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Virtualization using VMWare Workstation and Cloud Computing

Virtual software (VMWARE)

A seminar report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements
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I, Hitesh Gupta, hereby state that the content of the following report is written,
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Virtualization using VMWare Workstation and Cloud Computing

  1. 1. Virtual software (VMWARE) A seminar report submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Award of the degree MASTER OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (2014)
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY I, Hitesh Gupta, hereby state that the content of the following report is written, edited and reviewed by me. This seminar report is an original effort on part of me. However, any external data including websites’ data, book data are used by citing proper references and authors wherever required. Signature: ….………………………………… Hitesh Gupta VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 2
  3. 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It feels me an immense pleasure to present this seminar report entitled ―Virtualization Software (VMWARE)‖ to ―Dr. M. Syamala Devi”, Professor at Department of Computer Science and Applications, Panjab University, Chandigarh. I would like to thank my professor for guiding me at regular intervals and helping me in completion of this seminar report. I would be remiss to fail to acknowledge our heavy debt to the VMware Official knowledgebase, published by VMware Inc. From this series of text, I acquired numerous ideas for how to create exercises that would give my fellow students repeated exposure to new and emerging technologies and adapt to them. I am grateful to have had access to the ideas contained in these outstanding textbooks like Mastering VMware by Scott Lowe! Finally, much of my understanding of the vocabulary terms introduced in this report was obtained from vSphere video lectures provided by VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 3
  4. 4. Contents Sr. Title Page 1 Certificate of Originality Acknowledgement Foreword Getting started with virtualization 2 3 6 7 1.1 1.2 ..Introduction to virtualization ..Types of Virtualization 7 8-17 ……Server Virtualization ……Desktop Virtualization ……Storage Virtualization ……Operating System Virtualization ……Network Virtualization ……Hardware Virtualization ……Para Virtualization 1.4 1.5 ..Virtualization Applications ..Virtualization Terminology 18-21 21 ……Host Machine ……Virtual Machine ……Virtual Disk ……Virtual Network ……Snapshot 1.6 ..Future of Virtualization 22-23 2 VMware 24-44 2.1 2.2 ..Introduction ..Free Products 24 25 ……VMware Player ……VMware Server ……VMware Workstation ……VMware Academic Alliance 2.3 ..Implementing VMware Server 26-44 ……Pros and Cons …… Getting Your (Free) Copy of VMware Server …… Installing VMware Server …… Creating a Guest Virtual Machine …… Starting the VMware Server Console …… Installing a new virtual machine …… Installing an Operating System …… Skipping the OS Installation Process …… Skipping the Application Installation Process 3 VMware Workstation 45-61 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 ..Introduction ..Benefits to college/ universities ..System requirements ..Files created by Workstation 46 46-47 47 VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 4
  5. 5. 3.5 47-48 ……Bridged ……NAT ……Host-only ……None 3.6 3.7 ..Networking Modes 13 ..Installation of VMware Workstation ..Creating a new VM 48 48 ……Selecting guest OS ……Provide Easy Install information …… Specifying the Virtual Machine Name and File Location …… Specifying Disk Capacity for a Virtual Machine …… Customizing Virtual Machine Hardware 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 ..Create a Typical Virtual Machine .. Installing and Upgrading VMware Tools .. Installing New Software in a Virtual Machine ..Using Virtual Machines 51 52 52 53-61 …… Start a Virtual Machine …… Shut Down a Virtual Machine …… Pause and Unpause a Virtual Machine …… Suspend and Resume a Virtual Machine …… Using the Drag-and-Drop Feature …… Using the Copy and Paste Feature …… Add a Host Printer to a Virtual Machine …… Use a Removable Device in a Virtual Machine …… Changing the Virtual Machine Display …… Report Battery Information in the Guest …… Use Exclusive Mode …… Use Unity Mode …… Taking Snapshots of Virtual Machines …… Closing Virtual Machines and Exiting Workstation 4 5 Case Study: DBaaS setup for Oxford University, U.K. Cloud Computing and Virtualization 62-64 65-68 5.1 5.2 .. The Difference between Virtualization and Cloud Computing .. The intersection of virtualization and cloud 66 68 6 References 69 VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 5
  6. 6. Foreword Although virtualization is all the rage in the tech industry press, and savvy market watchers have observed the exciting IPO of VMware, and Citrix’s acquisition of company, XenSource, the market for virtualization software is largely unaddressed. Depending on whose research you read, only 7 percent or so of x86 servers are virtualized, and only a tiny fraction of desktop or mobile PCs are virtualized. But the virtualization market is white hot, and every day new announcements in storage, server, and network virtualization make the picture more complex and harder to understand. This report provides the perfect way to develop a complete understanding of both the technology and the benefits of virtualization. Arguably, virtualization is simply a consequence of Moore’s Law –– the guideline developed by Intel founder Gordon Moore that predicts a doubling in the number of transistors per unit area on a CPU every couple of years. With PCs and servers becoming so incredibly powerful, the typical software suites that most users would install on a single physical server a few years ago now consume only a few percent of the resources of a modern machine. Virtualization is simply a consequence of the obvious waste of resources –– allowing a machine to run multiple virtualized servers or client operating systems simultaneously. But if that were all that were needed, there wouldn’t be such a fuss about virtualization. Instead, virtualization is having a profound impact on data center architectures and growth, on software lifecycle management, on security and manageability of software, and the agility of IT departments to meet with new challenges. And it is these opportunities and challenges that urgently need to be articulated to technologists and business leaders alike in an accessible and understandable way. Having spent many enjoyable hours with my guide, a recognized AI guru, I cannot think of a better-qualified author for a report whose objective is to cut through the hype and clearly and succinctly deal with virtualization and its effects on IT and users alike. This, together with author’s incisive, clear, and articulate style, makes this report a pleasure to read and a terrific contribution to the virtualization industry –– a concise categorization ofvirtualization that will further the understanding of the technology and itsbenefits, driving uptake of virtualization generally. It is with great pleasurethat I strongly recommend that you read this book. Hitesh Gupta Masters in Computer Applications. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 6
  7. 7. 1 GETTING STARTED 1.1 VIRTUALIZATION According to the Oxford English Dictionary, in the context of computing, virtual means ―notphysically existing as such but made by software to appear to do so.‖ Virtualization essentially means to create multiple, logical instances of software or hardware on a single physical hardware resource. This technique simulates the available hardware and gives every application running on top of it, the feel that it is the unique holder of the resource[4]. Virtualization is a technique for using computing resources and devices in a completely functional manner regardless of their physical layout or location. This includes splitting a single physical computer into multiple "virtual" servers, making it appear as though each virtual machine is running on its own dedicated hardware and allowing each to be rebooted independently. In storage virtualization, on the other hand, the server regards multiple physical devices as a single logical unit. Virtualization is nothing but creating a virtual environment for any program to run on an existing platform as a guest, without interfering or interrupting with the host platform’s services or programs. The virtual environment running might be an Operating System, Storage device, Network or an Application server among other things. It would be easier to understand the concept with more details like it types and uses. Below are some Types of Virtualization: VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 7
  8. 8. 1.2 TYPES OF VIRTUALIZATION: 1. Server Virtualization: Most businesses often use a combination of a number of application servers, web servers, image servers, document servers, audio and video servers, database servers, print servers etc. Servers vary in terms of their user activity and other factors. The servers which aren’t used to their full capacity, asignificant amount of money, energy and resources is still to be spent by companies to maximize their uptime, keeping them updated and preventing them from crashes and overheating. A single physical server can become multiple virtual machine (VM). These VM’s reside on energy efficient servers which then, imitates to be multiple servers on the network. Users can interact with virtual servers as if they were still physical servers. Companies would now need to maintain, power and cool a very fewer servers.These facilities have been assaulted with virtual servers, virtual networks, virtual storage, virtual appliances, and other ―V-technologies‖. These technologies are designed to provide the following benefits for data center environments:      Cost reduction and higher asset utilization Greater stability and higher availability Simplification of operational processes Greater fault tolerance and flexibility Portability in terms of server types and OS. 2. Desktop Virtualization:These are similar to server virtualizations. Having multiple desktops individually can waste energy, time and resources to maintain as well as increase the risk of data loss or theft. We can virtualize desktops into energy efficient data centers. The desktops now become thin clients and sensitive data is not stored on them. This gives users the following benefits:  No PC maintenance.  No individual software updates.  No hard drive crashes  Less costs  Uses less energy  Centralized IT management  Easy update service packs, OS patches.  Easily restore servers/desktops in case of natural disaster. 3. Storage Virtualization:Storage systems are complex, and may be thought of as a special purpose computer designed to provide storage capacity along with advanced data protection features[W3]. In this type, the actual storage space that use to be offered by your SAN (Storage Area Network) or NAS (Network Attached Storage) is virtualized. Virtualizing storage space means you also are virtualizing your Virtual Machine disk files as well. This becomes extremely useful for Business Continuity Planning and Disaster Recovery due to following benefits it entails:   Easily replicate your storage across over to another location or even a different geographical regions. Fault tolerant clusters for their storage. Eg. SnapMirror form NetApp VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 8
  9. 9. Types of Storage Virtualization [5]:   Block virtualization used in this context refers to the abstraction of logical storage from physical storage so that it may be accessed without regard to physical storage or heterogeneous structure. This separation allows the administrators of the storage system greater flexibility in how they manage storage for end users. File virtualization addresses the NAS challenges by eliminating the dependencies between the data accessed at the file level and the location where the files are physically stored. This provides opportunities to optimize storage use and server consolidation and to perform non-disruptive file migrations. 4. Operating System Virtualization Operating System Virtualization is a type of Virtualization concept that most users today are familiar with. It typically allows you to run and install any kind of Operating system like Windows 7 or a Linux distro on your existing operating system. It requires a Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) which allows you to install and manage multiple operating systems running simultaneously even (If your machine has powerful resources). The operating systems run virtually of course without the any knowledge that it is installed on an existing platform or that there is another virtual operating system running alongside (If you choose to install multiple operating systems on your VMM). VMwareis probably the one of the most used Virtual Machine Manager’s today. In the IT industry, this serves as a huge benefit. It allows them to run their server on the virtual environment, which results in saving the costs of extra machine, hardware components, space, location fees, power management, etc. The benefit of operating system virtualization is its efficiency. Rather than running a number of complete guest OSes so that applications can each have access to dedicated operating resources, operating system virtualization uses a set of libraries to provide operating system functionality and file mapping services; consequently, much less software is required to enable the applications to be isolated. Therefore, operating system virtualization is quite efficient, enabling high performance for the overall system. Put another way, operating system virtualization imposes little overhead for the virtualization capability achieved, thereby ensuring most of the machine’s resources are available to the applications running in the containers. This has the effect of allowing more containers to run on a given piece of hardware than would be possible with the more heavyweight hardware emulation virtualization approach. Operating system virtualization is well suited when an organization requires large numbers of homogeneous operating environments. It’s not such a good choice when different environments are required due to application requirements or operating system differences in version or patch level. Operating system virtualization can be obtained from Sun, which provides it as part of its Solaris operating system. A commercial provider of OS virtualization is SWsoft, whose Virtuozzo product is available for both Linux and Windows. OS virtualization works best in data centers where IT can control the components in the software stack. For example, OS virtualization is a good choice for Web hosting. Companies that provide Web hosting can use OS virtualization to give each hosted Web site the illusion that it has a complete machine dedicated to its use, even though in reality it might be one of a couple of dozen Web sites, all of which are hosted on that single machine. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 9
  10. 10. 5. Network Virtualization Chances are that many enterprises; although having deployed and used this form of virtualization are unaware that they are indeed using it, they don’t refer to it as virtualization, that’s all. It may not be used at end user level but the even small enterprises deploy it. In its very basic form, a VLAN created even on a small network can be termed as Network Virtualization. In Network Virtualization, Two (or more) virtual networks can be created within the same physical network belonging to the same IP range and yet they do not have the authorization to communicate with each other. They operate in their own logical network, with each logical network having different set of processes and functions to perform. They are segregated within the same physical network. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 10
  11. 11. 6. Hardware Virtualization An individual independent segment of hardware may consist of smaller pieces of hardware from multiple locations but are treated as an single independent device. The process requesting the hardware is totally unaware and usually only alerts in case if the hardware requirements for the process isn’t met. In other instance, if any process is pre-allocated say about 30 percent of CPU resources, 30 percent of CPU will be set aside and allocated to only that process. The process isn’t allowed more than 30 percent of CPU resources, and if it comes to that, the processes are queued up and run on FIFO (First In First Out) basis. One major downside of so-called x86 chips (see the intro to this section) is that that they don’t provide any convenient way for multiple operating systems to share the resources of the computer. So if you want to run multipleoperating systems (in contrast to running virtualization within a single copyof an operating system, discussed in the previous section), you need toimplement a method whereby every time a virtualized operating systemattempts to call upon system resources, you intercept the call and redirect itin such a way that the virtualization software can manage multiple instancesof operating systems. This interception and redirection of operating system calls requires cleversoftware because it operates at a very low level — at the interface betweenthe OS and the physical hardware. Not only does the software need to reliably catch (called trap) these calls, it must also do it very fast; otherwise, theperformance hit of running virtualization would outweigh the benefits of hardware multiplexing. This specialized virtualization software even has its own name: hypervisor. (The term hypervisoris a bit of a play on words. Anoperating system is sometimes referred to as a supervisor, so the virtualization software acts as a supervisor of the supervisors and is therefore dubbeda hypervisor. This is what passes for humor in the computer science world.) The best-established method of virtualizing access to system resources iscalled hardware emulation. In this method, the hypervisor creates a virtualmachine by emulating an entire hardware environment. The operating systemthat’s loaded into a virtual machine is a standard, unmodified product. As itmakes calls for system resources, the hardware emulation software catchesthe system call and redirects it to manipulate data structures provided by the hypervisor. The hypervisor itself makes calls to the actual physical hardware underlying all the software. Hardware emulation addresses that problem by cleverly substituting piecesof code within the operating system at runtime in a process called binarytranslation.What that means is that when the guest operating system is running (thus the use of the term runtime), the hardware emulation hypervisorgoes in and changes part of the operating system. Because the operating system is an executable program, it’s in a format of 1s and 0s (zeroes), which are required to interact with computer hardware, also known as a binary(thus the phrase binary translation). The hypervisor translates the nativebinary format of the OS to the binary format of the hypervisor in the areas of the OS that makes calls to hardware resources. And, by the way, hardwareemulation can support both Windows and Linux guests. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 11
  12. 12. Binary translation occurs in parts of the operating system that interact withthe four key resources of the hardware: processor, memory, network, andstorage. The hypervisor replaces key sections of operating system code,such as network device drivers, with code that talks to the emulated hardware layer(essentially, a virtualized motherboard, containing virtual representations of a processor, memory, and so on), which is implemented in thehypervisor. The hypervisor then arranges to forward the calls from the emulated hardware to the actual physical hardware on the server. As you might imagine, this is complex stuff. However, it does allow you to run unmodified operating systems (unmodifiedby you, that is; remember, the hardware emulation virtualization softwaremodifies the operating system at runtime to enable it to cooperate with thehypervisor). This approach has several strengths. Running unmodified operating systems simplifies your job — all you have to do is load operating systems into virtualmachines. Furthermore, it lets you run unmodified applications within theguest operating systems, enabling you to use applications certified to runonly on certain versions of operating systems: Because you don’t modify the OS, your application should continue to be supported by its vendor. Furthermore, the hypervisor’s provider takes care of coordinating access to the physical hardwareresources, making it easy to use virtualization. You can take a couple of different approaches to hardware emulation virtualization. One is that the hypervisor is installed on top of an existing operatingsystem that resides on the physical server. In this approach, the hypervisoressentially acts as a user application that knows how to coordinate calls intothe underlying existing operating system so that the hypervisor can coordinate access to the host operating system for a number of guest virtualmachines. You might suspect that all the coordinating might take a lot ofprocessor cycles and would therefore reduce overall system performance. Another approach to hardware emulation is to install the hypervisor directlyon the server without an intervening already-installed operating system. Because this approach installs directly on the server, it is often called bare-metal virtualization, to symbolize the fact that no software sits between thehypervisor and the ―metal‖ of the server. In this approach to hardware emulation, the hypervisor intercepts system calls from the guest virtual machines and coordinates access to the underlying hardware directly. As you mightalso suspect, this approach provides much higher performance than the version of hardware emulation described in the previous paragraph. Hardware emulation is the type of virtualization implemented by VMware, the category leader in x86 virtualization. (Microsoft’s Virtual Server also implements hardware emulation.) VMware provides products that implement both approaches to hardwareemulation. VMware’s VMware Server is installed atop an existing operatingsystem (which can be Windows or one of several flavors of Linux), whereasits ESX Server implements bare-metal hardware emulation. Although VMwareServer’s approach to hardware emulation — the Install-it-ontop-of-the-OSpath — imposes a significant performance hit, it can be usefully appliedwhere performance isn’t critical. For example, lightly loaded servers can usefully apply this approach VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 12
  13. 13. to hardware emulation. It’s also useful for virtualizing client machines like a desktop or notebook PC. Hardware emulation does have some drawbacks: It imposes a performance penalty, even for the bare-metal approach. This problem occurs because translation is still going on, eating up some machine cycles as the hypervisor executes the translation.VMware does clever optimizations on this translation, caching data thatis repeatedly accessed, and so on, but some performance penalty stillexists. On the other hand, if you’re moving from a Pentium III–basedserver that’s running at only 15 percent utilization to a virtualized dualcore machine that offers 100 times the performance of the old machineand can thereby support six virtual machines, you might not be too worried that you’re not getting 100 percent of the potential performance ofthe new server. You’d be happy just taking advantage of what’s availablefrom the new machine. The idealized image of the hardware provided offers idealized device drivers.The hypervisor contains real device drivers that talk to theunderlying hardware. In other words, the hypervisor drives the underlying hardware, and as an end user, you must depend on the hypervisor toinclude the appropriate drivers for your hardware. Consequently, you’resomewhat limited in your choice of hardware because you need thehypervisor to include drivers to interact with your hardware. AlthoughVMware does a very good job of trying to keep up with new hardwarereleases and their accompanying device drivers, you might find yourhardware is unsupported. So checking the hardware compatibility list for ESX Server support is critical if you go down this path. Note thatVMware Server, while imposing a performance penalty, actually suffersless from the device driver issue because it is able to leverage the devicedrivers present in the underlying OS. 7.Paravirtualization:Paravirtualizationis the name for another approach to server virtualization.In this approach, rather than emulate a complete hardware environment, thevirtualization software is a thin layer that multiplexes(that is, coordinates)access by guest operating systems to the underlying physical machineresources; in other words, paravirtualization doesn’t create an entire virtual machine to host the guest OS, but rather enables the guest OS to interact directly with the hypervisor. Paravirtualization is an alternative approach to virtualization. Instead ofattempting to emulate the x86 hardware environment in software, a paravirtualization hypervisor coordinates (or multiplexes) access to the underlyinghardware resources of the server. The best-known example of paravirtualization is the open source product called Xen. Microsoft Server virtualization tobe released in the future also uses the paravirtualization approach.This raises the question of how paravirtualization actually manages the coordination to the underlying hardware, because the guest operating systemscontain code that expects to be able to interact directly with the hardware. Visualize, if you will, a hypervisor residing on the hardware, meaning thatparavirtualization is a bare-metal virtualization architecture. Insteadof the virtual machine approach of hardware emulation, paravirtualizationinstalls a guest OS — called DomainU in Xen parlance and child partitioning Microsoft parlance — directly on the hypervisor. Paravirtualization also adds VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 13
  14. 14. a wrinkle in that the hypervisor does not contain device drivers for networkand storage resources; instead it has a privileged guest,called Domain0 in Xenparlance and the root partition in Microsoft parlance. Domain0 runs as aguest but has privileges that allow it to directly access resources on the underlying hardware, whereas regular guest OSes access those resourcesthrough Domain0. It’s something like a bucket brigade: The guest OS sends amessage to Domain0 to request access to a hardware resource. Domain0 accesses the hardware resource on behalf of the guest OS. When data returnsto the hardware, Domain0 reads the information and then passes it back tothe guest OS.Domain0 is a standard operating system (like Red Hat Enterprise Linux) thathas been modified to coordinate with the hypervisor to control access tohardware resources. In practice, from a user’s perspective, the privileged guest looks just like a vanilla-version operating system; the required modifications reside in the kernel, far below what a user experiences while interacting with the OS.Rather than modify the guest operating system at runtime via binary translation, paravirtualization requires that guest operating systems be modifiedprior to execution to include code that can interact with the paravirtualization hypervisor. After modification, when a guest operating system accessesthe processor or memory, the modified code interacts with the hypervisor, which then coordinates access to those resources. It also handles access to storage and network resources differently than hardware emulation virtualization. Whereas hardware emulationvirtualization includes device drivers directly in the hypervisor, paravirtualization uses the native device drivers included in Domain0. Other guest operating systems have special stub drivers(called back-end drivers) thatcommunicate with stub drivers in the privileged guest (called front-end drivers). A stub driver is one that allows the guest operating system to make acall to what looks like a regular device driver, but instead of making a hardware call, the stub driver communicates with its counterpart in Domain0.(Why the funny name? Because it removes all the code necessary to talk to a device driver, it’s been effectively whittled down in size — a stub, in otherwords.)After the privileged guest receives data from the guest OS’s stub driver, itthen forwards the data on to the real device driver on behalf of the guest OS. So, for example, a guest OS call to send data through the network would gothrough its stub network driver to the privileged guest, which would receivethe network request in its stub driver and then pass the data on to its physical network card via a device driver. Communication between the two stubdrivers is extremely fast because it makes use of a system resource calledshared memory— essentially memory that can be accessed by more thanone software process. Because the memory is written by one process andread by a second with no need to copy the data in the memory, sharedmemory can offer extremely fast data throughput.A major benefit of this approach to device access is that the hypervisor doesn’tneed to contain any device drivers. It merely uses the shared memory communication to give the data to the privileged guest (remember, the privilegedguest is a regular operating system that contains a whole set of device drivers for the underlying hardware), which can reuse the native device driversfor access to hardware resources. This means that end users don’t dependon the virtualization software provider to support the hardware they own; instead, the privileged guest, which contains the drivers necessary to workwith the hardware, provides hardware support. So, for example, if the Domain0is Red Hat Enterprise Linux, then during installation, part of the processensures all necessary device drivers are present. When a guest OS needs toaccess storage or the network, the hypervisor uses those drivers. This avoids VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 14
  15. 15. a problem alluded to in the hardware emulation discussion earlier, where endusers can find that their virtualization software doesn’t support their hardware. A second benefit of this approach to virtualization is that it offers very goodperformance because there is less runtime translation of operating systemcalls as in hardware emulation. I have heard Xen users state that they experience no more than a 2 to 3 percent performance hit running applications invirtualized operating systems compared to running the same applications innonvirtualized operating systems. However, paravirtualization has a major drawback: the requirement to modifyguest operating systems prior to execution to include code to interact withthe hypervisor. The guest operating system cannot be installed as-is; rather,you have to modify the OS kernel prior to installation. Modifying a kernel toenable it to be virtualized is no picnic — something I can attest to from personal experience. Moreover, modifying the kernel requires access to thesource code. Although this modification is possible for open source operating systems like Linux or OpenSolaris, it isn’t possible for proprietary operating systems, particularly Windows. So Xen users have been stuck being ableto virtualize Linux operating systems, but not Windows. As you can imagine,this isn’t a desirable situation. This state of affairs has essentially limited paravirtualization’s uptake to technically savvy Linux users — admittedly arather small subset of the computing universe.Operating system vendors have instituted the following changes to mitigatethis unappealing situation: Some Linux distributions have been modified to include both regular andparavirtualized hardware interfaces in their kernels so that they’re capable at runtime of discerning which type of environment they’re executing in and using the correct interface for the environment. This solutionmeans you wouldn’t need to hand-modify the kernel on that particular distribution to get it to run on the paravirtualized hypervisor. Some Linux distributions have been modified to serve as Dom0 privileged guests. This change means that no kernel modification is necessary to enable them to communicate with the hypervisor via back-endstub drivers and coordinate access from the stub drivers to the nativedrivers Dom0 already contains. Both Red Hat and Novell have included this capability in their most recent releases. The new generation of chips that has been released by both AMD andIntel provides virtualization support in hardware. The effect of this chipupgrade is that Xen can support nonparavirtualized operating systems,thereby removing one of the most significant barriers to adoption, particularly with respect to supporting Windows guests. For more information on this new generation of chips and further hardware advances,Paravirtualization may be obtained from any operating system that providesit as part of the native OS. Xen is included in most popular Linux distributions, XenSource (the commercial sponsor of Xen) sells an enhanced versionof Xen as a commercial product called XenEnterprise, and Microsoft will VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 15
  16. 16. includeparavirtualization in its next Microsoft Server release. The following table provides the summary of virtualization technologies. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 16
  18. 18. 1.4 Virtualization Applications: To keep this document brief, see the summary table below: VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 18
  21. 21. [3] 1.5Virtualization Terminology: 1. Host machine or host computer- The computer on which the virtual machine software is installed (Virtual PC or VMware etc.). It is physical machine. 2. Virtual machine (VM) or Guest OS- The operating system that runs in virtual machine software on the host computer. Comprised primarily of a configuration file and one or more virtual hard drive files. It is logical in nature. 3. Virtual disk- One or more files that reside on the host computer that make up the VM’s hard disk. 4. Virtual network-The network configuration used by the VM. There are various options available: bridged, host only, NAT and none. VMs behave like just another computer on the network. 5. Snapshot-A partial copy of a VM at a particular moment in time. Allows you to ‘go back’ to the VM at that particular state. Some programs allow saving multiple snapshots. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 21
  22. 22. 1.6 Future of Virtualization: Virtualization Gets Integrated into Operating Systems: The inclusion of virtualization in operating systems reflects the OS prrecognition that virtualization is so critical a technology that it needs to be a fundamental part of the operating system. Of course, you might take a morcynical view: The OS vendors recognize that the virtualization market is tooimportant to cede to competitors like VMware. More importantly, OS vendors don’t want to lose their primary role in the data center. If end users focus their attention on how well their applications integrate with software than the underlying OS, that means OS vendors no longer are the key supplierto those end users. This is bad from their perspective. So, you can expect to see increasing virtualization integration from OS providers in their flagship products. In the future, look for this integration to be extended even further into areas like virtualization management, storage, and server pooling. Of course, such integration will present a challenge to independent vendors of virtualization products, particularly the leading vendor, VMware. Currently, it has significantly better functionality compared with the virtualization functionality present in operating systems, but that advantage will undoubtedly be reduced as OS vendors improve their products. Virtualized Software: Delivered to Your Door Preinstalled: Many software vendors find that the vast majority of their support calls are related to initial installation and configuration. If they could find a way to reduce the difficulty of initial installation and configuration, they could reduce the total amount they have to spend on support as well as focus their support resources on solving more critical issues. One initiative that many vendors have pursued to reduce installation complexity is to deliver the software preinstalled on a piece of hardware. These bundles of software and hardware are called appliances,and they can be a powerful way of delivering functionality to users. If you’ve ever installed a home wireless router, you’ve experienced how easy appliances can make bringing up a new software application; most consumer wireless routers are nothing more than a preconfigured Linux system installed in an inexpensive piece of hardware. Hardware appliances — those special-purpose pieces of hardware that are delivered with both an operating system and application preinstalled and preconfigured, ready to operate — are much easier to install when compared to the four-step process outlined earlier. Typically, you install the hardware in a server rack, power it up, and give it network connectivity. You don’t need to do any further work to get the software installed and configured. You take a Web browser interface (typically sporting an easy-to-use wizard) for a spin to configure the necessary network and user account information. That’s it. The appliance is installed and ready to use. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 22
  23. 23. Virtualization Diffusing into the Internet: One particularly neat use of virtualization, especially the operating system flavor of virtualization often referred to as containers, involves harnessing virtualization’s many talents to create more efficient Web-hosting applications. Software as a Service (widely referred to as SaaS) is the next frontier of Web-based services that will take advantage of virtualization. SaaS is the delivery of computing services over the Internet. Google’s Web searching is a form of SaaS. Google’s search makes it available via a Web page; you fill in the box with your desired search term, and Google’s enormous server farm remotely executes your search and returns the results in a set of web pages. The Changing Skill Set of IT Personnel: Managing the IT infrastructure from a higher-level perspective will require new skills in areas such as capacity planning and monitoring. For many system administrators, this situation will require a skill upgrade and a shift in perspective from tactical to strategic. It’s not too early to begin assessing your current duties and skills to see where you’re likely to need to develop new capabilities. Consider how you can begin to learn these new skills and seek out developmental opportunities. But whatever you do, recognize that the traditional way of running IT infrastructures will undergo a rapid transformation. Some IT personnel may resist the shifting nature of their responsibilities. You can minimize this resistance by pointing out that changing skill sets is the nature of IT because it evolves so rapidly. Emphasize the opportunity to learn new skills as a way of keeping current on the mainstream trends in IT. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 23
  24. 24. 2VMWARE 2.1 Introduction VMware was the first serious virtualization software developed by VMWAREInc, U.S.A. It was developed in mid 1990’s.It is leader in server and desktop virtualization. Market share: • VMware has 80.1% market share • Microsoft has 15.1% market share • Citrix XenServer has 4.1% market share [Source:] VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 24
  25. 25. 2.2 Free products by VMWARE: 1. VMware Player – It is the end-user software provided by VMWARE. It runs existing virtual machines but cannot create a new VM. It has many other limitations like inability to stretch virtual machines, limited OS support etc. 2. VMware Server – It is used in small business environments. It can create and run VMs and is better suited for low-end server applications. It provides similar options as workstation while implementation. Hence, it is not discussed in detail here. 3. VMware Workstation- It is the flagship product of VMware. It allows users to create and run virtual machines as well as to import VMs including the capability of virtualizing a physical machine. It has all the premium feature available like ability to create unlimited snapshots, creating movie tutorials etc. VMware Workstation 10® costs around $60(approx.) for new version and $50(approx.) for upgrade version from Workstation 7 and above. In this text, I will be discussing Workstation in detail. 4. VMware Academic Alliance-It is a free online program through with educational institutions can get unlimited licenses for classroom use. It is currently available in US only. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 25
  26. 26. 2.3 Implementing VMware Server: Understanding VMware ServerArchitecture: Pros and Cons VMware Server installs on top of an existing operating system, and virtual machines are then installed on VMware Server — meaning it isn’t one of those bare-metal virtualization products that you install directly on the server, with no intervening operating system whatsoever. Put another way, the VMware Server architecture means that the virtualization software resides in a layer between the host operating system and one or more guest operating systems. This approach has pros and cons. First, the cons:  The additional layer affects performance. The machine’s own operating system sits between the hardware and the virtualization software; that means there’s an additional layer of software between individual virtual machines and the underlying hardware. The result is that a portion of the machine’s capability isn’t available to your VMware Server because it’s devoted to running the underlying operating system.  The virtualization software contends for hardware resources with other applications on the host system. The virtualization software has less control over scheduling hardware resources because the underlying operating system controls the overall hardware scheduling, allocating the hardware resources among VMware Server as well as any other applications the underlying operating system is running. In other words, VMware Server is treated like an application, and it gets only a portionof the overall hardware resources.  It doesn’t provide as much functionality as its bare-metal brother.VMware’s ESX Server is the company’s flagship product, and as such it provides lots of ways to tweak the virtualization software’s configuration and to track the performance of individual virtual machines. It also provides the ability to do virtual machine failover and other higher-level functions. VMware Server is focused on providing basic virtualization functionality on individual machines and therefore doesn’t do as much as ESX Server. Now, the pros:  You don’t need to configure hardware.Because VMware Server installson top of the existing operating system, you don’t really have to worryabout configuring the hardware to work with the virtualization software,which is a big plus.  You can use existing hardware. ESX Server supports only certain hardwareproducts, which might very well mean you need to purchase new hardware to run it. VMware Server imposes no hardware requirements, which means you can use just about any machine as a VMware Server host. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 26
  27. 27.  For typical VMware Server users, the performance hit is irrelevant. Although you take a small performance hit from the extra layer of software, if you don’t really need high levels of performance from the system, that’s not much of a sacrifice.  You get flexibility in your choice of host operating system. VMware makes versions of VMware server available to run on either Windows or Linux, so you have a lot of flexibility when it comes to which virtualization path you take.  Multisystem configurations are welcome here. VMware Server is ideal for situations in which you need a multisystem configuration — several different virtual machines on a single server. Imagine, if you will, that you need to run a Linux machine running a CRM application, a Windows machine that contains the database the CRM system uses, and a second Windows machine running a Web server to provide access to the CRM system — and you’re willing to do all that without getting too worried about performance issues. If that’s what you want, then VMware Server is a great choice, because it offers a great foundation for exercising lowload, multisystem configurations. For that reason, the product is often used by software engineers for development and quality assurance purposes because they can easily create complex environments for testing purposes but typically don’t put much load on the systems.  Free: Did I mention the product is free? That makes up for a major advantage to us, testers. Getting Your (Free) Copyof VMware Server VMware has done a great job making it easy to install VMware Server. Theproduct runs on both Windows and Linux operating systems, but for the sakeof this discussion, I show you how to install it on a Windows machine. Acquiring VMware Server 1. Point your browser to, theDownload VMwareserver page on VMware’s Web site. 2. Click the Register for Your Free Serial Number(s) link.Doing so takes you to a registration page where you’ll fill out informationabout yourself and your environment. 3. Answer the questions and click Submit.This step takes you to the aptly named Download VMware Server – YourRegistration Has Been Received page that displays your serial number(s). 4. Print this page.This is your only record of your serial number, and you’ll need it later in the install process.If you don’t have access to a printer, you should write this information down and keep it handy. 5. Back on the Download VMware Server – Your Registration Has BeenReceived page, find the Download Now button and click it.An End User License Agreement (EULA) page appears, with Yes and Nobuttons.This is a legally binding agreement, so you should read it in its entirety. 6. Click the Yes button.You’re presented with a page with a number of download options. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 27
  28. 28. 7. Click the very first option — the VMware Server for Windows OperatingSystems option — which lets you download a self-extracting, installationexecutable file for Windows.Your browser should either download it automatically to your default download location or ask you where you want to download the file. That’sit. Now you have the install file for VMware Server on your machine aswell as a printed record of your VMware Server serial number(s). Installing VMware Server This section leads you through the process of installing VMware Server itself. 1. Double click the .exe file you downloaded to your machine in thepreceding step list.The VMware Server installer begins the installation process. You see a welcoming splash screeninviting you to begin installation. 2. Click Next to continue. You see another EULA acceptance screen. (You already saw one whenyou were downloading the .exe file.) You might think that a secondEULA is redundant, and you’d be right. However, you can’t continue theinstallation without accepting it. 3. Nod politely to the EULA and click the Accept button. The installation wizard asks whether you want a complete installation ora custom one. If this is your first exposure to VMware Server, I recommend you avoid trying to do any kind of custom installation. 4. Leave the default Complete radio button selected and click Next. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 28
  29. 29. VMware Server depends on a Web server running on the host toenable VMware Management Interface (VMI) access to the virtualizationsoftware. If you don’t have Internet Information Services (IIS) installed onyour Windows host operating system already, you get a message complaining about the fact that either IIS is not installed or itis misconfigured. Should you choose to, you can always come back andinstall the VMI at a later time once IIS has been installed and properly configured.Having IIS and VMI installed arenot necessaryfor VMwareServerto operate properly, so you can safely ignore the message. 5. Now you get to choose where to install VMware Server. I recommendyou accept the default, as depicted, and then click Next.A dialog box appears, noting that you have Autorun enabled for CDs —if you have it enabled, of course. If you do see this dialog box, I recommendyou disable it. The reasonis that the host system and all virtualmachineswill reactto a CD being insertedinto themachine if Autorun isenabled,which will drive you (and the machines) nuts. Better to configure thesystem not to Autorun. Because you need to deal with CDs to install guest virtual machines, leavethe default Yes, Disable Autorun check box selected, and click Next.You’ve now finished the configuration necessary to begin actual installation.You get a dialog box asking whether you’re ready to begin. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 29
  31. 31. 7. Click the Install button, and you’re on your way.During the installation, you’ll see an Installing VMware ServerComponents dialog box, along with a progress bar that very nicelyshows you how the installation is coming along.You then see a dialog box indicating successful installation of VMware Server, as shown. 8. Click Finish. That’s it! You have VMware Server available to run now. Creating a Guest Virtual Machine Well, you have VMware Server up and running, but . . . the whole point of runningvirtualization is to support guest operating systems. That’s the task you turn to next. You’ll be impressed with how straightforwarddoing this with VMwareServeris. Starting the VMware Server Console Everything you do with VMware Server is controlled through the VMwareServer Console. Think of it as the main administration mechanism to work withVMware Server and any guest Virtual Machine (VM) systems you’ve installed.Getting the VMware Server Console up and running is a piece of cake. 1. Choose Start➪ Programs➪ VMware➪ VMwareServer➪ VMware ServerConsole. The first thing you see on the screen is a dialog box asking whether youwant to connect to a local or a remote host. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 31
  32. 32. 2. Because your VMware Server is running on this machine, leave thedefault choice (local) selected and click OK. You’re presented with the actual VMware Server Console. This indicates that VMware Server is running and availableon the local machine; the VMware Server Console is ready for you to decide what you want to do with VMware Server. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 32
  33. 33. Installing a new virtual machine Your first order of business here is to install a virtual machine. To do that: 1. With the VMware Server Console open, click the New Virtual Machine icon. This starts the New Virtual Machine Wizard, as shown. 2. Click Next to kick off the process. The next dialog box offers you the choice between a Typical or a Customconfiguration. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 33
  34. 34. 3. For now, stick with the easiest navigation option; leave the Typicaloption selected and then click Next. The Select a Guest Operating System page of the wizard appears.I’ve decided for the sake of this example to install Fedora Core 6, so thenext steps deal with that scenario. (If you’re feeling adventurous, youcan install another OS, but you’d be on your own!) 4. In the Select a Guest Operating System page, select the Linux option,select Other Linux 2.6.x Kernel from the Version drop-down list, andthen click Next. You’re invited to give the new virtual machine a name and a storagelocation in the next dialog box. You need to select the Other Linux 2.6.x Kernel option because Fedoraisn’t one of the default configurations included with VMware Server. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 34
  35. 35. 5. Go ahead and cleverly name the new VM Fedora 1. Leave the Location text box set to its default and click Next. The next dialog box gives you a number of networking options for yournew virtual machine. Each of the options uses the networking capabilitiesof VMware Server itself to operate slightly differently. Your choices are: • Use Bridged Networking: This option assigns an IP address basedon something external to the VMware Server itself — a hard-codedaddress that has been physically assigned during guest OS installation,an addressthat’sbeen set up throughthe organization’sDNSsystem,or a dynamic addressassigned by the organization’sDHCPserver.In essence, this option makes the virtualmachine look likeastandardserveron the organization’s network, and is the easiest touse. I recommendyou use this option. • Use Network Address Translation (NAT): This option isolates the VMfrom the organization network by assigning a private IP address tothe virtual machine and translating every communication between the machine and the outside world (outside of VMware Server, thatis). This enables the virtual machine to communicate with the organizationnetwork (and throughit to the restof the world), but protectsthe organizationnetwork fromhaving any awarenessof themachine.This option would be most useful in sophisticated environments,and I recommendyou avoid using it for this example. • Use Host-Only Networking: Host-only networking limits the ability ofthe virtual machine to communicate to only the host OS and othervirtual machines running on the host. This capability can be veryuseful where you want multiple virtual machines to be able to speakto one another, but prohibit the virtual machines from communicatingwith any other systems. Software engineering and Quality Assurancewould be good uses for this networking option; however, since we’reexperimenting, I recommend you avoid this option. • Do Not Use a Network Connection: This option is appropriate if youtruly want a standalone system. I doubt you really want to do thatnow, so I recommend you avoid this option at this time. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 35
  36. 36. 6. For the purposes of this particular example, select the Use BridgedNetworking option and then click Next. The Specify Disk Capacity dialog box appears, invitingyou to define just how much space on the local disk you want to allocatefor the virtual machine. Depending on what use you’ll make of the virtualmachine, you might want to make this larger or smaller. For example, ifyou’re setting up VMware Server to perform DNS tasks for your organization,it won’t requiremuch disk space, so you could safely reduce thedefaultamount of storage suggested. On the other hand, if you aregoingtoinstall your company’s CRM system on the virtualmachine, you mightverywell need more disk space than the default amount, and you wouldthereforeincreasethe default amount. If you’rejustexperimenting with VMwareServerto see how it works, I recommendyou leave the defaultsuggestionas is. 7. Leave the disk capacity setting at the default: 8GB. This assumes the storage is on the local disk; if you’re using networkedstorage, you’ll need to make the same disk size choices, but you’ll belocating the machine elsewhere (as you’ll see in the next step). 8. Decide when to allocate disk space. You have two choices for how you’d like to create the disk space. You can choose to create all the disk space at once. This ensures that you won’t run short of disk space because it’s reserved rightwhen you create your virtual machine. As the wizard notes, itmight take a while VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 36
  37. 37. to create the virtual machine, as the space allneeds to be allocated and formatted up front. It doesn’t take longto allocate 8GB, though, so I recommend you select this option. • You can create the disk space in 2GB chunks as needed. This solutionreduces the time necessary to create the virtual machine, but itposes the problem that later, when you need to allocate more diskspace, it won’t be available. You might choose this option if you planto work with the virtual machine files — doing things like burningthem to DVD or copying them with Linux utilities. If you’re justexperimenting and don’t plan to do anything fancy with the virtualmachine files, you don’t need to subdivide the disk space. Also, youwon’t save much time with this option right now, so I recommend that you avoid it for now. 9. Click Finish. VMware Server then goes off to create the virtual machine. While it’s formatting the disk, go ahead and take a break. When this process is complete, the VMware Server Console returns, andyou see Fedora 1 listed on the second tab. You’ve nowcompleted the creation of a virtual machine. Installing an Operating System After creating a virtual machine, you have to get an operating systeminstalled. If you peek back at Figure 12-13, the virtual machine’s state is currentlylisted as PoweredOff. Toinstall the OS, you need to put an installationCDinto the CD drawer of the machine and then click the StartThis VirtualMachinelink, found under the Commands section on the Fedora 1 tab of the VMwareServerConsole. Youcan also install an OS by connecting to an OSinstallableimage (.iso format file) or install from an installation CD on aremote machine.To keep it simple, I’m using the local CD drive, but you can find more informationon the other installation options on VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 37
  38. 38. the VMware Web site.The information on the tab changes to the standardFedora installation splash screen. You’re now ready to install Fedora. Hereare a couple of things to keep in mind:  You get a cursor within the virtual machine that you can use to interactwith the virtualmachine; in this case, your ―interaction‖ involves theFedorainstallation process.Keep in mind that the mouse and cursor aresharedbetween the host system and all virtualmachines. If you click themousewithin the screenof the new virtualmachine, the virtualmachinewill―capture‖the cursor.Toreleasethe cursor so that you can interactwiththe host system, pressCtrl+Alt and the cursor will jump out to thescreenof the host system. This might seem complex as a description,butafter you do it once or twice it will be second nature.  You see the standard Fedora message stating that Fedora will partitionthe disk during the installation and requesting an OK. This doesn’t meanthat the installation will format the entire disk of the host system,just that the install program will format the 8GB of disk space you assignedto the virtual machine. So don’t worry about this message from theFedora install program. Click ―OK.‖ To get the installation running, press Enter. The installation process (inthis case, the Fedora installation process) runs through to completion, as shown. If this requires multiple CD swaps, your new virtualmachine puts up the install splash screen asking you to put in the next CD. The installation takes just about the same amount of time for a virtualmachine as it would on a physical server.When the installation process is complete, the new Fedora virtual machine brings up the standard login panel. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 38
  39. 39. Skipping the OS Installation Process The VM installation process has one drawback: You still have to install theguest OS, and if putting it onto a physical server takes an hour, putting it ontoa virtual machine will take around an hour. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 39
  40. 40. Wouldn’t it be great if you could get a virtual machine OS installed morequickly? In fact, you can. Remember, VMware stores the state of a machine inimage files, which are portable. If someone has already made image files ofthe virtual machine/OS combination you want, you can copy those imagefiles and import them onto your virtualization software and thus bypass theOS installation process. So, what if you want to create a virtual machine with Fedora installed in itwithout all that installation hassle? Is that possible? Definitely. Imagine for amoment that you were me, the Virtualization Expert. I’d (you’d) do somethinglike the following. 1. I’d do a search on the Internet for VMware Server Fedora image files and I’d scroll through the results until I found a set available for torrent download. 2. I’d download the files via BitTorrent into a directory on the machine.If the terms torrent and BitTorrentare new to you, it’s time to do somemore research. BitTorrent is a peer-to-peer file-sharing application thatworks with file formats called torrents. Basically, torrents are small filesyou download to your computer that then enable you to get pieces of amuch larger file from bunches of other computers on the Web, and thepieces of files are then reconstructed into one big file on your computer.If you’re not familiar with BitTorrent, it’s worth your while to getacquainted because it’s a widely used way to share files. 3. In the VMware Server Console, I’d choose File➪ Open. The Open dialogbox would give me the opportunity to browse for a .vmx file — the fileformat used to store VMware Server virtual machine information. I’d ofcourse take advantage of that opportunity to find (and open) the fedorafc6-i386.vmxfile, so that it would appear on a new tab in the VMwareServer Console. 4. Because I would be opening an existing image file of which this VMwareServer installation had no record, the VMware Server Console wouldsuggest to me that a new UUID be created for the new virtual machine. (UUID stands for universally unique identifier, a uniqueVMware Server identifier for guest machines; since you’re importing avirtual machine, the Server Console can’t create a UUID at the time ofcreation, so it needs to assign one now, thus the suggestion.) I, of course,would willingly click OK. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 40
  41. 41. 5. Back on the fedor3e-fc6-i386 tab of the VMware Server Console, I’d clickthe Start This Virtual Machine link right there under the Commandsheading, and the virtual machine would immediately start with the operatingsystem alreadyloaded.That’s it. No extended operating VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 41
  42. 42. system install. Just download the imagesand then open them with the console as described in such meticulous detail. After you’ve installed the images, you might still need to modify the OSbecause it’s probably a vanilla configuration, but that still has to be a lotfaster than feeding CDs in, one at a time. Skipping the Application Installation Process Okay, you have your OS, and now you’re ready to install the application(s)you want on the virtual machine. And, you guessed it, it’s back to manualinstallation and configuration. Sigh. Wouldn’t it be great if you could bypassall that installation and configuration work and just get an app installed superfast? In fact, that’s a possibility. You might be able to skip all that work byusing virtual appliances — applications delivered as ready-to-go images thatyou can just plop into the virtualization softwareIn fact, VMware has encouraged people to create software appliances and share them. It even hosts the virtual appliances on the VMware Web site. Justgo to and checkout the links to all the virtual appliances on the site. VMware hosts hundredsof virtual appliances of every different type for you to choose from. Imagine this scenario: You want to improve customer service for yourcompany. You’ve heard about this cool new open source CRM product calledSugarCRM, which sounds great, but you’ve also heard it takes some effort toget installed and configured. But, because you have VMware Server running,you go to the appliance page and search for SugarCRM. As you can see inFigure 12-21, you have perhaps a half-dozen SugarCRM virtual appliances tochoose from. Pick one, any one, and get started. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 42
  43. 43. Because the appliances are in the same image format as the Fedora imagediscussed in the previous section, you go through the same steps: Downloadthe image from the site and then use the File➪ Open command in the VMwareServer Console to open it on its own tab. Click the Start This Virtual Machinelink to kickstart the virtual machine, and as Figure 12-22 illustrates, you have SugarCRM up and running. If you’ve worked through this last virtual appliance example, you’ll understandwhy I’ve been talking about the revolutionarynatureof virtualization.Theability to importan image and immediately begin using the SugarCRMapplicationavoided a minimum of two hours of installation work. Not tomentionnot needing to figureout how to configureall the differentsoftwarepiecesto get the SugarCRM application integrated with the Webserverandback-enddatabase. All for a simple demo.The image file contains the entire virtual machine, including both the guest OSas well as all software installed on the OS. Think of it as a file that contains thevirtual machine and everything in the virtual machine. So, when VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 43
  44. 44. you importthe image file, you need to start the virtual machine; when you do that, all theapplications within the virtual machine automatically start as well. Note that the new virtual machine has its own tab in the VMware Server Console; clickingon that tab brings up the virtual machine for you to interact with. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 44
  45. 45. 3VMware Workstation 3.1 Introduction It is the host-based virtualization software provided by VMWARE Inc. It allows multiple VM’s to run within itself. We can foresee the following major benefits of this type of structure with respect to school/college/university environment. 3.2 Benefits to College/University: 1. Teach multiple operating systems with a single host computer-Students can ‘own’ their VM while having minimal access to the host computer. Multiple VMs can run simultaneously on one host, networked and all (for example, a client and a server or two servers) 2. Easy maintenance and testing-VM provide an easy way to recover deleted or corrupted operating systems.We just need to copy another one and open corresponding Virtual Disk Image File(*.vmdk) .Multiple snapshots allow unlimited ‘try this…’ scenarios with a quick return to the system state before we ‘messed up with the system. 3. Run multiple versions of software-Teachers canteach Office 2007 while previewing Office 2003 by using two different VMs.For programming and database; write an application in one version and easily test on another version. We can even test various Android powered apps in an x86 based VM. 4. Isolate OS from the campus network and host computer-For programming and networking, run services and write software which might normally interfere with the host computer or the campus network. This is beneficial so that students may not interfere with public or campus networks. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 45
  46. 46. 3.3 Recommendations for system requirements:    Minimum 1 GB RAM, 2+ GB recommended for Vista/7 and Server 2008 virtual machines. Minimum 3.0 GHz P4, recommended 2.4+ GHz dual-core CPU or higher Separate hard drive (80 GB+) for the VMs 3.4 Files created by Workstation: Extension File Name .log <vmname>.log or .nvram VMware.log <vmname>.nvram Description This is the file that keeps a log of key VMware Workstation activity. This file can be useful in troubleshooting if you encounter problems. This file is stored in the directory that holds the configuration (.vmx) file of the virtual machine. This is the file that stores the state of the virtual machine's BIOS. or .vmdk nvram <vmname>.vmdk This is a virtual disk file, which stores the contents of the virtual machine's hard disk drive. A virtual disk is made up of one or more .vmdk files. If you have specified that the virtual disk should be split into 2GB chunks, the number of .vmdk files depends on the size of the virtual disk. As data is added to a virtual disk, the .vmdk files grow in size, to a maximum of 2GB each. (If you specify that all space should be allocated when you create the disk, these files start at the maximum size and do not grow.) Almost all of a .vmdk file's content is the virtual machine's data, with a small portion allotted to virtual machine overhead. If the virtual machine is connected directly to a physical disk, rather than to a virtual disk, the .vmdk file stores information about the partitions the virtual machine is allowed to access. <diskname><###>.vmdk VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) Earlier VMware products used the extension .dsk for virtual disk files. This is a redo-log file, created automatically when a virtual machine has one or more snapshots. This file stores changes made to a virtual disk while the virtual 46
  47. 47. .vmsd <vmname>.vmsd .vmsn <vmname>Snapshot.vmsn .vmss <vmname>Snapshot<###>.vmsn <vmname>.vmss .vmtm .vmx <vmname>.vmtm <vmname>.vmx .vmxf <vmname>.vmxf machine is running. There may be more than one such file. The ### indicates a unique suffix added automatically by VMware Workstation to avoid duplicate file names. This is a centralized file for storing information and metadata about snapshots. This is the snapshot state file, which stores the running state of a virtual machine at the time you take that snapshot This is the file which stores the state of a snapshot This is the suspended state file, which stores the state of a suspended virtual machine .Some earlier VMware products used the extension .std for suspended state files This is the configuration file containing team data. This is the primary configuration file, which stores settings chosen in the New Virtual Machine Wizard or virtual machine settings editor. If you created the virtual machine under an earlier version of VMware Workstation on a Linux host, this file may have a .cfg extension This is a supplemental configuration file for virtual machines that are in a team. Note that the .vmxffile remains if a virtual machine is removed from the team. [Source:] 3.5 Networking Modes in virtualization environment: Each VM has its own virtual network adapter (NIC). Multiple network adapters are possible within a single VM. There are various networking modes for VMs 1. Bridged networking: The VM acts like any other computer on the network.Each VM network adapter gets its own IP address and physical address.VMs can communicate with other VMs and other physical computers on the network including the Internet. It is the most flexible configuration possible. 2. Network Address Translation (NAT)/Shared Networking: VM ‘shares’ IP address with host computer.Host computer acts like router/firewall.VM can access other computers on the network including the Internet.Other computers cannot access the VM directly. It is more secure configuration than bridged. It won’t work if the VM is to be a server 3. Local/Host only networking: VMs can communicate with only other VMs (Virtual PC) or other VMs and the host PC (VMware).No communication with other physical computers or the Internet is possible.This configuration is ideal for doing activities that might interfere with the classroom network. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 47
  48. 48. 4. None:No network connection is possible. It is the most secure configuration. It is the best configuration when no interaction with other computers, including the host, is desired. 3.6 Installation OF VMware Workstation: The following procedure shows how to select a particular version of software and hoe to install the software on Windows based machine. For video instructions use this link [4]: 1. Selecting your Host System: VMware Workstation is available for both Windows and Linux host computers. The installation files for both host platforms are included on the same CD-ROM. Your serial number allows you to use VMware Workstation only on the host operating system for which you licensed the software. If you have a serial number for a Windows host, you cannot run the software on a Linux host, and vice versa. 2. Upgrading from Previous Versions: You can only have one version of VMware Workstation installed at one time. You must uninstall any previous version of VMware Workstation before installing a new version. . You also cannot have VMware Workstation installed on the same host machine with another VMware product, such as VMware GSX Server, VMware ACE, or the VMware Virtual Machine Console. The only VMware product that can share a host machine with Workstation is the VMwareVirtualCenter client software. If you plan to install VMware Workstation on a host machine that already contains another VMware product, you must uninstall that product first. 3. Installing the software: 1. Log in to the Windows host system as the Administrator user or as a user who is a member of the local Administrators group. 2. Open the folder where the VMware Workstation installer was downloaded. The default location is the Downloads folder for the user account on the Windows host. Note: The installer file name is similar to VMware-workstation-full-xxxxxxxx.exe, where xxxx-xxxx is the version and build numbers. 3. Right-click the installer and click Run as Administrator. 4. Select a setup option: o Typical: Installs typical Workstation features. If the Integrated Virtual Debugger for Visual Studio or Eclipse is present on the host system, the associated Workstation plug-ins are installed. o Custom: Lets you select which Workstation features to install and specify where to install them. Select this option if you need to change the shared virtual machines directory, modify the VMware Workstation Server port, or install the enhanced virtual keyboard driver. The enhanced virtual keyboard driver provides better handling of international keyboards and keyboards that have extra keys. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 48
  49. 49. 5. Follow the on-screen instructions to finish the installation. 6. Restart the host machine. 3.7 CREATING A NEW VIRTUAL MACHINE When you want to create a virtual machine in Workstation, you typically use the New Virtual Machinewizard. You can create a virtual machine in a minimum number of steps by selecting the typicalconfiguration option in the New Virtual Machine wizard.With Workstation, you can also clone virtual machines from existing virtual machines or virtual machine templates, import Open Virtualization Format (OVF) and third-party virtual machines, create virtual machines that remote Workstation users can use, and create virtual machines on remote hosts. Following steps are required in creation of VM [4]. Selecting a Guest Operating System: The New Virtual Machine prompts you to select the source media for the operating system that will run inside the virtual machine. You can specify an installer disc inserted in a physical drive, an ISO image file, or you can instruct the New Virtual Machine wizard to create a virtual machine that has a blank hard disk.If you select an installer disc or an ISO image file and the operating system supports Easy Install, the guest operating system installation is automated and VMware Tools is installed. If the installer disc or ISO image file contains a product key number and is already set up to perform an unattended installation, the only benefit of using Easy Install is the automatic installation of VMwareTools.If you instruct the New Virtual Machine wizard to create a virtual machine that has a blank hard disk, the wizard prompts you to specify an operating system and version and you must install the guest operating system manually after the virtual machine is created. Workstation uses this information to set the appropriate default values, name files associated with the virtual machine, adjust performance settings, and work around special behaviors and bugs in the guest operating system. If the operating system you plan to install is not listed in the wizard, select Other for both the operating system and version.If you are installing an operating system that supports Easy Install but you do not want to use Easy Install, you can instruct the wizard to create a virtual machine that has a blank disk and install the guest operating system manually. Providing Easy Install Information: When the New Virtual Wizard detects an operating system that supports Easy Install, the wizard prompts you for information about the guest operating system. After the virtual machine is created, the guest operating system installation is automated and VMware Tools is installed.For Windows guest operating systems, you must provide the following Easy Install information. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 49
  50. 50. Specifying the Virtual Machine Name and File Location: The New Virtual Machine wizard prompts you for a virtual machine name and a directory for the virtual machine files.The name of the default directory for virtual machine files is derived from the name of the guest operating system, for example, Microsoft Windows 7 (32-bit). For standard virtual machines, the default directory for virtual machine files is located in the virtual machine directory. For best performance, do not place the virtual machines directory on a network drive. If other users need to access the virtual machine, consider placing the virtual machine files in a location that is accessible to those users. Virtual Machines Directory: Workstation stores standard virtual machines in the virtual machines directory.The default location of the virtual machines directory depends on the host operating system. Table:Default Virtual Machines Directory Host Operating System Windows XP Windows Server 2003 Windows Server 2008 Windows Vista Windows 7 Windows 8 Linux Default Location C:Documents and SettingsusernameMy DocumentsMy Virtual Machines usernameis the name of the currently logged in user. C:Users username DocumentsVirtual Machines usernameis the name of the currently logged in user. homedir/VMwarehomediris the home directory of the currently logged in user. Specifying Disk Capacity for a Virtual Machine If you instruct the New Virtual Machine wizard to create a new virtual disk during a custom configuration, the wizard prompts you to set the size of the virtual disk and specify whether to split the disk into multiple virtual disk (.vmdk) files.Avirtual disk is made up of one or more virtual disk files. Virtual disk files store the contents of the virtual machine hard disk drive. Almost all of the file content is virtual machine data. A small portion of the file is allotted to virtual machine overhead. If the virtual machine is connected directly to a physical disk, the virtual disk file stores information about the partitions that the virtual machine is allowed to access.You can set a size between 0.001GB and 8TB for a virtual disk file. You can also select whether to store a virtual disk as a single file or split it into multiple files.SelectSplit virtual disk into multiple files if the virtual disk is stored on a file system that has a file size limitation. When you split a virtual disk less than 950GB, a series of 2GB virtual disk files are created. When you split a virtual disk greater than 950GB, two virtual disk files are created. The maximum size of the first virtual disk file is 1.9TB and the second virtual disk file stores the rest of the data.After you create a virtual machine, you can edit virtual disk settings and add additional virtual disks. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 50
  51. 51. Customizing Virtual Machine Hardware You can click Customize Hardware on the last page of the New Virtual Machine wizard to customize the virtual machine hardware. You can change the default hardware settings, including memory allocation, number of virtual CPUs, CD/DVD and floppy drive settings, and the network connection type. 3.8 Create a Typical Virtual Machine When you select the typical configuration option in the New Virtual Machine wizard, you create a virtual machine in a minimum number of steps. You must select a custom configuration if you need to create a virtual machine that has a hardware compatibility setting that is different from the default hardware compatibility setting, select the I/O controller type for the SCSI controller, select the virtual disk type, configure a physical disk, or allocate all virtual disk space rather than let disk space gradually increase. See Using VMware Workstation for information about creating a custom configuration. Procedure 1. Start the New Virtual Machine wizard. 2. Select Typical to create a typical virtual machine. 3. Select the source of the guest operating system. Option Description Use a physical disc Select the physical drive where you inserted the installation disc. Use an ISO image Type or browse to the location of the ISO image file. Install the guest operating system later Create a virtual machine that has a blank disk. You must install the guest operating system manually after the virtual machine is created. 4. Specify information about the guest operating system. Option Description If you are using Easy Install Type the Easy Install information for the guest operating system. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 51
  52. 52. If you are not using Easy Install Select the guest operating system and version. If the guest operating system is not listed, select Other for both the operating system and Version. 5. Type a virtual machine name and type or browse to the directory for the virtual machine files. 6. Select the virtual disk size and specify whether to split the disk into multiple files. (Optional) Click Customize Hardware to customize the hardware configuration. You can also modify virtual hardware settings after you create the virtual machine. (Optional) Select Power on this virtual machine after creation to power on the virtual machine after it is created. This option is not available if you are installing the guest operating system manually. 7. Click Finish to create the virtual machine. 3.9 Installing and Upgrading VMware Tools Installing VMware Tools is part of the process of creating a new virtual machine. Upgrading VMware Tools is part of the process of keeping virtual machines up to current standards.For the best performance and latest updates, install or upgrade VMware Tools to match the version of Workstation that you are using. Other compatibility options are also available. VMware Tools is a suite of utilities that enhances the performance of the virtual machine’s guest operating system and improves management of the virtual machine.Although the guest operating system can run without VMware Tools, many VMware features are not available until you install VMware Tools. For example, if you do not have VMware Tools installed in your virtual machine, you cannot use the shutdown or restart options from the toolbar. You can use only the power options.You can use the Windows Easy Install or Linux Easy Install feature to install VMware Tools as soon as the operating system is finished installing.The installers for VMware Tools are ISO image files. An ISO image file looks like a CD-ROM to your guest operating system. Each type of guest operating system, including Windows, Linux, Solaris, FreeBSD, and NetWare, has an ISO image file. When you select the command to install or upgrade VMware Tools, the virtual machine’s first virtual CD-ROM disk drive temporarily connects to the VMware Tools ISO file for your guest operating system.The most recent versions of the ISO files are stored on a VMware Web site. When you select the command to install or upgrade VMware Tools, the VMware product determines whether it has downloaded the most recent version of the ISO file for the specific operating system. If the latest version has not been downloaded or if no VMware Tools ISO file for that operating system has ever been downloaded, you are prompted to download the file.The installation procedure varies, depending on the operating system. 3.10 Install New Software in a Virtual Machine VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 52
  53. 53. Installing new software in a virtual machine is similar to installing new software on a physical computer. Only a few additional steps are required. Procedure 1. Select the virtual machine and select VM > Settings. 2. On the Hardware tab, select Memory, set the final memory size for the virtual machine, and click OK. Some applications use a product activation feature that creates a key based on the virtual hardware in the virtual machine where it is installed. Changes in the configuration of the virtual machine might require you to reactivate the software. Setting the memory size minimizes the number of significant changes. 3. Install the new software according to the manufacturer’s instructions. 3.11 Using Virtual Machines: When you use a virtual machine in Workstation, you can transfer files and text between the host system and the virtual machine, print to host printers, connect removable devices, and change display settings.You can also use folders to organize and manage virtual machines, and take snapshots to preserve virtual machine states.With more advanced Workstation features, you can map virtual disks, set up shared folders to share files between virtual machines and between virtual machines and the host system, share virtual machines with remote users, and use virtual machines on remote hosts. See Using VMware Workstation for complete information on these and other advanced features. Start a Virtual Machine You can start a virtual machine from the VM menu or from the toolbar. When you use the VM menu, you can select a soft or hard power option or start the virtual machine in BIOS setup mode. When you use Workstation to connect to a remote server, you can start virtual machines on a remote host. Prerequisites  If the virtual machine does not appear in the library, select File > Open and browse to the virtual machine configuration (.vmx) file. Procedure  To select a power option when you start the virtual machine, select the virtual machine and select VM >Power. Option Description Power On (Hard option) Workstation starts the virtual machine. Start Up Guest (Soft option) Workstation starts the virtual machine VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 53
  54. 54. and VMware Tools runs a script in the guest operating system. On Windows guests, if the virtual machine is configured to use DHCP, the script renews the IP address of the virtual machine. On a Linux, FreeBSD, or Solaris guest, the script starts networking for the virtual machine. Power On to BIOS  Workstation starts the virtual machine in BIOS setup mode. To start the virtual machine from the toolbar, select the virtual machine and click the start button. Shut Down a Virtual Machine You can shut down a virtual machine from the VM menu or from the toolbar. When you use the VM menu, you can select a hard or soft power option.You are not required to power off a virtual machine that is running on the local host system before you exit Workstation. You can exit Workstation and leave the virtual machine running in the background. Procedure  To select a power option when you shut down the virtual machine, select the virtual machine and select VM > Power. Option Description Power Off (Hard option) Workstation powers off the virtual machine abruptly with no consideration for work in progress. Shut Down Guest (Soft option) Workstation sends a shut down signal to the guest operating system. An operating system that recognizes the signal shuts down gracefully. Not all guest operating systems respond to a shutdown signal from Workstation. If the guest operating system does not respond to the signal, shut down from the guest operating system as you would a physical machine. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 54
  55. 55.    To shut down the virtual machine from the toolbar, select the virtual machine and click the stop button. The stop power control setting that is configured for the virtual machine determines whether Workstation performs a hard or soft power off operation. The configured behavior appears in a tooltip when you mouse over the button. To shut down a virtual machine that is suspended, select the virtual machine and click VM > Power >Power Off. Pause and Unpause a Virtual Machine You can pause a virtual machine multiple times for a few seconds, or up to several minutes. The pause feature is useful when a virtual machine is engaged in an lengthy, processorintensive activity that prevents you from using the host system to do a more immediate task. Procedure  To pause a virtual machine, select the virtual machine and select VM > Pause. The virtual machine display dims and a play button appears over the display. Paused virtual machines that are configured to display on more than one monitor have a play button on each monitor.  To pause all of the powered-on virtual machines without interacting with the Workstation user interface, right-click the virtual machine status icon located in the notification area on the task bar of the host computer and select Pause All Virtual Machines.  To unpause a virtual machine, click the play button on the virtual machine display or deselect VM >Pause. Suspend and Resume a Virtual Machine  You suspend a virtual machine when you want to save its current state. When you resume the virtual machine, applications that were running before the virtual machine was suspended resume in their running state and their content is unchanged. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 55
  56. 56.  How quickly the suspend and resume operations perform depends on the how much data changed after you started the virtual machine. The first suspend operation typically takes longer than subsequent suspend operations. When you suspend a virtual machine, Workstation creates a virtual machine suspended state (.vmss) file in the working directory. Using the Drag-and-Drop Feature You can use the drag-and-drop feature to move files and directories, email attachments, plain text, formatted text, and images between the host system and virtual machines. Dragging email attachments is especially useful in Unity mode.     You can drag files or directories between the following locations.File managers, such as Windows Explorer, on the host system and virtual machines. A file manager to an application that supports drag-and-drop. Applications, such as zip file managers, which support drag-and-drop extraction of individual files. Different virtual machines. When you drag a file or folder between the host and a virtual machine, Workstation copies the file or folder to the location where you drop it. For example, if you drop a file on the desktop icon of a word processor, the word processor opens a copy of the original file. The original file does not include changes that you make to the copy. Initially, the application opens a copy of the file that is stored in the temp directory. On Windows, the temp directory is specified in the %TEMP% environment variable. On Linux and Solaris, the temp directoryis /tmp/VMwareDnD. Save the file in a different directory to protect changes that you make. Using the Copy and Paste Feature You can cut, copy, and paste text between virtual machines and between applications running in virtual machines. You can also cut, copy, and paste images, plain text, formatted text, and email attachments between applications running on the host system and applications running in virtual machines. Copying and pasting email attachments is especially useful in Unity mode. Use the normal hot keys or menu choices to cut or copy and paste. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 56
  57. 57. Add a Host Printer to a Virtual Machine You can print from a virtual machine to any printer available to the host computer without having to install additional drivers in the virtual machine. The Workstation printer feature uses ThinPrint technology to replicate the host system printer mapping in the virtual machine. When you enable the virtual machine printer, Workstation configures a virtual serial port to communicate with the host printers. Procedure  Select the virtual machine and select VM > Settings.  On the Hardware tab, select Add.  In the Add Hardware wizard, select Printer and Finish.  The default device setting is to connect the virtual machine printer when the virtual machine is powered on. Use a Removable Device in a Virtual Machine You can connect and disconnect removable devices in a virtual machine. You can also change the settings for a removable device by modifying virtual machine settings. Procedure  To connect a removable device, select the virtual machine, select VM > Removable Devices, select the device, and select Connect. If the device is connected to the host system through a USB hub, the virtual machine sees only the USB device, not the hub.  A check mark appears next to the name of the device when the device is connected to the virtual machine and a device icon appears on the virtual machine taskbar.  To change the settings for a removable device, select VM > Removable Devices, select the device, and select Settings.  To disconnect a removable device, select the virtual machine, select VM > Removable Devices, select the device, and select Disconnect. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 57
  58. 58. Changing the Virtual Machine Display You can change the way Workstation displays virtual machines and virtual machine applications. You can use full screen mode to make the virtual machine display fill the screen and use multiple monitors, and you can use Unity mode to display applications directly on the host system desktop. Use Full Screen Mode In full screen mode, the virtual machine display fills the screen and you cannot see the borders of the Workstation window. Procedure  To enter full screen mode, select the virtual machine and select View > Full Screen.  Press Ctrl+Alt+right arrow to switch to the next powered-on virtual machine and Ctrl+Alt+left arrow to switch to the previous powered-on virtual machine.  When in full screen mode, you can also use the tabs on the full screen toolbar to switch between powered-on virtual machines.  To hide the full screen toolbar while you are using full screen mode, click the push pin icon on the full screen toolbar and move the mouse pointer off of the toolbar.  The toolbar is unpinned and slides up to the top of the monitor and disappears.  To show the full screen toolbar after it has been hidden, point to the top of the screen until the toolbar appears and click the push pin icon.  To exit full screen mode, on the full screen toolbar select View > Full Screen, and deselect Full Screen. Report Battery Information in the Guest If you run a virtual machine on a laptop in full screen mode, configure the option to report battery information in the guest so that you can determine when the battery is running low. Procedure VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 58
  59. 59. Select the virtual machine and select VM >Settings.On the Options tab, select Power. Select Report battery information to guest. Click OK to save your changes. Use Exclusive Mode Like full screen mode, exclusive mode causes the Workstation virtual machine display to fill the screen. You might want to use exclusive mode to run graphics-intensive applications, such as games, in full screen mode. Procedure Enter full screen mode. Select View > Exclusive Mode from the full screen toolbar. Use Unity Mode You can switch virtual machines that have Linux or Windows 2000 or later guest operating systems to Unity mode to display applications directly on the host system desktop.In Unity mode, virtual machine applications appear on the host system desktop, you can use the virtual machine Start or Applications menu from the host system, and the virtual machine console view is hidden. Items for open virtual machine applications appear on the host system taskbar in the same way as open host applications. On host system and virtual machine applications that are displayed in Unity mode, you can use keyboard shortcuts to copy, cut, and paste images, plain text, formatted text, and email attachments between applications. You can also drag and drop and copy and paste files between the host system and the guest operating system. If you save a file or attempt to open a file from an application in Unity mode, the file system you see is the file system inside the virtual machine. You cannot open a file from the host operating system or save a file to the host operating system. For some guest operating systems, application windows in Unity mode can appear only on the monitor that is set as the primary display when you have multiple monitors. If the host and guest operating systems are Windows XP or later, the application windows can appear on additional monitors. Unity mode is not available in full screen mode on Windows. Procedure To enter Unity mode, select the virtual machine and select View > Unity. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 59
  60. 60. The console view in the Workstation window is hidden, and open applications appear in application windows on the host system desktop. A check mark appears next to Unity in the View menu. To display the virtual machine Start menu on a Windows host system, point to the Start menu on a Windows host system. To display the virtual machine Applications menu on a Linux host system, point to the upper-left corner of the primary monitor on the Linux host system. To navigate between multiple Start or Applications menus when multiple virtual machines are in Unity mode, press the arrow keys, Tab, or Shift+Tab to cycle through the virtual machine menus and press Enter and the spacebar to select a virtual machine. To exit Unity mode, select View > Unity and deselect Unity. Taking Snapshots of Virtual Machines Taking a snapshot of a virtual machine saves its current state and enables you to return to the same state repeatedly. When you take a snapshot, Workstation captures the entire state of the virtual machine. You can use the snapshot manager to review and act on the snapshots for an active virtual machine. Using Snapshots to Preserve Virtual Machine States A snapshot includes the contents of the virtual machine memory, virtual machine settings, and the state of all the virtual disks. When you revert to a snapshot, you return the memory, settings, and virtual disks of the virtual machine to the state they were in when you took the snapshot. You might want to take snapshots in a linear process if you plan to make changes in a virtual machine. For example, you can take a snapshot, continue to use the virtual machine from that point, take another snapshot at a later point, and so on. You can revert to the snapshot of a previous known working state of the project if the changes do not work as expected. For local virtual machines, you can take more than 100 snapshots for each linear process. For shared and remote virtual machines, you can take a maximum of 31 snapshots for each linear process. If you are testing software, you might want to save multiple snapshots as branches from a single baseline in a process tree. For example, you can take a snapshot before installing different versions of an application to make sure that each installation begins from an identical baseline. VIRTUALIZATION SOFTWARE(VMWARE) 60