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TIMIȘOARA

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The history, demographics, and culture and economy of TIMIȘOARA.

Publicado en: Viajes
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TIMIȘOARA

  1. 1. Timişoara
  2. 2. Overview O Timişoara (German: Temeswar, also formerly Temeschburg or Temeschwar; Hungarian: Temesvár; Yiddish: ‫;טעמשוואר‬ Serbian: Темишвар, Temišvar; Banat Bulgarian: Timišvár; Turkish: Temeşvar; Slovak: Temešvár) is the capital city of Timiş County, and the primary social, economic and cultural center of Western Romania. O The third-most populous city in Romania (behind only the capital Bucharest and Cluj-Napoca), with a population of 319,279 recorded at the 2011 census (compared to 307,347 in 2007 – an increase of 11,932, or 3.8%), Timişoara is the unofficial capital city of the historical region of Banat. O In September 2016, Timişoara was voted the European Capital of Culture for 2021.
  3. 3. Map of Banat (Romanian Banat only)
  4. 4. Ethnic map of Banat (2001–2002) O The term Banat geographically corresponds to the historical region divided among Romania, Serbia and Hungary. O The eastern part lies in Western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș- Severin, and Arad south of the Körös/Criș River on the border with Hungary, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part lies in Northeastern Serbia (mostly in the autonomous province of Vojvodina, excluding a portion in Belgrade); the smallest part is in Southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county). O The inhabitants of the region of Banat are mainly ethnic Romanians, Serbs, Hungarians, Germans, Krashovani, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Bulgarians, Czechs, Croats, Jews, Romani and other ethnicities.
  5. 5. Thirteenth and fourteenth centuries O First recorded in 1212 as the Roman castrum (or fort) Temesiensis, Timişoara became a fortress in the middle of marshland in the fourteenth century. O The Tatars demolished the town in the thirteenth century, but its castle (right) was rebuilt and served as the residence of Charles I of Hungary, the King of Hungary and Croatia from 1308–1342.
  6. 6. Charles I of Hungary (also known as Charles Robert – Károly Róbert in Hungarian, Karlo Robert in Croatian, and Karol Róbert in Slovak) illustrated in the Chronicon Pictum (Illuminated Chronicle)
  7. 7. Sixteenth through twentieth centuries O The Turks conquered the town in 1552 and occupied it until the Austrians took it in 1716. O Following the 1718 Treaty of Passarowitz, the city and the region – known as the Banat of Temesvár – were administered by Vienna and inhabited by non-Magyars, mainly Swabian Germans. O Over the course of 107 days in 1848, the city resisted a blockade by Hungarian revolutionaries. O After a brief Serbian occupation in 1918–1919, the 1920 Treaty of Trianon allocated Timişoara to Romania. O Anti-government demonstrations that erupted in Timișoara on December 15–17, 1989, ignited the revolution that overthrew communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu’s régime. O It was Ceaușescu’s use of lethal force to put down the demonstrations in Timișoara that incited the army to switch to the side of the revolution. O On Christmas Day, after Ceaușescu and his wife were convicted of crimes against the state (economic harm and genocide), they were immediately killed by firing squad.
  8. 8. Timişoara during the Ottoman era, 1650
  9. 9. Battle of Temesvár, 1849
  10. 10. Serbian occupation of Timişoara
  11. 11. Romanian Revolution of 1989
  12. 12. Culture and Economy of Timişoara O Timişoara is an important culture center in Romania. O The city is home to numerous higher-educational institutions, notably the University of Timişoara, which was founded in 1948. O Timişoara also has a state theater, a state opera and ballet, a philharmonic orchestra, and a library. O There are parks adjacent to the navigable Bega Canal, which flows through the center of the city. O Important buildings in Timişoara include the massive Roman Catholic Cathedral (built from 1736–1773), the Serbian Orthodox Cathedral (originally finished in 1748; restored in 1791), and the regional museum, enclosed in a fourteenth-century palace. O Timişoara is also a business center and has undergone industrial expansion, particularly since World War II. O Its leading manufactures are electric motors and electrical apparatus, textiles, farm machinery and implements, plastics, footwear, and foodstuffs.
  13. 13. University of Timişoara National Theatre and Opera
  14. 14. Bega Canal
  15. 15. Timișoara Philharmonic Orchestra
  16. 16. Politehnica University of Timişoara
  17. 17. Did you know? O Francesco Illy (Hungarian: Illy Ferenc; shown right), the inventor of coffee machinery, was born in Timişoara. O In 1884, Timişoara became the first European city to have electric street lighting.
  18. 18. Commemoration of Timişoara’s first operation of electric street lighting
  19. 19. References O https://www.britannica.com/place/Timisoara O https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timi%C8%99oara O https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cities_and_towns_in _Romania O https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banat O https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Ceau%C8%99escu O https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Illy O https://socatour.ro/what-to-see/cultural-attractions-and- cities/timishoara-the-first-european-city-with-public- street-lighting-90
  20. 20. The End

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