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  1. 1. Introduction  The term sustainability is often used in an undiscerning and loose way and has turned into somewhat of a “container term”  it has become a ‘buzz word’, and one that is worth reflecting on.  At any rate, sustainability has developed into the “categorical imperative of contemporary responsibility for Creation”  Switzerland was the first country to add the term sustainability to its constitution in Article 2 (since January 1, 2000):).
  2. 2. Cont..  Sustainability is an ‘essentially contested concept’ (Gaillie 1955–56); that is, a concept the use and application of which is inherently a matter of dispute.  The reason for this is the degree to which the concept is used to refer to a ‘balance’ or ‘wise’ use in the way in which natural resources are exploited.
  3. 3. Cont..  Sustainability is no longer a niche topic.  It will always have its relevance and become the subject for a contemporary assessment of progress and responsibility, freedom and culture.  Linguists and scientists can therefore claim that the concept of sustainability has been well established globally in politics, the economy and our society.
  4. 4. Cont...  However, whilst the term is becoming increasingly popular, doubts have also been raised about whether the promised harmonization of ecological, social and economic goals, associated with sustainability, is actually achievable.  Sustainable development is a multi- faceted term—“a buzz word and imported word” but also a “disparaging and praising term at the same time”.
  5. 5. Description and Essence of Sustainability  The first graphical displays of Sustainability developed one and two column models (Carnau, 2011).  The focus was on the three goals of ecology, economy and social affairs .  This “sustainability formula” (Vogt, 2009, p. 102) had a significant impact on the environmental debate in the ‘70s and ‘80s. “In theory, the principles of sustainability have been agreed upon in 1992, and effort has been made to implement them, but in actual fact hardly any progress has been made towards these objectives” (Vogt, 2009, p. 102).
  6. 6. Cont...  The paratactic understanding of the three-pillar model that ecology, economy and social equity are equally weighted interrelated pillars threatens the guideline function of the principles defined.  They are used to hide contradictions and differences instead of finding a consensus on core issues, goals and priorities. (…).
  7. 7. Cont..  Sustainability will remain a meaningful concept only where it continues to be an environmentally focused concept, and where a systematic integration of environmental issues into other sectors of politics, economy and society is achieved.  The ‘triangle of sustainability’ was further developed into a ‘magic triangle’ with environmental dimension, economic dimension, and social dimension in place .
  8. 8. Cont..  These debates are, in turn, bound up within the wider frameworks of attitudes towards the environment that exist both in contemporary society and, just as importantly, over time.  Although environmental issues are now taken for granted as a policy-making concern, it needs to be remembered that the ‘age of ecology’ is arguably a very recent phenomenon, with the first.
  9. 9. Academic Adoption of ‘Sustainable Tourism’ and ‘Sustainable Development’  As Hall (2011) suggested, the notion of sustainable tourism must be regarded as one of the great success stories of tourism research and knowledge transfer.  It has become incorporated into the fabric of tourism discourse in academic, business and governance terms.
  10. 10. Cont..  Following Jafari’s (1989) idea of academic platforms occupied by tourism researchers, the late-1980s were characterised by a quest for knowledge about tourism’s potential impacts – environmental, socio- cultural and economic – in tourist destinations around the world .  Initially focusing on different types of tourism, notably ecotourism, the concept of sustainable tourism development only slowly gained attention in tourism research.
  11. 11. Cont..  The relation between tourism and sustainable development was not programmatically specified until 1997 through the Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry (Agenda 21) (World Travel and Tourism Council, World Tourism Organization and the Earth Council, 1997)
  12. 12. Cont..  Sustainable tourism is centred on the viability of tourism and balancing industry and environmental impacts (Hunter, 1995).  Sustaining tourism implies that management of the net productive value of the ‘natural’ capital is calculated in order to implement compensating resource replacement and substitution strategies (Hughes, 1995).
  13. 13. Cont..  Sustainable tourism may be regarded most basically as the application of the sustainable development idea to the tourism sector – that is, tourism development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs or, in concert with Budowski’s (1976) ‘symbiosis’ scenario’
  14. 14. Cont..  Meant to provide enjoyment for tourists and residents alike and becoming a source of local income, paradoxically, conservation efforts to maintain absolute equilibrium mean that the environment, including social and cultural aspects, should be kept in an unimpaired state for present and future generations.
  15. 15. Cont..  Such an anthropocentric approach rests on static conceptualisations that neglect contemporary knowledge about the dynamics of the environment and culture.  Sustainable tourism is hereby reduced to maintaining a ‘natural’ equilibrium as a measurable state toward which intervention strategies can be applied as an economic trade- off between present utilisation and presumed future needs.
  16. 16. Cont..  Tourism that wisely uses and conserves resources in order to maintain their long-term viability.  Essentially, sustainable tourism involves the minimization of negative impacts and the maximization of positive impacts.
  17. 17. WHY IS SUSTAINABILITY IMPORTANT  Sustainability is important for number of reasons:  Sustainability approach would enable companies to mitigate impact on environment, which is important to maintain equilibrium in the world.  It is also important to reduce emissions and also minimize climate changes.  It would enable to contribute meaningfully to the society as well as build up positive relationship with communities.
  18. 18. Cont..  Sustainability approach would also enable to build a unique competitive advantage for the firms. It would enable to create a stronger bond with employees and stakeholders as well.  It enables optimizing the utilization of resources as well as reduces impact of operations on nearby areas.
  19. 19. Cont..  Eg. Hotel Energy Solutions (2013): “In a world looking for new models of economic growth and development, fighting climate change and adopting sustainable management practices is no longer an option, but a condition for survival and success…”  The “green” hotel business is a growing niche because not only do these establishments differentiate themselves from the similar non-green hotels, but they also fulfil a need in the market for less environmentally damaging hotels.
  20. 20. Cont..  According to Fitiadisa (2013) this is mainly realized with decreases in costs achieved by the reduction of resource consumption and decreases in expenses and expected future expenses.  There are many other benefits realized from the introduction of more environmentally friendly practices such as reduced energy consumption, the avoidance of penalties enacted by environmental authorities, and accompanying improvements in customer trust and public image.
  21. 21. Cont..  Manaktola and Jauhari (2007) remark that becoming a green hotel can be the foundation for a great marketing strategy, and the first step in marketing is providing consumers with what they want or need.  A growing consumer base exists for green hotels, and marketing the green practices of a hotel can help to position it distinctly in the market place.
  22. 22. Cont..  The environment is the major recipient of negative impacts created by the construction and operation of hotel and facilities.  The success of tourism, as well as the hotel industry, largely depends on the availability of a clean environment.  Exerting pressure for change: the increase in influence of the “green” investor including banks that want to limit exposure to environmental risk, and the “disproportionate influence on consumer behavior” of environmental pressure groups.
  23. 23. Sustainable Development and Sustainable Tourism  The notion of sustainable development is now integral to tourism, policy and management.  Indeed, the political and economic debate over the way in which sustainability should be defined, developed and implemented is a reflection of longstanding differences between different members of society over the best use of resources in industrial society.
  24. 24. CONT...  The famous Brundtland defined ‘sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’  Sustainable development has come to feature in many tourism textbooks, journal articles and student essays, even though tourism was hardly mentioned in the report
  25. 25. CONT..  As the world becomes more complex, sustainability as a concept will gain more momentum.  Changing technologies, more affluence and widening digital divide, urban migration across economies, global climate changes and imbalance in resources will exude more demands on finite resources.  The issues of water, energy, transport, housing, healthcare will become more pronounced in the coming decades.
  26. 26.  In light of these changes, sustainability in the context of hospitality industry will assume more importance.  Hospitality as an industry has an immense ability to contribute to economic growth of the world.  The appropriateness of such an approach and the very way in which ‘wise use’ is defined will depend on the disparate values and ideologies of various stakeholders
  27. 27. Sustainable Tourism  The paradigm of sustainable tourism emerged, and is still evolving, as a result of developments both internal and external to the tourism sector over the past half- century.  Sustainable tourism is centred on the viability of tourism and balancing industry and environmental impacts (Hunter, 1995).
  28. 28. CONT..  Sustaining tourism implies that management of the net productive value of the ‘natural’ capital is calculated in order to implement compensating resource replacement and substitution strategies (Hughes, 1995).  Meant to provide enjoyment for tourists and residents alike and becoming a source of local income, paradoxically, conservation efforts to maintain absolute equilibrium mean that the environment, including social and cultural aspects, should be kept in an unimpaired state for present and future generations.
  29. 29. CONT..  Sustainable tourism is hereby reduced to maintaining a ‘natural’ equilibrium as a measurable state toward which intervention strategies can be applied as an economic trade- off between present utilisation and presumed future needs.
  30. 30. Guiding Values in Sustainable Tourism Development  The five value sets are: Ethics, Knowledge, Professionalism, Mutuality and Stewardship.  Underpinned by a holistic and relational perspective, the values are portrayed as interlocking value principles because of their interconnectedness and their permeability.
  31. 31. Ethics  Ethics is concerned with distinguishing between behaviour that is right and is wrong.  It is the basis for good action and provides a framework for judging actions that are questionable Ethical behaviour means striving for actions that are deemed ‘good’ based on principles and values.  It also involves making such principles and values explicit and rendering the decision-making processes transparent.
  32. 32. CONT.  Recognising that good actions do not occur in a vacuum but are derived from specific value systems further requires understanding and respect for actions based on different systems e.g. teleology and deontology.  Following Tribe (2002b), by examining ethics we can further clarify the values of sustainable tourism development as they relate to good and just tourism
  33. 33. CONT..  Cohen (2002) points to the misuse of the concept in ‘ecotourism’ as a marketing gimmick and, more fundamentally, the unequal power relations at stake in tourism development.  Seeing everyone as impartially situated as equals (Rawls, 1971) good and just tourism is not only for the few and wealthy who can afford to travel to safe havens before the crowds get there.
  34. 34. CONT..  Moreover, local populations in developing countries are often marginalised when external agents such as private or state entrepreneurs take control over valuable sites or attractive cultural practices in the name of sustainability.  Local communities are frequently depicted as the ones damaging the environment due to ‘traditional’ practices
  35. 35. CONT...  The ethical principle of intergenerational equity is easily masked behind the rhetoric of involving locals as participants in the development phase and perhaps as service personnel.  A very different connotation of equity is to address locals as users and stakeholders, which also secures local accessibility to valued environments (Cohen, 2002: 273
  36. 36. CONT..  Examples of local displacements are manifold, and only two will serve to illustrate the point about equitable access here.  In many parts of the eastern Caribbean, prime beach-front properties are occupied by all- inclusive hotel complexes and condominiums.  Consequently, claims of trespassing are made if locals attempt to enjoy their place in the sun. In the South African game reserves, it is well known that ‘locals poach’ while ‘tourists hunt’
  37. 37. Knowledge  Knowledge can be described as: expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject; what is known in a particular field; facts and information; or awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation. This implies that knowledge is more than data (summary descriptions of parts of the world around us) and more than information (data put into a
  38. 38. CONT..  Knowledge comes in both explicit and tacit formats. In most instances, it is not possible to have an exhaustive understanding of an information domain so knowledge is ceaselessly incomplete.  Knowledge is information connecting to existing knowledge. Knowledge is created through processes of selecting, connecting and reflecting.  Knowledge is always already predicated by existing knowledge, which means that knowledge involves interpretation and contextualisation.
  39. 39. CONT..  The dissemination and development of knowledge takes place in social environments that are characterised by information sharing and social interaction.  Access to social and educational networks can create or assist in refining the use of knowledge.  Networks and knowledge repositories are opening up as a consequence of the development of technical and institutional remedies connected to the social media
  40. 40. Professionalism  ‘Professionalism’ is a rather nebulous term as it implies not only a profession and the skills, competencies or standards associated with it, but also an attitude and behaviour that reflect these.  It has been defined as the ability to align personal and organisational conduct with ethical and professional standards that include a responsibility to the customer or guest and community, a service orientation, and a commitment to lifelong learning and improvement (Hoyle and John, 1995
  41. 41. CONT..  Professionalism incorporates leadership, practicality, attention to services, concern for the relevance and timeliness of evidence, reflexivity, teamwork and partnership building skills, and proactivity.  These elements of professionalism expose the need for a holistic approach to tourism education similar to Tribe (2002a) where broader aims of the industry and society are explicitly addressed in tourism curricula.
  42. 42. CONT..  Tourism education also needs to provide students with a dynamic learning experience that will enable them to operate sustainably and effectively in a fast changing and service- intensive sector, which Tribe (2002a) refers to as ‘philosophical practitioners’
  43. 43. Stewardship  Stewardship implies the responsibility to care for something and the accountibility to exercise responsibility.  As the editors of the present volume contend that the value of stewardship is deeply reflected in sustainable development, only a brief introduction to stewardship is provided he
  44. 44. Mutual Respect  mutual respect has been initially defined as diversity, inclusion, equity, humility and collaboration.  Equality requires different opinions, philosophies of life and cultures to be met with tolerance and mutual respect on the basis of universal human rights.
  45. 45. Sustainable Tourism Planning  Tourism not properly planned and managed can leave permanent footprints on the physical, social, cultural and economic environments of destinations.  Tourism development can be alienating to local residents, overcrowded, noisy, architecturally tasteless, and place pressures on infrastructure.
  46. 46. CONT..  Inappropriate types and scales of development may arise due to laissez-faire tourism policies and a lack of national, regional or local planning and regulation.  Governments and stakeholders in the tourism sector have a responsibility to ensure that in the development of tourism long-term prosperity and the quality of life of future generations are not placed at risk.
  47. 47. Cont..  Sustainable tourism development requires a process of planning and management that brings together the interests and concerns of a diverse group of stakeholders in a sustainable and strategic way.  It is this complexity that demands a planning approach which is multidimensional and is purposely integrative.
  48. 48. CONT..  Tourism planning requires an understanding of the meaning of sustainable development and the guiding values for promoting sustainable tourism.  It requires that communities be made to be sufficiently aware of the tourism industry and enabled to understand its impacts, as well as the various processes to integrate and engage in participatory planning, consensus building and conflict resolution among all stakeholders.
  49. 49. Sustainability Approach to Planning  The expected outcomes from tourism planning is sensitivity to environmental, social and cultural attributes of the destination.  • Provides quality tourism and leisure experiences valued by visitors and •residents is valued by business, government and the community. • Subsequently there are several guiding principles that underpin planning for sustainable tourism development.  These include: responsibility, commitment and leadership, cooperation, education, social creativity and freedom
  50. 50. Responsibility to Protect Natural and Cultural/Heritage Environments  The tourism industry shares with local residents, governments and all people the obligation to protect and maintain the heritage resources of our planet, which are required both to sustain economies.  This recognises the importance of the continuity of natural resources and the continuity of culture and the balances within culture (Wall, 1993) the act locality next the global think)
  51. 51. Commitment and Leadership  Destinations require strong, committed and effective leadership by business, government and community leaders at all levels.  A proactive role by stakeholders, rather than a passive one is necessary to ensure that heritage values are fully sustained.  More good community projects fail due to leadership breakdown than for any other reason.
  52. 52. Cooperation  Since all industries share responsibility for heritage and natural resources protection, coordination and support between all stakeholders is crucial to the achievement of sustainable tourism.  Stakeholders are the people and organisations who are or will be affected by tourism development either in the present or in subsequent years (Morra-Imas and Rist, 2009)
  53. 53. Cont..  We can distinguish four different stakeholders groups concerned with tourism within any destination:  Government authorities – with responsibility for planning the resources and • maintenance of basic municipal infrastructure  Local business community – who derive an income from the operation of commercial enterprise (this group includes owners, employees and suppliers)
  54. 54. Cont..  Local community – who share their area with each other and visitors; and •  Visitors – who make tourism viable. • (Bushell and Staiff, 2003)
  55. 55. Education  Sustainable tourism development involves the establishment of education and training programmes to improve public understanding and to enhance business and professional skills  The tourism industry in any region depends on a stable pool of skilled employees who can progress in their careers to higher levels of employment.  Businesses and communities must work together to inform, educate and inspire in everyone, stewardship and appreciation for the natural and cultural heritage and its protection through responsible conduct
  56. 56. Social creativity and freedom  Some regulation of every industry is inevitable, but sustainable tourism is best achieved as the product of a community sharing a vision for its economic, physical and social character.  There is a need to strike a balance between economic, environmental and social imperatives. This recognises that development is a process that enhances the quality of life, a broader notion than economic prosperity.  In the context of sustainability, development is best described as a change process which can be physical change, attitudinal, and/or cultural change.
  57. 57. The Policy Problem Attributes of Sustainable Tourism: Implications for Approaches  Sustainability is a ‘wicked’ or meta-policy problem that has led to new institutional arrangements and policy settings at international, national and local scales.  Sustainable tourism is a sub-set of this broader policy arena discourse , with its own specific set of institutions and policy actors at various scales, as well as being a sub-set of tourism policy overall (Hall, 2011).
  58. 58. Cont..  Sustainability problems may also pose different challenges than other policy problems (e.g. education, taxation, health because of its attributes including: i. Temporality – Natural systems function over timescales that are often vastly greater than those which determine political and policy cycles (i.e. electoral terms) and business cycles and planning (i.e. quarterly reporting and annual shareholder meetings
  59. 59. Cont.. ii. Spatiality – Sustainability and environmental problems tend to be cross-boundary in nature and for some types of problems (e.g. climate change, deforestation, and biodiversity loss) global in scale One of the most significant forms of spatial problem in sustainability is the mismatch between government, regulatory and jurisdictional space, and ecological/ environmental boundaries; this greatly complicates the management of certain issues (e.g. watershed and species habitat).
  60. 60. Cont.. iii. Limits – The concept of sustainability suggests that there are limits to exploitation of natural capital because of its limited capacity for renewal. iv. Cumulative – Most anthropogenic impacts are cumulative rather than discrete. v. Irreversibility – Some natural capital or environmental assets cannot be renewed (i.e. a species) or are not easily substituted. In some cases (e.g. soil, groundwater or ozone), the timescale for renewal is well outside the normal parameters of policy and business cycles.
  61. 61. Cont.. vi. Complexity and connectivity – Sustainability problems are interconnected or interlocking meaning that issues such as climate change and biodiversity cannot be easily separated in scientific terms although they often are in policy- making and institutional arrangements. Solutions to environmental sustainability problems, therefore, have salient implications for social and economic policy and vice versa
  62. 62. Cont.. vii. Ontology – The terms ‘human impact’ or ‘tourism impact’ ontological positions of tourism and tourists as ‘outside’ the system under analysis, as outside of nature from a realist material ontology of classical empiricism (Hall 2013).  This is despite research on global environmental change demonstrating just how deeply entangled tourism is in environmental systems (Gössling & Hall 2006)
  63. 63. Cont.. viii. Uncertainty – Some aspects of sustainability are characterised by ‘pervasive uncertainty’ making it difficult to determine the efficacy, implications and socio-economic impacts of policy measures (Dovers & Handmer 1992). Viv. Ethical issues – Although ethical questions are integral to all policy choices, sustainability is complicated by the centrality of both intra- and inter-generational equity to the concept, as well as the rights of non-human species).
  64. 64. Cont.. The development and use of indicators is increasingly viewed as a fundamental part of overall.
  65. 65. Common Pool Resources in Tourism  The CPR discourse is rooted in the theory of public goods in public economics (Samuelson 1954).  CPRs are natural human resources characterized by nonexcludability in their use and subtractability because their quantity is finite for specified time period.  This implies rivalry and competition in their use among potential users.  Read the ‘Tragedy of the Commons’ by Ostrom,
  66. 66. Cont...  CPRs are the atmosphere, water resources, oceans, fisheries, ecosystems, forests, wildlife, landscapes, and grazing systems, among others.  Non-conventional CPRs include transport systems, ports, urban areas, the Internet, the electro-magnetic spectrum, genetic data, traditional transmission (cultural commons), intellectual resources, socio-economic costs and benefits, and budgets, among others.
  67. 67. Cont..  Ostrom (1990) has distinguished three types of CPR users: owners (ownership rights), appropriators (use rights) and consumers (utilization rights).  The role of CPRs in tourism has been addressed mostly in the context of the broader discourse on sustainable tourism development.
  68. 68. Cont..  The tourism commons (TC) can be defined as the collection of natural, manmade and socio-cultural resources in host areas and their surrounding regions which are implicated in tourism;  Thus, they are purposefully or inadvertently used in common by tourist and non-tourist activities.  The elements of the TC belong to four broad categories: the broader landscape, natural, sociocultural and manmade resources.
  69. 69. Cont..  Nonexcludability and subtractability:  These are the principal defining features of the tourism commons.  The idea underlined that It is not easy or feasible to exclude tourists or other users from using the TC.  Moreover, as soon as the conditions of the TC improve (e.g. bathing water) for a class of tourists this improvement is shared by all users.
  70. 70. CONT..  Heterogeneity and variety:  The tourism commons are inherently heterogeneous in several respects.  They comprise diverse resources. Their elements are both material (tangible) and immaterial (intangible) and they are subject to multiple consumptive and nonconsumptive uses (Steins & Edwards 1999
  71. 71. Governing the Tourism Commons  Governance refers to dynamic political processes whereby state and non-state actors, from various spatial/organizational levels, set collective goals and select specific structures, mechanisms and instruments of coordination to steer society towards achieving them.  Models of governance reflect theories specifying who should be involved (politics), how – through which structures and processes (polity), and which instruments should be employed (policy) to steer society towards desirable goals
  72. 72. CONT..  The governance of the commons has been the focus of important research in the last decades, the landmark work being Ostrom’s “Governing the Commons’  Governing the tourism commons is far from easy given their heterogeneity and the threats they face.  The overarching goal is to promote sustainable tourism at destination regions.  Two specific objectives are to address the threats identified and to provide incentives for using the TC sustainably.
  73. 73. CONT..  Suitable governance systems to achieve these goals should respect the particular features and the importance of the different elements of the TC for sustainable development in specific tourism socio-economic and political contexts.