road safety
and the key vis...
REFERENCES
1. WHO.Global status report on road safety
2013. Supporting a decade of action.
2. WHO.STRENGTHENING ROAD SAFET...
6) Pawan Deshpande, ROAD SAFETY AND ACCIDENT
PREVENTION IN INDIA: A REVIEW International Journal of
Advanced Engineering T...
11) http://mentalfloss.com/article/31807/when-and-where-was-
first-car-accident.
12) Singh R, Singh HK, Gupta S C, Kumar Y...
18. Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Road
Accidents in India 2011. New Delhi: Ministry of...
129
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Epidemiology, prevention and control of road traffic accidents

Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs)are Major Global Health problems and 8th leading cause of death leading to more than 1.2 million deaths and 20-50 million injuries annually.While the situation in many countries in now improving, India still holds the dubious distinction of being only country who faces more than 14 fatalities and 53 injuries every hour due to RTA.

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Epidemiology, prevention and control of road traffic accidents

  1. 1. Epidemiology, prevention and control of road traffic accidents Presented by :Dr saba M Mansoor Guided by :Dr Hemant Kumar 1
  2. 2. Road Traffic Accidents 2
  3. 3. The Neglected Epidemic ??????? 3
  4. 4. 1. DEFINITION ,HISTORY& INTRODUCTION 2. CLASSIFICATION 3. MAGNITUE OF THE PROBLEM – 4. RISK FACTORS 5. GLOBAL STATUS ON ROAD SAFETY 6. INDIA : STATUS ON ROAD SAFETY 7. PREVENTVE MEASURES 8. LEGAL PROVISIONS. 9. REFERENCES 4
  5. 5. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS Road Traffic Accidents (RTA) are also known as Road Traffic injuries,Motor vehicle collision, Motor vehicle accident, Automobile accident and Road traffic collision in some countries. 5
  6. 6. Definition A Road Traffic Accident (RTA) can be defined as, an event that occurs on a way or street open to public traffic; resulting in one or more persons being injured or killed, where at least one moving vehicle is involved*. * 6 Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Road Accidents in India 2011. New Delhi: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India; 2012.
  7. 7.  Thus RTA is a collision between vehicles; between vehicles and pedestrians; between vehicles and animals; or between vehicles and geographical or architectural obstacles.'  Road traffic accidents are a human tragedy. They involve high human suffering and socioeconomic costs in terms of premature deaths, injuries, and loss of productivity, 7
  8. 8. HISTORY 8
  9. 9.  Ohio City claims the first accident in 1891, engineer James Lambert was driving a gasoline-powered buggy, when he ran into a little trouble.  The buggy, also carrying passenger James Swoveland, hit a tree root sticking out of the ground.  Lambert lost control and the vehicle swerved and crashed into a hitching post. Both men suffered minor injuries. 9http://mentalfloss.com/article/31807/when-and-where-was-first-car-accident
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11.  The first recorded fatalities by car came in 1896 . Bridget Driscoll stepped off of a London curb and struck a gas-powered Anglo-French model car driven by Arthur Edsall.  While the car had a top speed of four miles per hour, neither Edsall nor Driscoll were able to avoid the collision.  Edsall was arrested, but the death was ruled an accident and he was not prosecuted. 11http://mentalfloss.com/article/31807/when-and-where-was-first-car-accident
  12. 12. INTRODUCTION 12
  13. 13. Motorization has enhanced the lives of many individuals and societies, but the benefits have come with a price. 13
  14. 14. Road Traffic Accidents(RTAs)are Major Global Health problems and 8th leading cause of death leading to more than 1.2 million deaths and 20-50 million injuries annually* 14 *WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action
  15. 15.  RTAs in India are major but a Neglected Public Health Problem .  In 2011. 1.45 lakh people lost their lives while nearly 5 lakh people were severely injured, who were mainly males in productive age group, leading to nearly 3% loss of GDP 15 http://www.ijcm.org.in/article.aspissn=0970- 0218;year=2014
  16. 16. While the situation in many countries in now improving, India still holds the dubious distinction of being only country who faces more than 14 fatalities and 53 injuries every hour due to RTA. 16 http://www.ijcm.org.in/article.aspissn=0970-0218;year=2014
  17. 17. In India, during last ten years the population has increased only 1.6 % per year but the, RTAs have increased at the rate of 4.6 % per year leading to RTA fatality rate from 8.2/lakh in 2000 to 10.9 in 2010. 17 http://www.ijcm.org.in/article.aspissn=0970- 0218;year=2014
  18. 18. Therefore there is urgent need to revamp the alarming Road safety situation in India and accord it the same priority as other important health issues, to prevent further loss of human life and their devastating impact on society and economy. 18http://www.ijcm.org.in/article.aspissn=0970-
  19. 19. CLASSIFICATION OF ACCIDENTS  The Road Accidents can be classified in the following manners:  Classification of Persons by Injury Severity i. • person with fatal injury ii. • person with Grievous Injury iii. • person with minor injury iv. • person with no injury 19Int J Adv Engg Tech/Vol. V/Issue II/April-June,2014/64
  20. 20. ACCIDENT CLASSIFICATION BY VEHICLE TYPE  Motorized two Wheeler accident  Motorized three wheeler accident  Car/Jeep/Van/Taxi accident  Bus Accident  Light Transport Vehicle accident  Heavy Articulated Transport Vehicle accident  Tractor with Trolley accident  Bicycle/Pedestrian accident  Animal/Hand Drawn Cart accident 20
  21. 21. ACCIDENT CLASSIFICATION BY NUMBER OF VEHICLES  Single-vehicle accident  Two-vehicle accident  Three-vehicle accident  Multiple Vehicle accident 21
  22. 22. GLOBAL BURDEN 22
  23. 23. Road traffic accident take the lives of nearly 1.24 million people every year,and injure 20–50 million more. 23 WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  24. 24. More than 1.24 million people are killed in Road Accidents, every year. 24
  25. 25. RTAs are the 8th leading cause of death globally and the leading cause of death for people aged 15–29 years. Young adults aged between 15 and 44 years account for 59% of global road traffic deaths. 77% road deaths are among men. 25 •WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  26. 26. One child is killed in Road Accidents, every three minutes in the World. 26
  27. 27.  3 to 4 % of Gross National Product is lost in Road Accidents. 27
  28. 28. For males aged 15-44, road traffic injuries rank second (behind HIV/AIDS) leading cause of premature death and ill health worldwide .  WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action. 28 WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  29. 29. Over 90% of road traffic deaths and injuries occur in low- income and middle-income countries, which haveonly 48% of the world’s registeredvehicles. 29•WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  30. 30. There are large disparities in road traffic death rates between regions. The risk of dying as a result of a road traffic injury is highest in the African Region (24.1 per 100 000 population), and lowest in the European Region (10.3 per 100 000). 30 •WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  31. 31. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS DEATHS ( PER 100,000) Death rate due to Road Traffic accidents is highest in Namibia (53.4/ 100,000) followed by Swaziland (48.2/100,000) ,while it is lowest in Maldives (2.4/100,000) Malta (3.1/100,000) and Japan (3.8/100,000). India ranks 77 with a death rate of 18.7/ 100,000) 31http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate
  32. 32. Half of the world’s road traffic deaths occur among motorcyclists (23%), pedestrians (22%) and cyclists (5%) – i.e. "vulnerable road users" – with 31% of deaths among car occupants and the remaining 19% among unspecified road users 32
  33. 33. In addition to the grief and sufferingthey cause, road traffic crashes result in considerable economic losses to victims, their families, nations as a whole, costing most countries 2–4% of their gross national product 33http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate
  34. 34. Further, road traffic accidents are predicted to resultin the death of around 1.9 million people annually by 2020, and by 2030 will become the fifth leading cause of death unless urgent action is taken. 34http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate
  35. 35. As of now, only 15% of countries havecomprehensive laws relating to five key risk over-speeding, drinking and driving, and the non-use of helmets, seat-belts and child restraints. 35 •WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action.
  36. 36. The world can prevent 5 million deaths and 50 million serious injuries by 2020 by scaling up investment in road safety, at global, regional and national levels 36
  37. 37. INDIN SCENARIO 37
  38. 38.  India has one of the largest road networks in the world, of 3.314 million kilometers, consisting of National Highways, Expressways , State Highways etc.  About 65 per cent of freight and 86.7 per cent passenger traffic is carried by the roads 38 http://indiankanoon.org/docfragment/136033520/?formInput=%5C%22national%20highway%5C
  39. 39. INDIAN SCENARIO According to official statistics, during the year 2011, there were around 5 lakh road accidents, which resulted in deaths of 142,485 people (85% M,15%F) while 511,394 people were injured. Uttar Pradesh,Maharashtra, and Tamilnadu contributed to maximum number of cases.  These numbers translate into 1 road accident every minute and 1 road accident death every four minutes (NCRB- 2012) 39
  40. 40. Number of road accidents and number of persons Involved: 2002 to 2011 40National statistics of road traffic accidents in India. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. 43 2011P*
  44. 44. Number of persons killed per ten thousand vehicles during 1970-2011 44
  45. 45. KARNATAKA SCENARIO  During 2013 there have been 42107 RTAs across the state claiming the 9510 lives,which included 8145 men and 1345 women.  Besised 10850 men and 2805 were seriously injured. 45http://www.coastaldigest.com/index.php/news/61594-karnataka-road-accidents-claim-9510-lives-in-20
  46. 46.  Pedestrians, bicyclists and two- wheelers, who comprise the most vulnerable group, accounted for 40% of all fatalities.  The loss to the Indian economy due to Road Traffic Accidents in 2012 was estimated at 3% of GDP 46http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898451
  47. 47. ROAD ACCIDENT DEATHS BY VARIOUS MODES OF TRANSPORT DURING 2012 47
  48. 48.  This is attributable partly to an increase in the number of vehicles on the road, and partly to the absence of a coordinated official policy to control the problem. 48
  49. 49. For instance while the population of India increased by 17.64 percent over the past ten years, the number of licensed vehicles increased by 132 percent over the same period. 49
  50. 50.  In the United States, which has close to 300 million people and more than 250 million vehicles, the number of deaths per 10,000 vehicles is 1.6, while in India this number, known as the “road fatality rate,” is as high as 14.  With just 1% of the world's vehicles, India manages to account for 10% of its road fatalities. Contd...... 50
  51. 51. MAIN CAUSES OF ROAD ACCIDENTS  Over Speeding  Drunken Driving  Using Mobile Phones while Driving  Child Restraint  Not wearing of helmets and seatbelts 51
  52. 52. a) Driver fatigue, b) Not obeying or following traffic rules. c) The attitudes of the “right of the might” bigger vehicles toward the smaller vehicles. d) Overloading of transport vehicles, e) Poor maintenance of the vehicles. f) Appalling condition of the already chocked roads and encroachment . OTHER CAUSES OF RTA 52
  53. 53. HUMAN FACTORS IN RTA  Human factor contributes significantly to increasing number of road accidents in India.  Most drivers continue to be acting like maniacs in a tearing hurry and error in judgment often leads to major accidents. Reckless driving, over speeding, decline to follow traffic rules, and drunken driving are main reasons for road accident 53
  54. 54. DRUNKEN DRIVING  Globally, some 480,000 deaths and 20 million of people get injured by drunken driving every year.  In most high-income countries about 20% of fatally injured drivers have excess alcohol in their blood, i.e., blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in excess of the legal limit. 54
  55. 55. Contd... In contrast, studies in low- and middle-income countries like India have shown that between 33% and 69% of fatally injured drivers and between 8% and 29% of non fatally injured drivers had consumed alcohol before their crash. 55
  56. 56. DRIVER FATIGUE  Driver fatigue is a very dangerous condition created when a person is suffering symptoms of fatigue resulting from the hypnotic effect leading to diminished driver's vigilance level.  Statistics show that 20% of all the traffic accidents and up to one-quarter of fatal and serious accidents are due to drivers with a diminished vigilance level. 56
  57. 57. GLOBAL STATUS REPORT 57
  58. 58. WHO: GLOBAL STATUS REPORT ON ROAD SAFETY- 2013”  Eighty-eight countries have reduced the number of deaths on their roads – but the number remains unacceptably high at 1.24 million per year.  Only 28 countries, representing 449 million people (7% of the world’s population), have adequate laws that address all five risk factors (speed, drinkun driving helmets , seat-belts and child restraints). 58
  59. 59.  Half of all road traffic deaths are among pedestrians,cyclists and motorcyclists.  However, less than 35% of low- and middle-income countries have policies in place to protect these road users. 59
  60. 60. RTA DEATHS BY REGION  The African region has the highest road traffic fatality rate injury is highest in the African Region 24 per 100 000 population) ,  And European Region has the lowest in the (10.3 per 100 000). 60
  61. 61. RTA DEATHS PER 100 000 POPULATION : BY REGION African Region 61 African Region Eastern Mediterranean Region Western Pacific Region South-East Asia Region Region of the Americas European Region 18.5 21.3 16.1 18.5 10.3 24.1 5 15 10 20 25 30 0
  62. 62. RTA DEATHS BY POPULATION REGISTERED VEHICLES AND COUNTRY INCOME 62 Eighty per cent of road traffic deaths occur in middle-income countries, which account for 72 % of the world’s population,but only 52% of the world’s registered vehicles.  This indicates that these countries bear a disproportionately high burden of road traffic deaths relative to their level of motorization.
  63. 63. Population, road traffic deaths, and registered motorized vehicles by country income status Population, roadtraffic deaths,and registered motorized vehicles, by country income status High-income Middle-income Low-income 12 1% 12% 16% 12% 12% 8% 47% 52% 72% 80% POPULATION ROAD TRAFFIC REGISTERED VEHICLES DEATHS 63
  64. 64. NEW ROAD SAFETY LAWS: PROGRESS  New road safety comprehensive legislation for all five risk factors have been passed in 28 countries – but only 7% of the world’s population is covered.  Only 59 countries, covering just 39% of the world’s population (2.67 billion people), have implemented an urban speed limit of 50 km/h or less . 64
  65. 65. 65
  66. 66. DRUNKUN DRIVING Drinking and driving increases the risk of crash, as well as the severity of resulting injuries. The drivers are affected or impaired with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC)of 0.05 g/dl, while at a BAC level of 0.1 g/dl the crash risk is approximately five times higher than that of someone with a BAC level of zero. 66
  67. 67. Contd… 89 countries, covering 66% of the world’s population (4.55 billion people), now have a comprehensive drink–driving law, defined as a BAC limit of 0.05 g/dl or less. High-income countries are more likely to have a legal BAC limit of 0.05 g/dl or less (67%) than are middle- or low- income countries (49% and 21%, respectively). 67
  68. 68. Drink–drive laws, by country/area 68 Blood alcohol concentration ≤0.05 g/dl Blood alcohol concentration >0.05 g/dl No drink-drive law/not based on blood alcohol concentration Drink-drive law at subnational level Alcohol consumption legally prohibited
  69. 69. INCREASING MOTORCYCLE HELMET USE  In European countries, head injuries contribute to approximately 75% of deaths among motorcycle users; in some low- and middle-income countries, head injuries are estimated to account for up to 88% of such fatalities.  Wearing a standard, good quality motor cycle helmet can reduce the risk of death by 40% and the risk of serious injury by over 70% . 69
  70. 70. Contd....  155 countries (covering 88% of the world’s population) have laws in place for for helmet; both for drivers and co-passengers.  About half of all participating countries (98) covering 77% of world population apply helmet standards , with proven effectiveness in reducing head injuries. 70
  71. 71. INCREASING SEAT-BELT USE  Failure to use a seat-belt is a major risk factor for road traffic injuries and deaths among vehicle occupants.  Wearing a seat-belt reduces the risk of a fatal injury by 40–50% for drivers and front seat occupants, and between 25–75% for rear seat occupants 71
  72. 72. Contd..  Comprehensive seat-belt laws in place in hundred and 111 countries, (69% of the world’s population, 4.8 billion people) .  But more needs to be done to convince political leaders and police authorities that seat-belt use can save lives, and to work to strengthen seat- belt legislation in line with best practices. 72
  73. 73. seat-belt wearing is mandatory by law. there is no exemption for anybody, 73 seat-belt wearing is mandatory by law. there is no exemption for anybody, including me. including me. Governor of Afyonkarahisar
  74. 74. INCREASING THE USE OF CHILD RESTRAINTS  Child restraint systems protect infants and young children from injury during a crash. Infants and children need child restraint systems that can accommodate their size and weight.  Child restraints reduce the likelihood of a fatal crash by approximately 70% among infants and between 54% and 80% among young children 74
  75. 75. 75
  76. 76. The majority of high-income countries (88%) have child-restraint laws in place, while such laws are far less common in low- and middle-income countries (30% and 43%, respectively).  Most of the 51 European countries have enacted child restraint laws, but only one of eleven South East Asia countries has passed such a law 76
  77. 77. USE OF MOBILE PHONE Drivers using mobile phone are four times more vulnerable than those not using a phone. The Risk is similar for both, hand held as well as hands free. 142 countries (covering 83% of world population ) have laws in place and prohibit its use while driving, while 34 countries also prohibit hands free phones. 77
  78. 78. STATUS REPORT : INDIA 78
  79. 79. SAFE ROAD USER  Penalty/demerit point system in place - No National speed limits - Yes  Local authorities can set lower limits - Yes Maximum limit urban roads 60km/h Enforcement 012 45678910 79
  80. 80. DRUNKUN DRIVING  National drink–driving law - Yes  BAClimit–  General population - 0.03g/dl  BAC limit–young or novice drivers - 0.03g/dl  BAC limit–professional - 0.03g/dl Random breath testing and/or Police check points - Yes Enforcement 012 45678910 80
  81. 81. HELMET USE National motor cycle helmet law - Yes Applies to drivers and passengers - Yes Helmet standard mandated - Yes Enforcement 01 345678910 Helmet wearing rate 50% Drivers ≤10% Passengers 81
  82. 82. SEAT-BELT  National seat-belt law - Yes  Applies to front and rear seat occupants - Yes  Enforcement 01 345678910  Seat-belt wearing rate 27%Drivers
  83. 83. NATIONAL CHILD RESTRAINT LAW AND USE OF MOBILE PHONES National child restraint law Enforcement -No National law on mobile phones while driving –Yes Law prohibits hand-held as well as hands-free mobile phone use 83
  84. 84. POST-CRASH CARE Emergency Room based injury surveillance Emergency system - No Access telephone number(s) - Multiple numbers Seriously injured transported by ambulance - 11–49% Permanently disabled due to road traffic crash - 2% Emergency medicine training for doctors - Yes Emergency medicine training for nurses - Yes 84
  85. 85. DATA Reported road traffic fatalities in (2010) = 133938 (85%M,15%F) Estimated GDP lost due to road traffic crashes = 3% 85
  86. 86. DEATHS BY ROAD USER CATEGORY Occupants 4-wheeled cars and light vehicles (16%) 86 Occupants 4-wheeled cars and light vehicles (16%) Riders motorized 2- or 3-wheelers (32%) (32%) Cyclists (5%)Pedestrians (9%) Drivers/ trucks (13%) Drivers passengers buses (8%) Other (17%)
  87. 87. PREVENTION OF ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 87
  88. 88.  Road deaths and injuries are preventable.  A wide range of effective road safety interventions exist and a scientific system approach to road safety is essential to tackle the problem 88
  89. 89. HUMAN FACTOR  Drunken Driving increses the RTA risk five times. Drivers need to be educated on this aspect.  Issuing of the driving license should be strictly based on the minimum proficiency acquired by the learners from designated driving schools.  Minimum qualifications should be fixed for different categories of drivers. 89
  90. 90. Contd...  Carry out periodic medical checkup especially vision and hearing for the drivers.  Training on first aid should be compulsory.  Indiscriminate honking to be avoided.  Educate the drivers and traveling public about traffic rules 90
  91. 91. DRUNKEN DRIVING  India has the highest number of road accidents in the world killing nearly 1,34,000 people every year. Of this 70% or over 93,800 cases are due to consumption of alcohol.  The legal limit of alcohol content in blood is 0.03% or 30mg per 100ml of blood. If a person driving a car has a BAC level of 30mg per 100 ml of blood, he or she can be booked under section 185 of the Motor Vehicle Act 91
  92. 92. SAFE ALCOHOL LIMITS  For an average adult male who weighs about 65 Kg ; may have beer (660 ml),whisky (60 ml) or wine (200 ml) to stay within the legal limit.  How long after a drink can you drive? It takes about one hour to process about 9.5 ml of alcohol in the body. But it’s always safer to drive without any sort of alcoholic influence. 92
  93. 93. BREATH ALYZERS  A breathalyzer or breathalyser is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample.  Breath analyzers estimate BAC indirectly by measuring the amount of alcohol in one's breath. Two breathalyzer technologies are most prevalent. Desktop analyzers generally use infrared spectrophotometer and electro chemical fuel cell technology, or a combination of the two. 93
  94. 94. LEGISLATIONS 94
  95. 95. ROAD TRANSPORT AND SAFETY BILL- 2014. Bill aims to "provide a framework for safer, faster, cost effective and inclusive movement of passengers and freight in the country, thus enabling the mission of “Make in India" and that the enactment of the Bill is expected to save 200,000 lives in the next five years. 95http://www.business-standard.com/article/opinion/dinesh-mohan-road-safety-and-a-bhel-puri-act-114100901227_1.html
  96. 96. Contd...  The Bill will pave the way for Vehicle Regulation and Road Safety Authority prescribing minimum safety standards for vehicles, roads and its users.  The authority will have to maintain a National Unified Information System, thereby centralising details on vehicle registrations, driving licences, insurance, permits, penalties, accidents, etc. 96
  97. 97. MOTOR VEHICLE AMENDMENT BILL 2014 The revised proposed bill has been passed in parliament on 18 dec 2014.  First offence for drunk driving will attract "Rs. 25,000 fine, or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 3 months, or with both, and a six-month license suspension.  Second offence within three years will result in Rs.50,000 penalty or imprisonment for up to one year or both and a one year license suspension. 97http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/new-motor-bill-road-safety-and-transport-bill-2014-traffic-offenders/1/382678.html
  98. 98. Contd…  Any subsequent offence shall result in the cancellation of the licence, and impounding of the vehicle which may extend for 30 days.  If school bus drivers are caught driving drunk, Rs. 50,000 fine will be imposed with imprisonment for three years while "immediate cancellation" of licence will take place in case of drivers in the age- group of 18 to 25 years involved in such incidences. 98
  99. 99. Causing death of a child in certain circumstances will result in "Rs. 3 lakh fine, and imprisonment for a term not less than 7 years" Violating traffic signal three times will result in Rs. 15,000 fine, licence cancellation for a month and a compulsory refresher training. Contd……. 99
  100. 100. Emergency medical care to victims of accidents and other emergencies  Honourable Supreme Court of India in its order dated 19 Feb 2004 has made it mendatory to all medical professionals to attend all RTA victim with out raising any objection that it is a medico-legal case requiring information to the police authorities.  Whether or not such a person is immediately in a position to make payment for screening and emergency medical treatment, 100
  101. 101. Contd…  Whether or not such a person has medical insurance or is a member of any medical scheme of the person's employer or to a scheme which otherwise provides for medical reimbursement.  And without raising any other unreasonable objection. 101
  102. 102. 102 H’BLE SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVE
  103. 103. HAND OUT ON H’BLE SUPREME COURT DIRECTIVE 103
  104. 104. VEHICLES  Well-maintained vehicles with good breaks, lighting, tyres etc. will reduce accidents.  Older vehicles and highly polluting vehicles should be phased out.  Vehicles should be provided with seat belts and other necessary safety provisions (like airbags). 104
  105. 105. CONDITION OF ROADS  Roads should be well maintained with frequent relaying of road surfaces and markings of road safety signs.  Provide proper footpaths for pedestrians and pedestrian crossings at intersections.  Provide separate lanes for slow-moving and fast-moving vehicles.  Roads and junctions should be wide and well lit so that visibility is good 105
  106. 106. PEDESTRIAN SAFETY  More than one fifth of the people killed on the world’s roads each year are not travelling in a car, on a motorcycle or even on a bicycle – they are pedestrians.  Each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians (22% of all RTA deaths)lose their lives on the world’s roads. 106WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of
  107. 107. Contd.. Pedestrian deaths and injuries are often preventable, and proven interventions exist, yet in many locations pedestrian safety does not attract the attention it merits. 107
  108. 108. Policy and planning reforms that support pedestrian safety Controlling vehicle speed, developing traffic- calming measures, restricting vehicle traffic in residential areas, building Sidewalks, enforcing traffic laws, pedestrianizing city centres, installing pedestrian signals, Pedestrian safety in roadway design are some measures 108
  109. 109. MANAGEMENT OF ACCIDENT VICTIMS  The importance of the “Golden Hour” in giving adequate treatment to the accident victim in saving the injured should be highlighted to both the health personnel and the community.  Provision of medical care/first aid care facilities on highways and busy roads. 109
  110. 110. Contd...  Provision of ambulances and trained health personals in shifting and transporting the injured person to nearby hospitals for treatment.  Awareness creation among all sections of the society to treat accident victims with sympathy and without fear so that the morbidity and mortality can be reduced. 110
  111. 111. FIRST AID IN ROAD ACCIDENTS Many deaths can be prevented with First-Aid if causalities are treated immediately. The basic aims of first aid are  To save life,  To protect the casualty from getting more harm,  To reduce pain and priorities of casualty treatment. 111
  112. 112. THE “GOLDEN HOUR” The first hour after the trauma is called the “golden hour.”. If proper first aid is given, road accident victims have a greater chance of survival and a reduction in the severity of their injuries 112
  113. 113. THE WHO INITIATIVE 113
  114. 114. MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN RTA PREVENTION WHO has drawn a “Global Plan for the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011– 2020” to guide efforts at national and local levels. Governments, international agencies, civil society organizations, and private companies from more than 110 countries have launched the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 − 2020. which seeks to save 5 million lives over the 10-year period. India is also a signatory to this. 114•WHO.Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020.2011. Saving millions of lives.
  115. 115. Contd...... “Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020” was officially proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in March 2010. To achieve its goal, the Global Plan features five categories or “pillars” 115
  116. 116. FIVE PILLARS 1. Pillar 1 Road safety management 2. Pillar 2 Safer roads and mobility 3. Pillar 3 Safer vehicles 4. Pillar 4 Safer road users 5. Pillar 5 Post-crash response 116
  117. 117. ROAD SAFETY WEEK Road Safety Week” is observed throughout the country every year in the month of January in order to highlight and emphasize the need for safe roads by taking up activities to promote the concep 117
  118. 118. COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION  Effective community participation also plays a key role in the prevention of RTA.  Everybody should be concerned and should work toward achieving a safe road travel so that “road accidents should never happen again.” 118
  119. 119. ROAD SAFETY INFORMATION SYSTEMS Information of RTI is primarily collected by the Police department and sufficient information is not available from the health sector and under-reporting is a serious issue undermining the public health burden and impact of RTI 119
  120. 120. BLOOMBERG PHILANTHROPIES GLOBAL ROAD SAFETY PROGRAMME  Former New York City mayor Michael Bloomberg is to donate $125m over the next five years to improve traffic conditions in ten cities of low and middle-income countries across the world.  Starting from 2015, the funds will be provided through the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Programme with an aim to strengthen road safety legislation. 120
  121. 121. 121
  122. 122. CONCLUSION 1. Enforce laws to prevent drunken driving ( 70 % of RTA deaths can be averted) 2. Prevent over-speeding and enforce speed limits. 3. Ensure use of helmets by two-wheeler drivers 4. Ensure use of seat belts and child restraints in cars 5. Improve visibility, vehicle headlights and road lightings. 6. Enforce traffic rules. 122
  123. 123. TAKE HOME MESSAGE 123
  124. 124. 124 A symbol for all: the road safety “tag” The road safety “tag” is the new global symbol for road safety and the key visual for the “Decade 2011-20 of Action for Road Safety”. “Wear. Believe. Act.”
  125. 125. REFERENCES 1. WHO.Global status report on road safety 2013. Supporting a decade of action. 2. WHO.STRENGTHENING ROAD SAFETY LEGISLATION 2014. A toolkit for road safety legislation workshops. 3. WHO.Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020.2011. Saving millions of lives. 4. WHO.PREVENTING ROAD TRAFFIC INJURY:2004. A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE FOR EUROPE. 5. WHO.Make walking safe:2011.A brief overview of pedestrian safety around the world. 125
  126. 126. 6) Pawan Deshpande, ROAD SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION IN INDIA: A REVIEW International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology .Int J Adv Engg Tech/Vol. V/Issue II/April-June,2014/64-68. 7) Narinder Mahajan, Ashok Bhardwaj, Anmol Gupta, Sunil Kumar Raina, BP Gupta. An epidemiological study on the road traffic accidents from hills of north India. Burns & Trauma, April 2014, Vol 2, Issue 2.75-79. 8) LEGAL REFORMS TO COMBAT ROAD ACCIDENTS. LAW COMMISSION OF INDIA.GOVERNMENT OF INDIA.Report No. 234. August 2009. 9) THE MOTOR VEHICLES (AMENDMENT) BILL, 2014 By SHRI MULLAPPALLY RAMACHANDRAN, M.P. 10) S. Gopalakrishnan. Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents. J Family Med Prim Care. 2012 Jul- Dec; 1(2): 144–150. 126
  127. 127. 11) http://mentalfloss.com/article/31807/when-and-where-was- first-car-accident. 12) Singh R, Singh HK, Gupta S C, Kumar Y. Pattern, severity and circumtances of injuries sustained in road traffic accidents: A tertiary care hospital-based study. Indian J Community Med 2014;39:30-4 13) Pawan Deshpande, ROAD SAFETY AND ACCIDENT PREVENTION IN INDIA: A REVIEW. Int J Adv Engg Tech/Vol. V/Issue II/April-June,2014/64-68. 14) Accidental deaths and suicides in India - 2012. National Crime Records Bureau. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, 15) Ruikar M. National statistics of road traffic accidents in India. J Orthop Traumatol Rehabil 2013;6:1-6. 16) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic- related_death_rate 17) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3898451/ 127
  128. 128. 18. Transport Research Wing, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Road Accidents in India 2011. New Delhi: Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India; 2012. 128
  129. 129. 129

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