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Hilton, Timothy: Comparison of atmospheric observations to high-resolution fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 flux models for Auckland, New Zealand

ICOS Science Conference 2022: Day 2, Session 10

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Comparison of atmospheric observations to
high-resolution fossil fuel and biogenic CO2
flux models for Auckland, New Zealand
Timothy W. Hilton
t.hilton@gns.cri.nz
Elizabeth Keller, Sapthala
Karalliyadda, Adrian Benson,
Lucas Domingues, Harrison
O'Sullivan-Moffat, Hayden
Young, Jeremy Parry-
Thompson, Nikita Turton, Lucy
Hutyra, Kevin Gurney, Jocelyn
Turnbull
2 / 23
Carbon cycle primer
~800 GtC in the form of CO2
400 ppm CO2
~60 GtC
~62 GtC
~92 GtC ~90 GtC 10 GtC/yr
3 / 23
Carbon cycle – more realistic
~800 GtC in the form of CO2 400 ppm CO2
~60 GtC
10 GtC/yr
~62 GtC
~92 GtC ~90 GtC
oceans
Terrestrial biosphere
Fossil fuels
Photo: Hutt City Council
4 / 23
Carbon cycle – bottom up inventory
Keller et al, Geoscience Data Journal, 2022 (under review)
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6395226
5 / 23
Measure 14
C in tree rings
Compare to long-term Baring
Head clean air
Lower D14
CO2 in urban area due to
addition of 14
C-free fossil fuel CO2
Kings Crescent
Central Lower Hutt
Baring Head clean air station
Near Wellington
Ansell et al, 2016
Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2
6 / 23
Comparison with New Zealand petrol/diesel
usage
Ansell et al, 2016
Observed fossil fuel CO2 concentration in Lower Hutt tracks with petrol/diesel usage
NZ fuel usage increased by 60% from 1972 to 2012
- by far largest area of increase in greenhouse gas emissions for New Zealand
Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2

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Hilton, Timothy: Comparison of atmospheric observations to high-resolution fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 flux models for Auckland, New Zealand

  • 1. 1 / 23 Comparison of atmospheric observations to high-resolution fossil fuel and biogenic CO2 flux models for Auckland, New Zealand Timothy W. Hilton t.hilton@gns.cri.nz Elizabeth Keller, Sapthala Karalliyadda, Adrian Benson, Lucas Domingues, Harrison O'Sullivan-Moffat, Hayden Young, Jeremy Parry- Thompson, Nikita Turton, Lucy Hutyra, Kevin Gurney, Jocelyn Turnbull
  • 2. 2 / 23 Carbon cycle primer ~800 GtC in the form of CO2 400 ppm CO2 ~60 GtC ~62 GtC ~92 GtC ~90 GtC 10 GtC/yr
  • 3. 3 / 23 Carbon cycle – more realistic ~800 GtC in the form of CO2 400 ppm CO2 ~60 GtC 10 GtC/yr ~62 GtC ~92 GtC ~90 GtC oceans Terrestrial biosphere Fossil fuels Photo: Hutt City Council
  • 4. 4 / 23 Carbon cycle – bottom up inventory Keller et al, Geoscience Data Journal, 2022 (under review) https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6395226
  • 5. 5 / 23 Measure 14 C in tree rings Compare to long-term Baring Head clean air Lower D14 CO2 in urban area due to addition of 14 C-free fossil fuel CO2 Kings Crescent Central Lower Hutt Baring Head clean air station Near Wellington Ansell et al, 2016 Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2
  • 6. 6 / 23 Comparison with New Zealand petrol/diesel usage Ansell et al, 2016 Observed fossil fuel CO2 concentration in Lower Hutt tracks with petrol/diesel usage NZ fuel usage increased by 60% from 1972 to 2012 - by far largest area of increase in greenhouse gas emissions for New Zealand Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2
  • 7. 7 / 23 CarbonWatch-Auckland integrated network observations Wind direction In situ network In situ CO2, CO, CH4 Weekly flasks CO2, CO, CH4, 14 CO2, COS In situ Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2
  • 8. 8 / 23 Auckland flask measurements Ratio CO2bio:CO2ff CO2bio No pattern in CO2ff by time of day Clear but variable afternoon drawdown in CO2bio Expect daily cycle of photosynthetic CO2 removal during the daylight hours, and respiration CO2 source at night For this daytime dataset, net biogenic uptake removes ~40% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions (does not account for nighttime when photosynthetic uptake does not occur) Median CO2bio:CO2ff = -0.4 Forest Suburban Industrial Downwind Urban Motorway CO2ff Getting FF CO2 right: 14CO2
  • 9. 9 / 23 - Mahuika AKL
  • 10. 10 / 23 - urbanVPRM
  • 12. 12 / 23 Ratio CO2bio:CO2ff Median CO2bio:CO2ff = -0.4
  • 13. 13 / 23 urbanVPRM NEE for Auckland Region, 15 Jan 2017
  • 14. 14 / 23 urbanVPRM NEE for Auckland Region, 15 Jan 2017 Image by Pedro Szekely Licensed under creative commons CC BY-SA 2.0
  • 15. 15 / 23 UrbanVPRM – annual timeseries for Central Auckland
  • 16. 16 / 23 UrbanVPRM – annual timeseries for Botany Downs (has an eddy covariance tower!)
  • 17. 17 / 23 UrbanVPRM – annual timeseries for Botany Downs (has an eddy covariance tower!) Weissert et al., Atmospheric Environment, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.044
  • 18. 18 / 23 Thanks! Mahuika-AKL bottom-up inventory data are freely available online: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6395226 References Keller, E. D., Hilton, T. W., Benson, A., Karalliyadda, S., Xie, S., Gurney, K., & Turnbull, J. C. (2022). Mahuika-Auckland: A spatially and temporally resolved fossil fuel CO₂ emissions data product for Auckland, New Zealand. Geoscience Data Journal. Under review. Weissert, L. F., Salmond, J. A., Turnbull, J. C., & Schwendenmann, L. (2016). Temporal variability in the sources and fluxes of CO2 in a residential area in an evergreen subtropical city. Atmospheric Environment, 143, 164–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2016.08.044
  • 19. 19 / 23 Reserve slides
  • 20. ODIAC 1km Oda & Maksyutov, 2015. doi:10.17595/20170411.001 Mahuika 500m FF emissions EDGAR 0.1º Crippa et al., 2019 doi: 10.2760/687800 Comparison to global products
  • 21. 21 / 23 Getting biogenic CO2 right: OCS GPP was Northerly Nope, GPP was southeasterly! Hilton et al., Nat Clim Ch, 2017
  • 22. 22 / 23 Getting biogenic CO2 right: OCS
  • 23. 23 / 23 Getting biogenic CO2 right: OCS