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Topic 4 metal forming 160214

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Topic 4 metal forming 160214

  1. 1. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING 1. Overview of Metal Forming 2. Material Behavior in Metal Forming 3. Temperature in Metal Forming 4. Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming
  2. 2. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Metal Forming  Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal workpieces  The tool, usually called a die, applies stress that exceed the yield strength of the metal  The metal takes a shape determined by the geometry of the die
  3. 3. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Stresses in Metal Forming  Stresses to plastically deform the metal are usually compressive  Examples: rolling, forging, extrusion  However, some forming processes  Stretch the metal (tensile stresses)  Others bend the metal (tensile and compressive)  Still others apply shear stresses
  4. 4. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Material Properties in Metal Forming  Desirable material properties:  Low yield strength  High ductility  These properties are affected by temperature:  Ductility increases and yield strength decreases when work temperature is raised  Other factors:  Strain rate and friction
  5. 5. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Basic Types of Deformation Processes 1. Bulk deformation  Rolling  Forging  Extrusion  Wire and bar drawing 2. Sheet metalworking  Bending  Deep drawing  Cutting  Miscellaneous processes
  6. 6. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Bulk Deformation Processes  Characterized by significant deformations and massive shape changes  "Bulk" refers to workparts with relatively low surface area-to-volume ratios  Starting work shapes include cylindrical billets and rectangular bars
  7. 7. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.1 Basic bulk deformation processes: (a) rolling Rolling
  8. 8. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.2 Basic bulk deformation processes: (b) forging Forging
  9. 9. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.3 Basic bulk deformation processes: (c) extrusion Extrusion
  10. 10. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.4 Basic bulk deformation processes: (d) drawing Wire and Bar Drawing
  11. 11. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Sheet Metalworking  Forming and related operations performed on metal sheets, strips, and coils  High surface area-to-volume ratio of starting metal, which distinguishes these from bulk deformation  Often called pressworking because presses perform these operations  Parts are called stampings  Usual tooling: punch and die
  12. 12. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.5 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (a) bending Sheet Metal Bending
  13. 13. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.6 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (b) drawing Deep Drawing
  14. 14. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Figure 5.7 Basic sheet metalworking operations: (c) shearing Shearing of Sheet Metal
  15. 15. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Material Behavior in Metal Forming  Plastic region of stress-strain curve is primary interest because material is plastically deformed  In plastic region, metal's behavior is expressed by stress-strain relation ship, where stress: n K  where K = strength coefficient;   strain and n = strain hardening exponent
  16. 16. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Temperature in Metal Forming  Both strength and strain hardening are reduced at higher temperatures  In addition, ductility is increased at higher temperatures
  17. 17. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Temperature in Metal Forming  Any deformation operation can be accomplished with lower forces and power at elevated temperature  Three temperature ranges in metal forming:  Cold working  Warm working  Hot working
  18. 18. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Cold Working  Performed at room temperature or slightly above  Many cold forming processes are important mass production operations  Minimum or no machining usually required  These operations are near net shape or net shape processes
  19. 19. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Advantages of Cold Forming  Better accuracy, closer tolerances  Better surface finish  Strain hardening increases strength and hardness  Grain flow during deformation can cause desirable directional properties in product  No heating of work required
  20. 20. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Disadvantages of Cold Forming  Higher forces and power required in the deformation operation  Surfaces of starting workpiece must be free of scale and dirt  Ductility and strain hardening limit the amount of forming that can be done  In some cases, metal must be annealed to allow further deformation  In other cases, metal is simply not ductile enough to be cold worked
  21. 21. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Warm Working  Performed at temperatures above room temperature but below recrystallization temperature  Dividing line between cold working and warm working often expressed in terms of melting point:  0.3Tm, where Tm = melting point (absolute temperature) for metal
  22. 22. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Advantages of Warm Working  Lower forces and power than in cold working  More intricate work geometries possible  Need for annealing may be reduced or eliminated
  23. 23. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Hot Working  Deformation at temperatures above the recrystallization temperature  Recrystallization temperature = about one-half of melting point on absolute scale  In practice, hot working usually performed somewhat above 0.5Tm  Metal continues to soften as temperature increases above 0.5Tm, enhancing advantage of hot working above this level
  24. 24. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Why Hot Working? Capability for substantial plastic deformation of the metal - far more than possible with cold working or warm working  Why?  Strength coefficient (K) is substantially less than at room temperature  Strain hardening exponent (n) is zero (theoretically)  Ductility is significantly increased
  25. 25. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Advantages of Hot Working  Workpart shape can be significantly altered  Lower forces and power required  Metals that usually fracture in cold working can be hot formed  Strength properties of product are generally isotropic  No strengthening of part occurs from work hardening  Advantageous in cases when part is to be subsequently processed by cold forming
  26. 26. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Disadvantages of Hot Working  Lower dimensional accuracy  Higher total energy required (due to the thermal energy to heat the workpiece)  Work surface oxidation (scale), poorer surface finish  Shorter tool life
  27. 27. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Lubrication in Metal Forming  Metalworking lubricants are applied to tool-work interface in many forming operations to reduce harmful effects of friction  Benefits:  Reduced sticking, forces, power, tool wear  Better surface finish  Removes heat from the tooling
  28. 28. ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e Considerations in Choosing a Lubricant  Type of forming process (rolling, forging, sheet metal drawing, etc.)  Hot working or cold working  Work material  Chemical reactivity with tool and work metals  Ease of application  Cost
  29. 29. BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN METAL FORMING 1. Rolling -flat rolling and analysis,shape rolling, rolling Mills 2. Other Deformation Processes Related to Rolling 3. Forging -open die forging, impression die forging, flashess forging, forging hammers, presses and dies. 4. Other Deformation Processes Related to Forging 5. Extrusion -types of extrusion, analysis, extrusion dies and presses, other extrusion process, defect in extruded products 6. Wire and Bar Drawing -analysis of drawing, drawing practice, tube drawing
  30. 30. Bulk Deformation  Metal forming operations which cause significant shape change by deforming metal parts whose initial form is bulk rather than sheet  Starting forms:  Cylindrical bars and billets,  Rectangular billets and slabs, and similar shapes  These processes stress metal sufficiently to cause plastic flow into desired shape  Performed as cold, warm, and hot working operations
  31. 31. Importance of Bulk Deformation  In hot working, significant shape change can be accomplished  In cold working, strength is increased during shape change  Little or no waste - some operations are near net shape or net shape processes  The parts require little or no subsequent machining
  32. 32. Four Basic Bulk Deformation Processes 1. Rolling – slab or plate is squeezed between opposing rolls 2. Forging – work is squeezed and shaped between opposing dies 3. Extrusion – work is squeezed through a die opening, thereby taking the shape of the opening 4. Wire and bar drawing – diameter of wire or bar is reduced by pulling it through a die opening
  33. 33. Deformation process in which work thickness is reduced by compressive forces exerted by two opposing rolls Figure 19.1 The rolling process (specifically, flat rolling). Rolling
  34. 34. The Rolls  Rotating rolls perform two main functions:  Pull the work into the gap between them by friction between workpart and rolls  Simultaneously squeeze the work to reduce its cross section
  35. 35. Types of Rolling  Based on workpiece geometry :  Flat rolling - used to reduce thickness of a rectangular cross section  Shape rolling - square cross section is formed into a shape such as an I-beam  Based on work temperature :  Hot Rolling – most common due to the large amount of deformation required  Cold rolling – produces finished sheet and plate stock
  36. 36. Figure 19.2 Some of the steel products made in a rolling mill. Rolled Products Made of Steel
  37. 37. Figure 19.3 Side view of flat rolling, indicating before and after thicknesses, work velocities, angle of contact with rolls, and other features. Diagram of Flat Rolling
  38. 38. Flat Rolling Terminology Draft = amount of thickness reduction fo ttd  where d = draft; to = starting thickness; and tf = final thickness
  39. 39. Flat Rolling Terminology Reduction = draft expressed as a fraction of starting stock thickness: ot d r  where d= draft, r = reduction
  40. 40. Shape Rolling  Work is deformed into a contoured cross section rather than flat (rectangular)  Accomplished by passing work through rolls that have the reverse of desired shape  Products include:  Construction shapes such as I-beams, L-beams, and U-channels  Rails for railroad tracks  Round and square bars and rods
  41. 41. A rolling mill for hot flat rolling. The steel plate is seen as the glowing strip in lower left corner (photo courtesy of Bethlehem Steel). Shape Rolling
  42. 42. Rolling Mills  Equipment is massive and expensive  Rolling mill configurations:  Two-high – two opposing rolls  Three-high – work passes through rolls in both directions  Four-high – backing rolls support smaller work rolls  Cluster mill – multiple backing rolls on smaller rolls  Tandem rolling mill – sequence of two-high mills
  43. 43. Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (a) 2-high rolling mill. Two-High Rolling Mill
  44. 44. Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (b) 3-high rolling mill. Three-High Rolling Mill
  45. 45. Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (c) four-high rolling mill. Four-High Rolling Mill
  46. 46. Multiple backing rolls allow even smaller roll diameters Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (d) cluster mill Cluster Mill
  47. 47. A series of rolling stands in sequence Figure 19.5 Various configurations of rolling mills: (e) tandem rolling mill. Tandem Rolling Mill
  48. 48. Thread Rolling  Bulk deformation process used to form threads on cylindrical parts by rolling them between two dies  Important commercial process for mass producing bolts and screws  Performed by cold working in thread rolling machines  Advantages over thread cutting (machining):  Higher production rates  Better material utilization  Stronger threads and better fatigue resistance due to work hardening
  49. 49. Figure 19.6 Thread rolling with flat dies: (1) start of cycle, and (2) end of cycle. Thread Rolling
  50. 50. Ring Rolling  Deformation process in which a thick-walled ring of smaller diameter is rolled into a thin-walled ring of larger diameter  As thick-walled ring is compressed, deformed metal elongates, causing diameter of ring to be enlarged  Hot working process for large rings and cold working process for smaller rings  Applications: ball and roller bearing races, steel tires for railroad wheels, and rings for pipes, pressure vessels, and rotating machinery  Advantages: material savings, ideal grain orientation, strengthening through cold working
  51. 51. Figure 19.7 Ring rolling used to reduce the wall thickness and increase the diameter of a ring: (1) start, and (2) completion of process. Ring Rolling
  52. 52. Defects in rolling  Defects are undesirable because they adversely strength.  The defects may be caused by inclusions and impurities in the original cast metals.  - wavy edges- due to roll bending  - cracks- due to poor material ductility.  -Zipper cracks  -alligatoring- due to non-uniform bulk deformation
  53. 53. Forging  Deformation process in which work is compressed between two dies  Oldest of the metal forming operations, dating from about 5000 B C  Components: engine crankshafts, connecting rods, gears, aircraft structural components, jet engine turbine parts  Also, basic metals industries use forging to establish basic form of large parts that are subsequently machined to final shape and size
  54. 54. Classification of Forging Operations  Cold vs. hot forging:  Hot or warm forging – most common, due to the significant deformation and the need to reduce strength and increase ductility of work metal  Cold forging – advantage: increased strength that results from strain hardening  Impact vs. press forging:  Forge hammer - applies an impact load  Forge press - applies gradual pressure
  55. 55. Types of Forging Dies  Open-die forging - work is compressed between two flat dies, allowing metal to flow laterally with minimum constraint  Impression-die forging - die contains cavity or impression that is imparted to workpart  Metal flow is constrained so that flash is created  Flashless forging - workpart is completely constrained in die  No excess flash is created
  56. 56. Figure 19.9 Three types of forging: (a) open-die forging. Open-Die Forging
  57. 57. Figure 19.9 Three types of forging: (b) impression-die forging. Impression-Die Forging
  58. 58. Figure 19.9 Three types of forging (c) flashless forging. Flashless Forging
  59. 59. Open-Die Forging  Compression of workpart between two flat dies  Similar to compression test when workpart has cylindrical cross section and is compressed along its axis  Deformation operation reduces height and increases diameter of work  Common names include upsetting or upset forging
  60. 60. Open-Die Forging with No Friction  If no friction occurs between work and die surfaces, then homogeneous deformation occurs, so that radial flow is uniform throughout workpart height and true strain is given by: where ho= starting height; and h = height at some point during compression  At h = final value hf, true strain is maximum value h holn
  61. 61. Figure 19.10 Homogeneous deformation of a cylindrical workpart under ideal conditions in an open-die forging operation: (1) start of process with workpiece at its original length and diameter, (2) partial compression, and (3) final size. Open-Die Forging with No Friction
  62. 62. Open-Die Forging with Friction  Friction between work and die surfaces constrains lateral flow of work, resulting in barreling effect  In hot open-die forging, effect is even more pronounced due to heat transfer at and near die surfaces, which cools the metal and increases its resistance to deformation
  63. 63. Figure 19.11 Actual deformation of a cylindrical workpart in open-die forging, showing pronounced barreling: (1) start of process, (2) partial deformation, and (3) final shape. Open-Die Forging with Friction
  64. 64. Impression-Die Forging  Compression of workpart by dies with inverse of desired part shape  Flash is formed by metal that flows beyond die cavity into small gap between die plates  Flash must be later trimmed, but it serves an important function during compression:  As flash forms, friction resists continued metal flow into gap, constraining material to fill die cavity  In hot forging, metal flow is further restricted by cooling against die plates
  65. 65. Figure 19.14 Sequence in impression-die forging: (1) just prior to initial contact with raw workpiece, (2) partial compression, and (3) final die closure, causing flash to form in gap between die plates. Impression-Die Forging
  66. 66. Impression-Die Forging Practice  Several forming steps often required, with separate die cavities for each step  Beginning steps redistribute metal for more uniform deformation and desired metallurgical structure in subsequent steps  Final steps bring the part to final geometry  Impression-die forging is often performed manually by skilled operator under adverse conditions
  67. 67. Advantages and Limitations  Advantages of impression-die forging compared to machining from solid stock:  Higher production rates  Less waste of metal  High strength  Favorable grain orientation in the metal  Flaws are seldom found and work is high reliability  Uniform in density and dimensions  Limitations:  Not capable of close tolerances  Machining often required to achieve accuracies and features needed
  68. 68. Flashless Forging  Compression of work in punch and die tooling whose cavity does not allow for flash  Starting workpart volume must equal die cavity volume within very close tolerance  Process control more demanding than impression-die forging  Best suited to part geometries that are simple and symmetrical  Often classified as a precision forging process
  69. 69. Figure 19.17 Flashless forging: (1) just before initial contact with workpiece, (2) partial compression, and (3) final punch and die closure. Flashless Forging
  70. 70. Forging Hammers (Drop Hammers)  Apply impact load against workpart  Two types:  Gravity drop hammers - impact energy from falling weight of a heavy ram  Power drop hammers - accelerate the ram by pressurized air or steam  Disadvantage: impact energy transmitted through anvil into floor of building  Commonly used for impression-die forging
  71. 71. Figure 19.19 Drop forging hammer, fed by conveyor and heating units at the right of the scene (photo courtesy of Chambersburg Engineering Company).
  72. 72. Figure 19.20 Diagram showing details of a drop hammer for impression-die forging. Drop Hammer Details
  73. 73. Forging Presses  Apply gradual pressure to accomplish compression operation  Types:  Mechanical press - converts rotation of drive motor into linear motion of ram  Hydraulic press - hydraulic piston actuates ram  Screw press - screw mechanism drives ram
  74. 74. Upsetting and Heading  Forging process used to form heads on nails, bolts, and similar hardware products  More parts produced by upsetting than any other forging operation  Performed cold, warm, or hot on machines called headers or formers  Wire or bar stock is fed into machine, end is headed, then piece is cut to length  For bolts and screws, thread rolling is then used to form threads
  75. 75. Figure 19.22 An upset forging operation to form a head on a bolt or similar hardware item The cycle consists of: (1) wire stock is fed to the stop, (2) gripping dies close on the stock and the stop is retracted, (3) punch moves forward, (4) bottoms to form the head. Upset Forging
  76. 76. Figure 19.23 Examples of heading (upset forging) operations: (a) heading a nail using open dies, (b) round head formed by punch, (c) and (d) two common head styles for screws formed by die, (e) carriage bolt head formed by punch and die. Heading (Upset Forging)
  77. 77. Swaging  Accomplished by rotating dies that hammer a workpiece radially inward to taper it as the piece is fed into the dies  Used to reduce diameter of tube or solid rod stock  Mandrel sometimes required to control shape and size of internal diameter of tubular parts
  78. 78. Figure 19.24 Swaging process to reduce solid rod stock; the dies rotate as they hammer the work In radial forging, the workpiece rotates while the dies remain in a fixed orientation as they hammer the work. Swaging
  79. 79. Trimming  Cutting operation to remove flash from workpart in impression-die forging  Usually done while work is still hot, so a separate trimming press is included at the forging station  Trimming can also be done by alternative methods, such as grinding or sawing
  80. 80. Figure 19.29 Trimming operation (shearing process) to remove the flash after impression-die forging. Trimming After Impression-Die Forging
  81. 81. Extrusion  Compression forming process in which work metal is forced to flow through a die opening to produce a desired cross-sectional shape  Process is similar to squeezing toothpaste out of a toothpaste tube  In general, extrusion is used to produce long parts of uniform cross sections  Two basic types:  Direct extrusion  Indirect extrusion
  82. 82. Figure 19.30 Direct extrusion. Direct Extrusion
  83. 83. Comments on Direct Extrusion  Also called forward extrusion  As ram approaches die opening, a small portion of billet remains that cannot be forced through die opening  This extra portion, called the butt, must be separated from extrudate by cutting it just beyond the die exit  Starting billet cross section usually round  Final shape of extrudate is determined by die opening
  84. 84. Figure 19.31 (a) Direct extrusion to produce a hollow or semi-hollow cross sections; (b) hollow and (c) semi-hollow cross sections. Hollow and Semi-Hollow Shapes
  85. 85. Figure 19.32 Indirect extrusion to produce (a) a solid cross section and (b) a hollow cross section. Indirect Extrusion
  86. 86. Comments on Indirect Extrusion  Also called backward extrusion and reverse extrusion  Limitations of indirect extrusion are imposed by  Lower rigidity of hollow ram  Difficulty in supporting extruded product as it exits die
  87. 87. Advantages of Extrusion  Variety of shapes possible, especially in hot extrusion  Limitation: part cross section must be uniform throughout length  Grain structure and strength enhanced in cold and warm extrusion  Close tolerances possible, especially in cold extrusion  In some operations, little or no waste of material
  88. 88. Hot vs. Cold Extrusion  Hot extrusion - prior heating of billet to above its recrystallization temperature  Reduces strength and increases ductility of the metal, permitting more size reductions and more complex shapes  Cold extrusion - generally used to produce discrete parts  The term impact extrusion is used to indicate high speed cold extrusion
  89. 89. Extrusion Ratio Also called the reduction ratio, it is defined as where rx = extrusion ratio; Ao = cross-sectional area of the starting billet; and Af = final cross-sectional area of the extruded section  Applies to both direct and indirect extrusion f o x A A r 
  90. 90. Figure 19.35 (a) Definition of die angle in direct extrusion; (b) effect of die angle on ram force. Extrusion Die Features
  91. 91. Comments on Die Angle  Low die angle - surface area is large, which increases friction at die-billet interface  Higher friction results in larger ram force  Large die angle - more turbulence in metal flow during reduction  Turbulence increases ram force required  Optimum angle depends on work material, billet temperature, and lubrication
  92. 92. Orifice Shape of Extrusion Die  Simplest cross section shape is circular die orifice  Shape of die orifice affects ram pressure  As cross section becomes more complex, higher pressure and greater force are required  Effect of cross-sectional shape on pressure can be assessed by means the die shape factor Kx
  93. 93. Figure 19.36 A complex extruded cross section for a heat sink (photo courtesy of Aluminum Company of America) Complex Cross Section
  94. 94. Extrusion Presses  Either horizontal or vertical  Horizontal more common  Extrusion presses - usually hydraulically driven, which is especially suited to semi-continuous direct extrusion of long sections  Mechanical drives - often used for cold extrusion of individual parts
  95. 95. Wire and Bar Drawing  Cross-section of a bar, rod, or wire is reduced by pulling it through a die opening  Similar to extrusion except work is pulled through die in drawing (it is pushed through in extrusion)  Although drawing applies tensile stress, compression also plays a significant role since metal is squeezed as it passes through die opening
  96. 96. Figure 19.40 Drawing of bar, rod, or wire. Wire and Bar Drawing
  97. 97. Area Reduction in Drawing Change in size of work is usually given by area reduction: where r = area reduction in drawing; Ao = original area of work; and Ar = final work o fo A AA r  
  98. 98. Wire Drawing vs. Bar Drawing  Difference between bar drawing and wire drawing is stock size  Bar drawing - large diameter bar and rod stock  Wire drawing - small diameter stock - wire sizes down to 0.03 mm (0.001 in.) are possible  Although the mechanics are the same, the methods, equipment, and even terminology are different
  99. 99. Drawing Practice and Products  Drawing practice:  Usually performed as cold working  Most frequently used for round cross sections  Products:  Wire: electrical wire; wire stock for fences, coat hangers, and shopping carts  Rod stock for nails, screws, rivets, and springs  Bar stock: metal bars for machining, forging, and other processes
  100. 100. Bar Drawing  Accomplished as a single-draft operation - the stock is pulled through one die opening  Beginning stock has large diameter and is a straight cylinder  Requires a batch type operation
  101. 101. Figure 19.41 Hydraulically operated draw bench for drawing metal bars. Bar Drawing Bench
  102. 102. Wire Drawing  Continuous drawing machines consisting of multiple draw dies (typically 4 to 12) separated by accumulating drums  Each drum (capstan) provides proper force to draw wire stock through upstream die  Each die provides a small reduction, so desired total reduction is achieved by the series  Annealing sometimes required between dies to relieve work hardening
  103. 103. Figure 19.42 Continuous drawing of wire. Continuous Wire Drawing
  104. 104. Features of a Draw Die  Entry region - funnels lubricant into the die to prevent scoring of work and die  Approach - cone-shaped region where drawing occurs  Bearing surface - determines final stock size  Back relief - exit zone - provided with a back relief angle (half-angle) of about 30  Die materials: tool steels or cemented carbides
  105. 105. Figure 19.43 Draw die for drawing of round rod or wire. Draw Die Details
  106. 106. Preparation of Work for Drawing  Annealing – to increase ductility of stock  Cleaning - to prevent damage to work surface and draw die  Pointing – to reduce diameter of starting end to allow insertion through draw die
  107. 107. SHEET METALWORKING 1. Cutting Operations -shearing, blanking & punching, analysis, others sheet metal operations 2. Bending Operations -v-bending, edge bending, analysis, others bending and forming operations 3. Drawing (deep drawing) -mechanics of drawing, analysis, others drawing operations, defects in drawing 4. Other Sheet Metal Forming Operations -operations performed with metal tooling, rubber forming processes
  108. 108. SHEET METALWORKING 5. Dies and Presses for Sheet Metal Processes -dies and presses 6. Sheet Metal Operations Not Performed on Presses -strech forming, roll bending & forming, spinning, high energy rate forming 7. Bending of Tube Stock
  109. 109. Sheet Metalworking Defined  Cutting and forming operations performed on relatively thin sheets of metal  Thickness of sheet metal = 0.4 mm (1/64 in) to 6 mm (1/4 in)  Thickness of plate stock > 6 mm  Operations usually performed as cold working
  110. 110. Sheet and Plate Metal Products  Sheet and plate metal parts for consumer and industrial products such as  Automobiles and trucks  Airplanes  Railway cars and locomotives  Farm and construction equipment  Small and large appliances  Office furniture  Computers and office equipment
  111. 111. Advantages of Sheet Metal Parts  High strength  Good dimensional accuracy  Good surface finish  Relatively low cost  Economical mass production for large quantities
  112. 112. Sheet Metalworking Terminology  Punch-and-die - tooling to perform cutting, bending, and drawing  Stamping press - machine tool that performs most sheet metal operations  Stampings - sheet metal products
  113. 113. Basic Types of Sheet Metal Processes 1. Cutting  Shearing to separate large sheets  Blanking to cut part perimeters out of sheet metal  Punching to make holes in sheet metal 2. Bending  Straining sheet around a straight axis 3. Drawing  Forming of sheet into convex or concave shapes
  114. 114. Typical Engineering Stress-Strain Plot Typical engineering stress-strain plot in a tensile test of a metal
  115. 115. Figure 20.1 Shearing of sheet metal between two cutting edges: (1) just before the punch contacts work; (2) punch begins to push into work, causing plastic deformation; Sheet Metal Cutting
  116. 116. Figure 20.1 Shearing of sheet metal between two cutting edges: (3) punch compresses and penetrates into work causing a smooth cut surface; (4) fracture is initiated at the opposing cutting edges which separates the sheet. Sheet Metal Cutting
  117. 117. Shearing, Blanking, and Punching  Three principal operations in pressworking that cut sheet metal:  Shearing  Blanking  Punching
  118. 118. Shearing  Sheet metal cutting operation along a straight line between two cutting edges  Typically used to cut large sheets Figure 20.3 Shearing operation: (a) side view of the shearing operation; (b) front view of power shears equipped with inclined upper cutting blade.
  119. 119. Blanking and Punching  Blanking - sheet metal cutting to separate piece (called a blank) from surrounding stock  Punching - similar to blanking except cut piece is scrap, called a slug Figure 20.4 (a) Blanking and (b) punching.
  120. 120. Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting  Distance between punch cutting edge and die cutting edge  Typical values range between 4% and 8% of stock thickness  If too small, fracture lines pass each other, causing double burnishing and larger force  If too large, metal is pinched between cutting edges and excessive burr results
  121. 121. Clearance in Sheet Metal Cutting  Recommended clearance is calculated by: c = at where c = clearance; a = allowance; and t = stock thickness  Allowance a is determined according to type of metal
  122. 122. Sheet Metal Groups Allowances Metal group a 1100S and 5052S aluminum alloys, all tempers 0.045 2024ST and 6061ST aluminum alloys; brass, soft cold rolled steel, soft stainless steel 0.060 Cold rolled steel, half hard; stainless steel, half hard and full hard 0.075
  123. 123. Punch and Die Sizes  For a round blank of diameter Db:  Blanking punch diameter = Db - 2c  Blanking die diameter = Db where c = clearance  For a round hole of diameter Dh:  Hole punch diameter = Dh  Hole die diameter = Dh + 2c where c = clearance
  124. 124. Figure 20.6 Die size determines blank size Db; punch size determines hole size Dh.; c = clearance Punch and Die Sizes
  125. 125.  Purpose: allows slug or blank to drop through die  Typical values: 0.25 to 1.5 on each side Figure 20.7 Angular clearance. Angular Clearance
  126. 126. Cutting Forces  Important for determining press size (tonnage) F = S t L where S = shear strength of metal; t = stock thickness, and L = length of cut edge or circumference of cut edge.
  127. 127.  Straining sheetmetal around a straight axis to take a permanent bend Figure 20.11 (a) Bending of sheet metal Sheet Metal Bending
  128. 128.  Metal on inside of neutral plane is compressed, while metal on outside of neutral plane is stretched Figure 20.11 (b) both compression and tensile elongation of the metal occur in bending. Sheet Metal Bending
  129. 129. Types of Sheet Metal Bending  V-bending - performed with a V-shaped die  Edge bending - performed with a wiping die
  130. 130.  For low production  Performed on a press brake  V-dies are simple and inexpensive Figure 20.12 (a) V-bending; V-Bending
  131. 131.  For high production  Pressure pad required  Dies are more complicated and costly Edge Bending Figure 20.12 (b) edge bending.
  132. 132. Stretching during Bending  If bend radius is small relative to stock thickness, metal tends to stretch during bending  Important to estimate amount of stretching, so final part length = specified dimension  Problem: to determine the length of neutral axis of the part before bending
  133. 133. Bend Allowance Formula where Ab = bend allowance;  = bend angle; R= bend radius; t = stock thickness; and Kba is factor to estimate stretching  If R < 2t, Kba = 0.33  If R  2t, Kba = 0.50 )tKR(A bab + 360 2= α π
  134. 134. Springback  Increase in included angle of bent part relative to included angle of forming tool after tool is removed  Reason for springback:  When bending pressure is removed, elastic energy remains in bent part, causing it to recover partially toward its original shape
  135. 135. Figure 20.13 Springback in bending is seen as a decrease in bend angle and an increase in bend radius: (1) during bending, the work is forced to take radius Rb and included angle b' of the bending tool, (2) after punch is removed, the work springs back to radius R and angle ‘. Springback  
  136. 136. Bending Force  Maximum bending force estimated as follows: where F = bending force; TS = tensile strength of sheet metal; w = part width in direction of bend axis; and t = stock thickness. For V- bending, Kbf = 1.33; for edge bending, Kbf = 0.33 D TSwtK F bf 2 
  137. 137. Figure 20.14 Die opening dimension D: (a) V-die, (b) wiping die. Die Opening Dimension
  138. 138. Drawing (Deep drawing)  Sheet metal forming to make cup-shaped, box-shaped, or other complex-curved, hollow-shaped parts  Sheet metal blank is positioned over die cavity and then punch pushes metal into opening  Products: beverage cans, ammunition shells, automobile body panels  Also known as deep drawing (to distinguish it from wire and bar drawing)
  139. 139. Figure 20.19 (a) Drawing of cup-shaped part: (1) before punch contacts work, (2) near end of stroke; (b) workpart: (1) starting blank, (2) drawn part. Drawing
  140. 140. Shapes other than Cylindrical Cups  Square or rectangular boxes (as in sinks),  Stepped cups  Cones  Cups with spherical rather than flat bases  Irregular curved forms (as in automobile body panels)  Each of these shapes presents its own unique technical problems in drawing
  141. 141. Other Sheet Metal Forming on Presses 1. Other sheet metal forming operations performed on conventional presses  Operations performed with metal tooling  Operations performed with flexible rubber tooling
  142. 142.  Makes wall thickness of cylindrical cup more uniform Figure 20.25 Ironing to achieve more uniform wall thickness in a drawn cup: (1) start of process; (2) during process. Note thinning and elongation of walls. Metal Tooling - Ironing
  143. 143. Figure 20.28 Guerin process: (1) before and (2) after. Symbols v and F indicate motion and applied force respectively. Rubber Forming - Guerin Process
  144. 144. Advantages of Guerin Process  Low tooling cost  Form block can be made of wood, plastic, or other materials that are easy to shape  Rubber pad can be used with different form blocks  Process attractive in small quantity production
  145. 145. Dies for Sheet Metal Processes  Most pressworking operations performed with conventional punch-and-die tooling  Custom-designed for particular part  The term stamping die sometimes used for high production dies
  146. 146. Figure 20.30 Components of a punch and die for a blanking operation. Punch and Die Components
  147. 147. Figure 20.31 (a) Progressive die; (b) associated strip development Progressive Die
  148. 148. Figure 20.32 Components of a typical mechanical drive stamping press Stamping Press
  149. 149. Metal Tooling  Gap frame  Configuration of the letter C and often referred to as a C-frame  Straight-sided frame  Box-like construction for higher tonnage
  150. 150. Figure 20.33 Gap frame press for sheet metalworking (Photo courtesy of E. W. Bliss Co.); capacity = 1350 kN (150 tons) Gap Frame
  151. 151. Figure 20.34 Press brake (photo courtesy of Niagara Machine & Tool Works); bed width = 9.15 m (30 ft) and capacity = 11,200 kN (1250 tons). Press Brake
  152. 152. Figure 20.35 Sheet metal parts produced on a turret press, showing variety of hole shapes possible (photo courtesy of Strippet Inc.). Metal Tooling
  153. 153. Figure 20.36 Computer numerical control turret press (photo courtesy of Strippet, Inc.).
  154. 154. Figure 20.37 Straight-sided frame press (photo courtesy of Greenerd Press & Machine Company, Inc.). Straight Sided Frame Press
  155. 155. Power and Drive Systems  Hydraulic presses - use a large piston and cylinder to drive the ram  Longer ram stroke than mechanical types  Suited to deep drawing  Slower than mechanical drives  Mechanical presses – convert rotation of motor to linear motion of ram  High forces at bottom of stroke  Suited to blanking and punching
  156. 156. Operations Not Performed on Presses  Stretch forming  Roll bending and forming  Spinning  High-energy-rate forming processes
  157. 157.  Sheet metal is stretched and simultaneously bent to achieve shape change Figure 20.39 Stretch forming: (1) start of process; (2) form die is pressed into the work with force Fdie, causing it to be stretched and bent over the form. F = stretching force. Stretch Forming
  158. 158.  Large metal sheets and plates are formed into curved sections using rolls Figure 20.40 Roll bending. Roll Bending
  159. 159.  Continuous bending process in which opposing rolls produce long sections of formed shapes from coil or strip stock Figure 20.41 Roll forming of a continuous channel section: (1) straight rolls, (2) partial form, (3) final form. Roll Forming
  160. 160. Spinning  Metal forming process in which an axially symmetric part is gradually shaped over a rotating mandrel using a rounded tool or roller  Three types: 1. Conventional spinning 2. Shear spinning 3. Tube spinning
  161. 161. Figure 20.42 Conventional spinning: (1) setup at start of process; (2) during spinning; and (3) completion of process. Conventional Spinning
  162. 162. High-Energy-Rate Forming (HERF)  Processes to form metals using large amounts of energy over a very short time  HERF processes include:  Explosive forming  Electrohydraulic forming  Electromagnetic forming
  163. 163. Explosive Forming  Use of explosive charge to form sheet (or plate) metal into a die cavity  Explosive charge causes a shock wave whose energy is transmitted to force part into cavity  Applications: large parts, typical of aerospace industry
  164. 164. Figure 20.45 Explosive forming: (1) setup, (2) explosive is detonated, and (3) shock wave forms part and plume escapes water surface. Explosive Forming
  165. 165. Electromagnetic Forming  Sheet metal is deformed by mechanical force of an electromagnetic field induced in the workpart by an energized coil  Presently the most widely used HERF process  Applications: tubular parts
  166. 166. Figure 20.47 Electromagnetic forming: (1) setup in which coil is inserted into tubular workpart surrounded by die; (2) formed part. Electromagnetic Forming