Candida belongs to yeast-like fungi.
Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal
Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of hosts
Candida albicans is the most prevalent cause of fungal infections in
Rest Common candida are -
• C. GLABRATA
• C. PARAPSILOSIS
• C. KRUSEI
• C. TROPICALIS
• • C. AURIS
3. Morphology of yeasts and yeast-
They are unicellular fungi.
Their cells are spherical or ellipsoidal.
stained blue-violet with Gram technique,
They are reproduce by budding and
Budding : Yeast-like fungi may appear as
elongated cells arranged in the chains that is
resemble to mycelium (pseudomycelium).
Sporulation : Yeast-like fungi may form
blastospores and chlamydospores.
Blastospores are formed by budding of hypha
Chlamydospores are thick walled formations
formed by rounding up and thickenning of the
hyphal segments and including spores.
5. Cultivation of Candida spp.
Fungi are aerobes or facultative anaerobs.
They are cultivated on the special media with glucose at pH 5.5-6.5.
Nutrient media for fungi cultivation and isolation:
• Sabouraud`s glucose agar (pH 5.4),
• Sabouraud`s glucose broth,
• Czapek-Dox medium,
• cornmeal agar.
Cultures are routinely incubated at room temperature (22 C) for weeks
and at 37 C for day in the same time.
Candida are sensitive to heating
(they are destroyed by boiling in a 15
acids (3-7 % acetic acid, 2-3%
salicylic acid and benzoic acid),
disinfectants (5% chloramines and
Chlamydospores of Candida are
relatively resistant to desiccation and
Candidosis (candidiasis, moniliasis) is an endogenous
opportunistic mycosis of
• the skin,
• and rarely of the internal organs,
caused by C.albicans, C.tropicalis, C.glabrata, C.k
rusei and other species.
Candida species are normal inhabitants of the skin and
Candidosis may arise after durational antibiotic
Diabetes, immunodeficiency and pregnant state
10. Mode of transmission
• Mother to infant through childbirth
• Rarely through sexual contact
• People to people transmission in hospital settings
11. Virulence Factors of Candida
• Yeast, pseudohyphae and hyphae
• Hyphae is more important for infection
2. Adhesins (Als 3 Protein)
3. Invacins (Als 3 Protein)
• Helps with the invasion of C. albicans into
host epithelial and endothelial
4. Biofilm Formation
12. 5. Secreted hydrolases
• 3 main classes of hydrolases: proteases, phospholipases and lipases
• Helps in active penetration into host cells
• Helps in uptake of extracellular nutrients from the environment.
• 10 proteases (Sap 1-10), 4 major classes (A, B, C and D) of
phospholipases and lipases consist of 10 members (LIP 1-10).
6. Metabolic Adaption
• In the process of infection, it undergoes metabolic adoption such as their
glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and starvation responses.
• Due to this, it can infect almost any organ through the blood stream.
Virulence Factors of Candida
13. Stages of Infection
• Epithelial adhesion
• Nutrient acquisition
2. Superficial Infection
• Epithelial penetration
• Degradation of host protein
3. Deep-Seated Infection
• Tissue penetration
• Vascular invasion
• Immune evasion or escape
4. Disseminated Infection
• Endothelial adhesion
• Infection of other host tissues
• Activation of coagulation and blood clotting cascades.
14. Clinical forms of candidiasis
1. Cutaneous candidosis (intertriginous,
2. Mucosal candidosis (oral thrush,
3. Intestinal candidosis
4. Bronchopulmonary candidosis
5. Systemic infections (septicemia,
endocarditis and meningitis)
15. Oral thrush is demonstrated with creamy
white patches on the tongue or buccal
mucosa, that leave a blooding lesions
Cutaneous candidosis arises with
erythematous moist lesions with sharply
demarcated borders at left figure and
typical papular lesions at right one.
16. Laboratory diagnostics of candidosis
• Gram stained smears from lesions or
exudates demonstrate budding Gram-
positive oval cells,
• which produce pseudomycelium.
2. Culture method
• On the Sabouraud`s media they form
creamy white smooth colonies with yeasty
• Enzymatic saccharolytic activity is
detected to identify Candida spp. onto the
17. 3. Skin allergic test with candidin
4. Serological method
• Agglutination test,
• CFT with paired test sera are used to
diagnosis systemic and visceral
Laboratory diagnostics of candidosis
18. Therapy of candidosis.
Prophylactive antifungal antibiotics
nystatin and levorin are administered to
prevent candidosis after antibacterial
therapy with antibiotics.
Per oral or parenteral treatment with
fluconazole, clotrimazole, 5-fluorocytosine.
Local therapy with imidazole preparations
(bufanazole, ketokonazole and others).
At chronic long-lasting candidiasis it is
allowed autovaccine administration
19. • Keep healthy life style
Good hygiene, proper nutrition, careful antibiotic use.
Add probiotics, reduce sugar intake
Wear cotton underwear and loose pants
Change immediately wet clothes
Prevention and Control of Candida albicans