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Organisation of the organism

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Organisation of the organism

  1. 1. 2. ORGANISATION OF THE ORGANISM 2.1 Cell structure
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2.1.1 Describe and compare the structure of a plant cell with an animal cell, limited to cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, ribosomes, mitochondria and vacuoles. 2.1.2 Describe the structure of a bacterial cell, limited to cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, circular DNA, plasmids. 2.1.3 Identify the cell structures listed in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 in diagrams and images of plant, animal and bacterial cells. 2.1.4 Describe the functions of the structures listed in 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 in plant, animal and bacterial cells. 2.1.5 State that new cells are produced by division of existing cells.
  3. 3. Cell? The structural, functional and biological unit of all the organisms
  4. 4. Which device is used to see the cells?
  5. 5. ? The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665
  6. 6. All cells have several basic features. ⚫ They are all bounded by a thin cell membrane. ⚫ Inside all cells is a thick, jelly-like fluid called the cytoplasm, in which cellular components are suspended. ⚫ All cells have one or more chromosomes carrying genes made of DNA (genetic material) ⚫ All cells have ribosomes, tiny structures that build proteins according to the instructions from the genes. © 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  7. 7. THE TWO MAJOR CATEGORİES OF CELLS The countless cells on Earth fall into two basic categories. Prokaryotic cells include Bacteria Archae Eukaryotic cells include 1. protists 2. plants 3. fungi and 4. animals. © 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  8. 8. CATEGORIES OF CELLS Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells • Smaller • Simpler • Lack membrane-bound organelles • Found in bacteria and archaea • Larger • More complex • Have membrane-bound organelles • Found in protists, plants, fungi, animals FİGURE 4.UN11 © 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd. ■ Prokaryotic cells are older than eukaryotic cells. ❑ Prokaryotes appeared about 3.5 billion years ago. ❑ Eukaryotes appeared about 2.1 billion years ago. ■ Prokaryotic cells are ❑ usually smaller than eukaryotic cells and ❑ simpler in structure. The Two Major Categories of Cells
  9. 9. Basic Structural Design of a Prokaryotic Cell
  10. 10. Plant Cell Cell wall Golgi Apparatus Chloroplast Mitochondrion Cell Membrane Central (Sap) Vacuole Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(RER) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Cytoplasm Nucleus
  11. 11. Animal Cell Golgi Apparatus Mitochondrion Nucleolus Nucleus Microtubules Ribosome Centrioles x2 (Centrosome) Cell Membrane SER RER Lysosome Cytoplasm
  12. 12. THE CELL MEMBRANE
  13. 13. OVERVIEW ? Cell membrane separates living cell from nonliving surroundings ⚫ thin barrier = 8nm thick ? Controls movement of molecules in & out of the cell ⚫ partially permeable ⚫ allows some substances to cross more easily than others ? Made of phospholipids, proteins & other macromolecules
  14. 14. RİBOSOMES ■ Ribosomes are very small organelles. (20 nm in diameter) They have two subunits ■ They are composed of 65% of rRNA and 35% of proteins. (nucleoprotein structure) ■ Because they are not membraneous structures, all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells include ribosome organelle ■ They synthesize proteins (and enzymes) from amino acids ■ Some ribosomes are "free" and some are attached to membranes (ER)
  15. 15. Free Ribosome: ⮚All cells have ribosome, ⮚Synthesizes proteins that used in the cell
  16. 16. Cytoplasm: ⮚Supports and protects cell organelles, ⮚Aqueous environment allow chemical reaction to occur
  17. 17. Cell Wall (plant) ⮚Outside of the cell membrane, ⮚Made up of cellulose, ⮚Fully permeable, ⮚Hold the plant cell in shape and prevent bursting
  18. 18. THE NUCLEUS ? Within the nucleus, long DNA molecules and associated proteins form fibers called chromatin. ? Each long chromatin fiber constitutes one chromosome. ? The nucleolus is ⚫ a prominent structure within the nucleus and ⚫ the site where the components of ribosomes are made. © 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  19. 19. Chromatin fiber Nuclear envelope Nuclear pore TEM Surface of nuclear envelope Nuclear pores TEM Nucleolus FİGURE 4.6 © 2017 Pearson Education, Ltd.
  20. 20. Endoplasmic Reticulum; ⮚Transport materials through the cell, ⮚RER have ribosomes, so that produce proteins so as to transport them out of the cell, ⮚SER have no ribosome, produce lipids, steroids, etc.
  21. 21. GOLGI BODY (GOLGI APPARATUS) ■ It is the package and secretion unit in the cell ■ Golgi apparatus consists of flattened sacs but the sacs are not interconnected like ER sacs. ■ It receives and modifies substances (proteins) produced by the ER ■ It is involved in transport of lipids in the cell ■ It synthesizes lysosome organelle
  22. 22. Mitochondrion: ⮚Have double membrane, its own DNA, RNA and ribosome, ⮚Inner membrane have many folding (cristae), cytoplasm is called matrix, ⮚Site of aerobic respiration (break down of sugar molecules to relese energy) Which cells contain more mitochondria ? Why?
  23. 23. Chloroplast (only in plant cell) ⮚Contains green pigment, chlorophyll, ⮚Have own DNA, RNA and ribosome ⮚Double membrane with inner membrane modified to sacs (thylakoid), ⮚Jelly structure inside (stroma), ⮚Uses energy from sun to make food (glucose) for the plant, ⮚Process called photosynthesis, ⮚Release oxygen
  24. 24. Vacuole: ⮚Fluid filled sacs, ⮚Fluid is called cell sap in plant (water, sugar, amino acids, etc.), ⮚Plants cells have large, central vacuole, whereas animal cells have small and many numbers, ⮚Store food, water, metabolic & toxic wastes, ⮚Store large amounts of food or sugars in plants.
  25. 25. Lysosome (only in animal cells); ⮚Contains digestive enzymes, ⮚Breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules, ⮚Digests old cell parts
  26. 26. Centrioles x2 = Centrosome (only in animal cells): ⮚Near to nucleus, ⮚Separate replicated chromosomes during cell division
  27. 27. Compare plant and animal cell Animal Plant Both 2.1.1 Describe and compare the structure of a plant cell with an animal cell, limited to cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, ribosomes, mitochondria and vacuoles.
  28. 28. LEARNING OBJECTIVES 2.1.6 State that specialised cells have specific functions, limited to: (a)ciliated cells - movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi (b)root hair cells - absorption (c) palisade mesophyll cell - photosynthesis (d)neurones - conduction of electrical impulses (e) red blood cells - transport oxygen (f) sperm and egg cells (gametes) - reproduction 2.1.7 Describe the meaning of the terms: cell, tissue, organ, organ system and organism as illustrated by examples given in the syllabus.
  29. 29. The human body is constructed from more than 200 different types of cell.
  30. 30. 1-Animal Specialized Cells: ❖Ciliated cells ❖Blood Cells: Red Blood & White Blood Cells, ❖Nerve Cells, ❖Sex Cells: Sperm & Egg 2.2.1 Relate the structure of the following to their functions: •ciliated cells - movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi, •root hair cells – absorption, •xylem vessels conduction and support, •palisade mesophyll cells– photosynthesis, •nerve cells – conduction of impulses, •red blood cells transport of oxygen, •sperm and egg cells – reproduction.
  31. 31. Ciliated Cell ✔Location? Air passage in lungs (trachea and bronchi) & oviducts in female reproductive system A-Human Specialized Cells ✔Structural feature to carry out its function? Have cilia (tiny extension) on their surface. Cilia beat back and forth to create a current in the fluid next to the cell surfaces. Cilia move mucus that traps dust particles & pathogens up to the nose and throat & moving egg from the ovary to the uterus.
  32. 32. A-Human Specialized Cells ❖ Contain the protein – Haemoglobin to carry oxygen ❖ No nucleus: Provide many space to have many numbers of haemoglobin ❖ Like flattened discs to provide large surface area for efficient absorption of oxygen.
  33. 33. A-Human Specialized Cells Nerve Cell (Neurone) Function? ❖Conduct electrical signal / nerve impulse ❖Long dendrites has long extention so as to bring the electrical signal to cell body, ❖Axon transmits impulse from one neuron to another neuron Telephone Pole+Caple
  34. 34. Reproduction A-Human Specialized Cells
  35. 35. B- Plant Specialized Cells: ❖Xylem Cells, ❖Root Hair Cells, ❖Palisade Mesophyll 2.2.1 Relate the structure of the following to their functions: •ciliated cells - movement of mucus in the trachea and bronchi, •root hair cells – absorption, •xylem vessels conduction and support, •palisade mesophyll cells– photosynthesis, •nerve cells – conduction of impulses, •red blood cells transport of oxygen, •sperm and egg cells – reproduction.
  36. 36. Root hair cells Mop Root hair cell Has long extension to increase surface area for absorption of water and mineral ions from soil Is there any chloroplast in the root hair cells?
  37. 37. Xylem vessels ❖ Cylindrical, empty, lost its end wall to form long continuous tube. ❖ Its cell wall is thickened by a waterproof material called lignin. Functions: ❖ Transport water & mineral ions from root to rest of the plant (Conduction). ❖ Support stem and leaves.
  38. 38. Palisade Mesophyll Cells ❖Have many chloroplast in which photosynthesis occur
  39. 39. Learning Check Question 1
  40. 40. Learning Check Question 2

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