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The history, geography, people and society, government, and economy of CANADA.

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  1. 1. CANADA
  2. 2. CANADA: BACKGROUND  A country of immense remoteness and rich natural resources, Canada became an independent colony in 1867, but maintained ties to the British crown.  Canada ended its British structure of government in 1982, reversing a final colonial tie.  Economically and technologically, the country has developed alongside the U.S., its sole neighbor across the world's longest international border.  Canada deals with the political trials of meeting public requests for quality upgrading in health care, education, social services, and economic competitiveness while taking action with respect to certain concerns of French-speaking Quebec.  Furthermore, Canada aspires to grow its varied energy resources while upholding its obligation to the environment.
  3. 3.  Location: Northern North America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean on the east, the North Pacific Ocean on the west, and the Arctic Ocean on the north, north of the continental U.S.  Geographic coordinates: 60 00 N, 95 00 W  Map references: North America  Area: • Total: 9,984,670 sq. km • Land: 9,093,507 sq. km • Water: 891,163 sq. km  Country comparison to the world: 3 CANADA: GEOGRAPHY
  4. 4. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Area – comparative: slightly larger than the U.S.  Land boundaries: • Total: 8,893 km • Border countries (1): U.S. 8,893 km (includes 2,477 km with Alaska) • Note: Canada is the world’s largest country that shares borders with only one country and the second-largest country in the world after Russia  Coastline: 202,080 km (note: the Canadian Arctic Archipelago – containing 36,563 islands, of which several are among the world's biggest – is one contributing factor to Canada boasting the world’s longest coastline) • Maritime claims: • territorial sea: twelve nm • contiguous zone: twenty-four nm • exclusive economic zone: 200 nm • continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
  5. 5. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Climate: differs from mild in south to subarctic and cold in north  Terrain: commonly plains with mountains in west, lowlands in southeast  Elevation: • Mean elevation: 487 m • Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean zero m, highest point: Mount Logan 5,959 m  Natural resources: iron ore, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, rare earth elements, molybdenum, potash, diamonds, silver, fish, timber, wildlife, coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydropower
  6. 6. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Land use: • Agricultural land: 6.8% (arable land 4.7%; permanent crops 0.5%; permanent pasture 1.6%) • Forest: 34.1% • Other: 59.1% (2011 est.)  Irrigated land: 8,700 sq. km (2012)  Population – distribution: the vast majority of Canadians live in an intermittent stretch surrounded by roughly 300 km (180 mi) of the southern border with the United States; the most populous province is Ontario; the next two populous provinces are Quebec and British Columbia
  7. 7. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Natural hazards: unceasing permafrost in north is a severe hindrance to growth; cyclonic storms grow east of the Rocky Mountains, a consequence of the blending of air masses from the Arctic, Pacific, and North American interior, and create the majority of the country's rain and snow east of the mountains  Volcanism: the vast majority of volcanoes in Western Canada's Coast Mountains are still inactive  Environment – current issues: metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impacting agricultural and forest productivity; air pollution and resulting acid rain severely affecting lakes and damaging forests; ocean waters becoming contaminated due to agricultural, industrial, mining, and forestry activities
  8. 8. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Environment – international agreements: • Party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Antarctic- Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands • Signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Marine Life Conservation
  9. 9. CANADA: GEOGRAPHY (CONT.)  Geography – note: second-largest country in the world (after Russia) and largest in the Americas; tactical location between Russia and the U.S. by way of the north polar route; almost 90% of the population resides within 160 km (100 mi) of the U.S. border; Canada has more fresh water than any other country, and virtually 9% of its land is water; Canada has at least 2 million and perhaps more than 3 million lakes – that is more than all other countries put together
  10. 10. CANADA: PEOPLE AND SOCIETY  Population: 35,623,680 (July 2017 est.)  Country comparison to the world: 38  Nationality: • Noun: Canadian(s) • Adjective: Canadian  Ethnic groups: Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%  Note: percentages add up to more than 100% because respondents were able to identify with more than one ethnic origin (2011 est.)
  11. 11. CANADA: PE OPL E AND SOCIE TY (CONT. )  Languages: English (official) 58.7%, French (official) 22%, Punjabi 1.4%, Italian 1.3%, Spanish 1.3%, German 1.3%, Cantonese 1.2%, Tagalog 1.2%, Arabic 1.1%, other 10.5% (2011 est.)  Religion: Catholic 39% (includes Roman Catholic 38.8%, other Catholic .2%), Protestant 20.3% (includes United Church 6.1%, Anglican 5%, Baptist 1.9%, Lutheran 1.5%, Pentecostal 1.5%, Presbyterian 1.4%, other Protestant 2.9%), Orthodox 1.6%, other Christian 6.3%, Muslim 3.2%, Hindu 1.5%, Sikh 1.4%, Buddhist 1.1%, Jewish 1%, other 0.6%, none 23.9% (2011 est.)
  12. 12. CANADA: GOVERNMENT  Country name etymology: originates from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata meaning “village” or “settlement”  Government type: federal parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Canada) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm  Capital: Ottawa (Toronto is the largest city) • Geographic coordinates: 45 25 N, 75 42 W • Time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, D.C., during Standard Time) • Daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November • Note: Canada has six time zones
  13. 13. CANADA: GOVERNMENT (CONT.)  Administrative divisions: ten provinces and three territories (marked with *): Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories*, Nova Scotia, Nunavut*, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon*  Independence: 1 July 1867 (union of British North American colonies); 11 December 1931 (recognized by UK per Statute of Westminster)  National holiday: Canada Day, 1 July (1867)
  14. 14. C A N A DA : A D M I N I S T R AT I V E D I V I S I O N S M A P
  15. 15. CANADA: GOVERNMENT (CONT.)  Constitution: composed of unwritten and written acts, rituals, judicial decisions, and traditions dating back to 1763; the written part of the constitution comprises the Constitution Act of 29 March 1867, which established a confederation of four provinces, and the Constitution Act of 17 April 1982; numerous amendments to the 1982 Constitution Act, most recent in 2011 (2016)  Legal system: common law system (excluding Quebec, where civil law based on the French civil code is predominant)  International law organization participation: accepts obligatory ICJ jurisdiction with uncertainties; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
  16. 16. CANADA: GOVERNMENT (CONT.)  Citizenship: • Citizenship by birth: yes • Citizenship by descent: yes • Dual citizenship recognized: yes • Residency requirement for naturalization: three years  Suffrage: eighteen years of age; universal  Monarch: Elizabeth II  Governor General: Julie Payette  PM: Justin Trudeau  Chief Justice: Richard Wagner
  18. 18. CANADA: GOVERNMENT (CONT.)  International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CDB, CE (observer), EAPC, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NAFTA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS, OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC  Canadian Ambassador to the U.S.: David Brookes MacNaughton (since 2 March 2016)  U.S. Ambassador to Canada: Kelly Knight Craft (since 23 October 2017)
  19. 19. C A N A D I A N E M BA S S Y I N WA S H I N G T O N, D. C.
  21. 21. CANADA: GOVERNMENT (CONT.)  Flag description: two perpendicular bands of red (hoist and fly side, half width) with white square between them; an eleven-pointed red maple leaf is placed in the white square; the maple leaf has long been a Canadian icon  National symbol(s): maple leaf, beaver; national colors: red, white  National anthem: “O Canada” (English version:, French version: • Lyrics/music: Adolphe-Basile Routhier (French), Robert Stanley Weir (English)/Calixa Lavallee • Note: adopted 1980; originally written in 1880, “O Canada” was an informal anthem many years before it was officially adopted; the anthem has French and English versions whose lyrics differ; as a member of the Commonwealth, Canada additionally uses the British national anthem “God Save the Queen” as the royal anthem (see United Kingdom)
  22. 22. CANADA: ECONOMY  Canada resembles the U.S. in its market-focused economic system, model of production, and high living standards.  Since World War II, the remarkable development of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a mainly rural economy into a largely industrial and urban one.  Canada has a large oil and natural gas sector, with the majority of crude oil production obtained from oil sands in the western provinces, particularly Alberta.  Canada now ranks third in the world in verified oil reserves, behind Venezuela and Saudi Arabia; it is the world’s sixth-largest oil producer.
  23. 23. CANADA: ECONOMY (CONT.)  The 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement and the 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement (which includes Mexico) intensely surged trade and economic assimilation between the U.S. and Canada.  Canada and the U.S. have the world’s most inclusive and highly stable joint trade and investment relationship, with stock trade of $544 billion in 2016, services trade of over $80 billion, and two-way investment reserves of almost $700 billion.  More than three-fourths of Canada’s ships are bound for the U.S. on an annual basis.  Canada is the leading foreign supplier of energy – including oil, natural gas, and electric power – to the U.S.; it is also a principal source of U.S. uranium imports.
  24. 24. CANADA: ECONOMY (CONT.)  With its plentiful natural resources, vastly accomplished labor force, and up-to-date capital stock, Canada enjoyed strong economic growth from 1993 up to 2007.  The worldwide economic crisis of 2007-08 moved the Canadian economy into severe downturn by late 2008, and Ottawa announced its first fiscal deficit in 2009, following twelve years of surplus.  Canada's major banks arose from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, due to the financial sector's practice of conservative loaning practices and durable capitalization.  Since the fall in world oil prices in 2014, Canada has attained only limited economic growth.
  25. 25.  s/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html  REFERENCES