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O Timişoara (German: Temeswar, also
formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar;
Hungarian: Temesvár; Yiddish:
;טעמשוואר Serbian: Темишвар,
Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár;
Turkish: Temeşvar; Slovak: Temešvár) is
the capital city of Timiş County, and the
primary social, economic and cultural
center of Western Romania.
O The third-most populous city in Romania
(behind only the capital Bucharest and
Cluj-Napoca), with a population of
319,279 recorded at the 2011 census
(compared to 307,347 in 2007 – an
increase of 11,932, or 3.8%), Timişoara
is the unofficial capital city of the
historical region of Banat.
O In September 2016, Timişoara was
voted the European Capital of Culture
Ethnic map of Banat (2001–2002)
O The term Banat geographically
corresponds to the historical region
divided among Romania, Serbia and
O The eastern part lies in Western
Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-
Severin, and Arad south of the
Körös/Criș River on the border with
Hungary, and the western part of
Mehedinți); the western part lies in
Northeastern Serbia (mostly in the
autonomous province of Vojvodina,
excluding a portion in Belgrade); the
smallest part is in Southeastern Hungary
O The inhabitants of the region of Banat
are mainly ethnic Romanians, Serbs,
Hungarians, Germans, Krashovani,
Ukrainians, Slovaks, Bulgarians,
Czechs, Croats, Jews, Romani and
Thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
O First recorded in 1212 as the Roman
castrum (or fort) Temesiensis,
Timişoara became a fortress in the
middle of marshland in the fourteenth
O The Tatars demolished the town in
the thirteenth century, but its castle
(right) was rebuilt and served as the
residence of Charles I of Hungary,
the King of Hungary and Croatia from
Charles I of Hungary (also known as Charles Robert – Károly Róbert
in Hungarian, Karlo Robert in Croatian, and Karol Róbert in Slovak)
illustrated in the Chronicon Pictum (Illuminated Chronicle)
Sixteenth through twentieth centuries
O The Turks conquered the town in 1552 and occupied it until the Austrians took it in
O Following the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz, the city and the region – known as the
Banat of Temesvár – were administered by Vienna and inhabited by non-Magyars,
mainly Swabian Germans.
O Over the course of 107 days in 1848, the city resisted a blockade by Hungarian
O After a brief Serbian occupation in 1918–1919, the 1920 Treaty of Trianon allocated
Timişoara to Romania.
O Anti-government demonstrations that erupted in Timișoara on December 15–17,
1989, ignited the revolution that overthrew communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu’s
O It was Ceaușescu’s use of lethal force to put down the demonstrations in Timișoara
that incited the army to switch to the side of the revolution.
O On Christmas Day, after Ceaușescu and his wife were convicted of crimes against the
state (economic harm and genocide), they were immediately killed by firing squad.
Culture and Economy of Timişoara
O Timişoara is an important culture center in Romania.
O The city is home to numerous higher-educational institutions, notably the
University of Timişoara, which was founded in 1948.
O Timişoara also has a state theater, a state opera and ballet, a philharmonic
orchestra, and a library.
O There are parks adjacent to the navigable Bega Canal, which flows through
the center of the city.
O Important buildings in Timişoara include the massive Roman Catholic
Cathedral (built from 1736–1773), the Serbian Orthodox Cathedral (originally
finished in 1748; restored in 1791), and the regional museum, enclosed in a
O Timişoara is also a business center and has undergone industrial expansion,
particularly since World War II.
O Its leading manufactures are electric motors and electrical apparatus, textiles,
farm machinery and implements, plastics, footwear, and foodstuffs.
University of Timişoara National
Theatre and Opera
Did you know?
O Francesco Illy (Hungarian: Illy
Ferenc; shown right), the inventor of
coffee machinery, was born in
O In 1884, Timişoara became the first
European city to have electric street
Commemoration of Timişoara’s first
operation of electric street lighting