• Suppose, for example, we wish to
perform a content analysis of three
definitions of content analysis due to three
authors as below:
• Definition 1: Content analysis is a
research technique for the objective,
systematic, and quantitative description of
the manifest content of the communication.
• Definition 2: Content analysis is any
research technique for making references by
systematically and objectively identifying
specified characteristics within the text.
• Definition 3: We use the terms‘ content
analysis’ and ‘coding’ interchangeably to
refer to any symbolic behavior’s objective,
systematic, and quantitative description.
• Limitations of Content Analysis Method
• Difficult to gain access to the records or
• Information may be incomplete
• Information may be out of date
• Definitions and methodologies may vary.
The goals of contact analysis
• To reduce large amounts of
• To Identify and present
important aspects of the content.
• To focus on groups or individual
• To support some argument by
understanding the characteristic of
What Are the
Steps of Content
Step 1: Identify and Collect Data
Step 2: Determine Coding Categories
Step 3: Code the Content
Step 4: Check Validity and Reliability
Step 5: Analyze and Present Results
-can be extremely time
-can allow for both
-is inherently reductive,
particularly when dealing
with complex texts.
-is an unobtrusive means
of analyzing interactions.
-tends too often to simply
consist of word counts.
-when done well, is
considered as a relatively
"exact" research method.