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Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape

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Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape

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"Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape" - lecture by Dr Luis Valdés, Head Ocean Sciences, IOC-UNESCO
15 September 2014
ICES Annual Science Conference, A Coruña, Spain

"Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape" - lecture by Dr Luis Valdés, Head Ocean Sciences, IOC-UNESCO
15 September 2014
ICES Annual Science Conference, A Coruña, Spain

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Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape

  1. 1. Prospects and opportunities in a changing marine science and policy landscape Dr Luis Valdés Head Ocean Sciences Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO
  2. 2. Emerging issues since 2004... last ICES ASC in Spain: Ocean Acidification peer review papers & authors per year
  3. 3. Emerging issues since 2004... last ICES ASC in Spain… Science Language Ocean acidification Governance Microplastics Ocean Literacy Blue carbon Human dimension Dead zones Blue growth .... ....
  4. 4. Emerging issues since 2004... last ICES ASC in Spain… Science Language Ocean acidification Governance Microplastics Ocean Literacy Blue carbon Human dimension Dead zones Blue growth .... .... … a changing marine science and policy landscape
  5. 5. Outline Prospects on marine sciences The science-policy interface Mapping the EU marine landscape A World of Science?
  6. 6. Outline Prospects on marine sciences The science-policy interface Mapping the EU marine landscape A World of Science?
  7. 7. Outline Prospects on marine sciences New scientific knowledge Science for sustainability Science and innovation
  8. 8. National Regional USA UK Global (NGO) Global (UN)
  9. 9. Outline Prospects on marine sciences New scientific knowledge Science for sustainability Science and innovation
  10. 10. Valdés, L, L. Fonseca and K. Tedesco. 2010. Oceanography, 23: 160-175
  11. 11. Multiple stressors Possible effects of combining different stressors: Amplification, Compensation, Resilience
  12. 12. Valdés, L, L. Fonseca and K. Tedesco. 2010. Oceanography, 23: 160-175
  13. 13. Core projects started since release of AGENDA 21 13 1992 2002 2012 Post-Rio?
  14. 14. Core projects started since release of AGENDA 21 Future earth 1992 2002 2012 14
  15. 15. Outline Prospects on marine sciences New scientific knowledge Science for sustainability Science and innovation
  16. 16. 11999922 From Rio 1992 to Rio+20 • UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) 22000022 • World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) 22001122 • UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD)
  17. 17. Economy SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABILITY Economy Investing in new opportunities, innovation & sustainable activities Investing in new opportunities, innovation & sustainable activities Society Society Promoting well-being & equal access to services & resources Promoting well-being & equal access to services & resources Environment Preserving ecosystems and their potential Environment Preserving ecosystems and their potential Science Science Producing new knowledge, common understanding & an integrated vision Producing new knowledge, common understanding & an integrated vision Space equity Space equity Developing Developing geographical balance in access & use of marine geographical balance in access & use of marine resources resources Time equity Time equity Managing the means of Managing the means of subsistence for subsistence for inhabitants of today & generations to come inhabitants of today & generations to come Policy making Policy making Fostering good ocean governance Fostering good ocean governance BLUE SOCIETY BLUE SOCIETY Oceans of new opportunities for all Oceans of new opportunities for all No Science= No Sustainability
  18. 18. Rio+20 Follow up Document The Future we want Substantial section on oceans with 20 paragraphs addressing: 18 Investigate climate change, sea level rise & coastal erosion. Call for ocean acidification initiatives Call for support in international cooperation for coral reefs Call to scientific community to provide data to achieve massive reduction of marine debris. Commitment to implement measures on invasive species
  19. 19. Rio+20 Follow up Document The Future we want Substantial section on oceans with 20 paragraphs addressing: Commitment to protect, restore health, productivity, resilience of the ocean; to maintain the biodiversity, to enable sustainable use 19 Call for sustainable fisheries Need for international cooperation in marine research & transfer of technology according to IOC guidelines. Call for full implementation of the World Ocean Assessment Called for support for SIDS; implementation of Barbados Programme of action & Mauritius strategy BPO A
  20. 20. Rio+20 Follow up Document The Future we want Decision on a set of global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Rio+20 launched an intergovernmental process to develop a set of SDGs, building upon the Millennium Development Goals, following these principles: • Contribute to the full implementation of the outcomes of all major summits in the economic, social and environmental fields • Focus on priority areas in the Rio Outcome document. • Address in a balanced way all 3 SD dimensions • Integrated into the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. •To be approved by UNGA 69th session (2014)
  21. 21. Outline Prospects on marine sciences New scientific knowledge Science for sustainability Science and innovation
  22. 22. Private sector Business Genetic and Pharmaceuticals
  23. 23. Marine Ren. Energy Renewable energy from the sea could one day enable the world to end its reliance on fossil fuels. One of the advantages of tidal, wave and wind power is the predictability. If an energy buyer wants a specific amount of power in five years' time, tidal movements, waves and winds can be forecast accurately enough to provide for a precise future requirement. The fact that the industry is at such an early stage in its development and not yet fully competitive (wave power is now at the stage wind power was 20 years ago) means that investors have an opportunity to buy into a fledgling industry that is set to grow quickly over the coming years.
  24. 24. Prospects and opportunities In future, oceans will be continuously subject to natural and to human pressures for change. Global warming is a fact confirmed by scientific evidence and it will be, it is being, the central environmental concern of our times. More and new research has to be done to fully understand and evaluate the impacts of climate change in the oceans and to internationally cooperate to monitor the effects of CC and Ocean acidification. Societies are demanding from policymakers proactive positions towards respecting the sustainable use and management of natural resources and mitigate the impacts of global warming. Sustainable development will depend on our ability to manage future ocean changes. In the next 10 years, social pressure will encourage policymakers to reach agreements regarding limits on carbon emissions and set up planetary boundaries for other anthropogenic impacts. Future Earth (ICSU) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals are providing the ground to establish some new large international research programmes following the legacy of other past successful initiatives. The blue economy/growth is underpinning in science and innovation. The private sector needs to work closely with the marine scientific community to maximize the opportunities.
  25. 25. Outline Prospects on marine sciences The science-policy interface Mapping the EU marine landscape A World of Science?
  26. 26. Setting the scene (science) Environmental Policy has been generally been driven by science (e.g. side effects of pesticides, thinning of ozone, health effects of mercury, CO2 for climate change). Science is key to generating acceptance and legitimising policy intervention. Scientists feature among the voices more «trusted» by citizens. Environmental indicators and trends need to rest on solid scientific evidence. The entire policy cycle from ideas to policy implementation & review must rest on a firm technical and (constantly evolving) scientific base.
  27. 27. Setting the scene (policy) Democracy depends upon the policymakers having the best knowledge of the consequences of their decisions. Research has shown that politicians are generally scientifically illiterate and therefore have to depend upon scientific expert committees to obtain this knowledge. Membership of these committees is not democratic and this introduces bias. Over time, environment policies have evolved from being very targeted to being more holistic which implies more knowledge demands, in particular to characterise the added complexities and uncertainties of integrated issues having long term consequences.
  28. 28. Main Assessment reports
  29. 29. Main Assessment reports Europe
  30. 30. The field of knowledge is the common property of all mankind, and any discoveries we can make in it will be for the benefit . . . of every other nation, as well as our own. Thomas Jefferson (1807) Main Assessment reports Europe
  31. 31. Scientific knowledge and policy interface IPCC IPBES WOA SOFIA MSFD Science-policy interfaces Scientific Programmes (translating science into the advisory process) Conventions IOC WMO FAO IMO UNEP EC-EU GOOS, IOCCP WCRP, IGBP, DIVERSITAS UNFCCC, CBD LC, BALLAST, OSPAR, MSFD
  32. 32. Scientific knowledge and policy interface Example of Science-policy Architecture for Climate knowledge via COP SBSTA
  33. 33. Ocean Science meets Policy IPCC report process: scientific driven Criteria for best practice • Scientific independence, excellence and credibility • Geographically balanced: representation of the global scientific community. • Interdisciplinary knowledge and information • Transparency of the process(es). • Good communication by scientists about processes, strengths and limitations of their work. • Open, inclusive, including also major civil society actors and the private sector (participatory approach) (?)
  34. 34. Ocean Science meets Policy IPCC report process: scientific driven AR5 The phisycal science basis
  35. 35. Prospects and opportunities There is a need for increasing translation of scientific knowledge on links between ocean health, ecosystem services and human well-being into specific policy action. However, there is a long time gap between scientific findings and policy responses. It is necessary to continue develop strategic interfaces (e.g. MSFD, WOA, IPBES, IPCC) to strengthening science-policy links among organisations (e.g. IOC, FAO, WMO, EC, etc.) and Convention/multilateral environmental/sustainable development agreements (e.g. CBD, UNFCCC) at the regional and global levels. It is a must to follow “best practice” to ensure high quality, independent, policy relevant, and “geo-politically” legitimate scientific information and advice.
  36. 36. Outline Prospects on marine sciences The science-policy interface Mapping the EU marine landscape A World of Science?
  37. 37. Periodic Table of the European Marine/Maritime Elements Ar Ices Cies Bsc Af Mf As At Os He Ba Bc MseMyoGes Mar Bef Cor Eco Euo Efa EMSEA MYOCEAN GMES MARS MARBEF CORIOLIS EMECO EUROCEAN EFARO Wise Vos Odr Eng Clu Meg Og Sp Fish WISE Vol ob ship ECORD OCE ENERGY ENMC EMEC OGP CMASV RACS Cr Gb Bd Hd Oo Geo Oc Sl Hab Msp Acc Bg Bs Re Msf Imp EU EU EU EU EU EU EU Ms Bw Wf Ha Na Cfp EU EU EU EU EU EU EU Los Ccc Lp Bw Cb St Ci UNCLOS UNFCCC LC/LP BALLAST CBD STOCKOLM CITES Esf Mb Erc Era Cbd Fao Iaea Imo Isa De Do Dp Ep Ioc Ido WmoWb Iho Oec Ge UN Icsu Iucn Po Idi Won Mcf SeaWwf Ps Gp Ci PewSca Sco Gof Gef Gpo © Valdes. L., 2013 EU Marine International Scientific Councils EU Regional Fisheries Organizations EU Regional Conventions UN conventions and treaties EU legal framework on marine/maritime affairs Think tankers European specialized agencies European Marine Scientific Clusters European Maritime Clusters Databases International Programmes (IPO in Europe) Funding instruments Reporting Processes UN specialized agencies with marine/maritime mandate Other marine International Organizations in Europe Main Marine/Maritime NGOs in Europe Other main International NGOs UN Funding instruments GESAMP UN-OCEANS GEF WB-GOP UNESCO-IOC UNIDO WMO WB IHO OECD GREENPEACE CI PEW SCAR SCOR GOF CBD FAO IAEA IMO ISA UN-DESA DOALOS UNDP UNEP ICSU IUCN POGO IDDRI WON MCF SEAS AT RISK WWF PLAST SOUP ARCIC ICES CIESM BLACK NEAFC GFCM NASCO ICCAT OSPAR HELCOM BARC BUCA ESF MB ERC EEA EMSA JPI DRAEGER PRINCE CALOUSTE EFCA JRC ERA ESA WCRP IGBP DIVERSITAS IHDP GOOS GEO-GEOSS IOCCP GLOSS HAB EMODNET PSMSL OBIS IODE ICES IPCC SOFIA IPBES WOA FP7 OCEAN TOMHORIZON 2020 NSF-MS Jpi Df Pa Gul Eea Msa Fc Jrc Esa Enet Sl ObisIode Ices Cc Fa Bs Woa Fp Ot H20 Nsf OSPAR SR HELCOM MSFD NAt Bal EuW
  38. 38. 41 Prospects and opportunities TODAY FUTURE The EU as a key player in Ocean Governance:  Joint directions towards an integrated maritime policy/marine strategy  Enhance communication between the clusters to ensure a broad ecosystem focus  Combine marine and maritime interests for a better development of coastal regions  Prepare ourselves to use the science policy landscape in our own benefit as a vehicle to reinforce and add value to marine scientific research and to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology to third parties
  39. 39. Outline Prospects on marine sciences The science-policy interface Mapping the EU marine landscape A World of Science?
  40. 40. Science today - transfer of knowledge? Citation map of the world where the area of each country is scaled and deformed according to the number of citations received, which is also indicated by the color of each country 43 Pan et al., 2012. Nature/scientific reports, 2: 902, DOI: 10.1038
  41. 41. GLOBAL OOCCEEAANN SSCCIIEENNCCEE RREEPPOORRTT FEASIBILITY & DEMAND SHOWN BY: National activities, e.g. Canada & Belgium (2013)
  42. 42. GLOBAL OOCCEEAANN SSCCIIEENNCCEE RREEPPOORRTT
  43. 43. GLOBAL OOCCEEAANN SSCCIIEENNCCEE RREEPPOORRTT
  44. 44. GLOBAL OOCCEEAANN SSCCIIEENNCCEE RREEPPOORRTT
  45. 45. GLOBAL OOCCEEAANN SSCCIIEENNCCEE RREEPPOORRTT
  46. 46. Science today - transfer of knowledge? Citation map of the world where the area of each country is scaled and deformed according to the number of citations received, which is also indicated by the color of each country 49 Pan et al., 2012. Nature/scientific reports, 2: 902, DOI: 10.1038
  47. 47. …Protect our Oceans…together ¡Thank you! www.ioc-unesco.org
  48. 48. Ocean Science meets Policy Principles of Scientific assessments (e.g. IPCC, WOA, IPBES, MSFD) • Establish the current knowledge on a given problem and its future risks; most include assessments of options for action. • Need to be repeated or updated periodically (concerns about time lags) • Based on interdisciplinary scientific research and knowledge • Participatory approach
  49. 49. Problems we face – barriers to break down • Conflicting priorities and policies, • Lack of monitoring and coordinated reporting • Capacity gaps between developed and developing countries • Limited educational, training and technical capacity and financial resources • Ineffective enforcement of obligations  Much related to perception that full implementation requires trade offs among pillars of sustainability
  50. 50. Government vs governance: A paradigm shift GOVERNMENT Administration Society Hierarchical relationship GOVERNANCE Plurality of actors Public & private organizations Integrative and Interdependent relationships
  51. 51. Setting the scene Jones N., H. Jones and C. Walsh. 2008. Political Science? Strengthening science–policy dialogue in developing countries. Overseas Development Institute, Working Paper 294 (ISBN 978 0 85003 878 1)

Notas del editor

  • The final outcome document of Rio+20 ‘the future we want’ stressed the critical role the ocean plays in all three pillars of sustainable development, and “commit[ed] to protect, and restore, the health, productivity and resilience of the ocean and marine ecosystems, and to maintain their biodiversity, enabling their conservation and sustainable use for present and future generations.” It contains 20 paragraphs in a dedicated section on the ocean and seas, and an additional three paragraphs on small island developing States (SIDS).

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