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Assessing antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use in agricultural food system: Experience from Vietnam

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Presentation by Hung Nguyen-Viet, Pham Duc Phuc, Dang Xuan Sinh and Do Van Hoan at a workshop on "Intensifying food systems and health: Emphasis on antimicrobial use in agricultural systems", Jaipur, India, 4–6 April 2018.


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Assessing antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use in agricultural food system: Experience from Vietnam

  1. 1. Assessing antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic use in agricultural food system: Experience from Vietnam Hung Nguyen-Viet, Pham Duc Phuc, Dang Xuan Sinh, Do Van Hoan International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Vietnam Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam Intensifying Food Systems and Health: Emphasis on Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Systems Jaipur, India, 4-6 April 2018
  2. 2. Outline • Livestock situation in Vietnam • AMR and AMU research • What the country does to address AMR and AMU
  3. 3. Livestock production in Vietnam (2010-2017) DLP/ MARD (2018) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Y2010 Y2012 Y2013 Y2014 Y2015 Y2016 Y2017 Unit: Million head Pig Buffalo Cattle Dairy Cattle Chicken Duck Goat & lamb
  4. 4. Livestock production in Vietnam (2010-2017) Annual growth 2010-2017: 5-6% per year DLP/ MARD (2018) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Y2010 Y2012 Y2013 Y2014 Y2015 Y2016 Y2017 Pork (1000 ton) Poultry (1000 ton) Buffalo & cattle (1000 ton)
  5. 5. Transformation of Livestock sector in Vietnam Source: GSO, 2013 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 Crop Livestock Services Share of livestock in total agricultural GDPLivestock production and consumption in Vietnam from 2013 to 2019 forecast Source: ipsos business consulting Gradual transformation from small scale households to commercial/industrial farms
  6. 6. Diseases, antimicrobial use, challenges • Diarrhea, pneumonia, fever, PRRS, head edema and pasteurellosis (pig sector) • Extensive use of antimicrobials and other veterinary drugs, e.g. β-agonists used as feed additive • Little is known about the scale and drivers of non-prudent antimicrobial use and resistance, e.g. at farm level • How do farmers perceive risks and benefits of antimicrobial use and on which information do they act? • How can better information, regulation and stakeholder interaction foster more prudent antimicrobial use practices?
  7. 7. 6,357 3,147 Number of vet drug products in Vietnam (03/2016 - DAH) Domestic drug Import drug 85% 15% Prevalence of GMP and non- GMP certificated of vet. Drug products in Vietnam GMP certificated Non-certificated Antimicrobial-use in livestock sector in Vietnam
  8. 8. AMU consumption for chicken and pig medicated feeds • 77.4 mg and 286.6 mg of in-feed antimicrobials were used to raise 1 kg of live chicken and pig, respectively. • 1023.5 tons, and 42.2 and 981.3 tons for Vietnamese chicken and pig production, respectively. Nguyen Van Cuong et al. 2016. EcoHealth
  9. 9. • 90% AB sold without prescription • Dispensed by inexperienced staff • 25% of sales is AB sales • More rural domestic drug sales • High demand from buyer -> public awareness campaigns • Strong incentive for AB dispensing -> room for intervention
  10. 10. 38.6 50.4 1.6 3.9 0 0.8 4.7 35.1 60.3 0 2.3 0 0 2.3 29.1 47.8 0.7 3 0.7 16.4 2.2 0 20 40 60 When animal had any abnormal symptoms/ behavior When animal was sick or contracted a disease To promote growth (without any symptoms of… When animals of neighbor get sick Advice from others Don't know/don't answer Others % Aquaculture producers (n= 134) Pig producers (n= 131) Poultry producers (n= 127) When did farmers use antibiotics? 88.8 87 81 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Poultry producers (n= 89) Pig producers (n= 69) Aquaculture producers (n= 58) % Veterinary medicine stores Drug sellers Veterinarians Other farms Where did farmers buy antibiotics for their animals? EHSDI and FAO, 2018
  11. 11. 25.7 38 44.9 43.4 45.5 30.8 25.7 14 16.7 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Poultry producers (n= 113) Pig producers (n= 121) Aquaculture producers (n= 78) % Own experience Other farmers Friends Relatives Veterinarians/ para-vet Drug marketing staff Veterinary medicine sellers Other Who advises farmers about antibiotic usage? 34 15 14 42 13 4 24 10 9 30 11 2 67 30 23 67 27 5 0 20 40 60 80 Clinical diognose Labolatory test Antibiograme Description provided by famer Availability of the drugs Other (n) Veterianarians (n=85) Feed sellers (n=49) Drug sellers (n=48) Basis for prescribing medication for animals by drug, feed sellers and vet ? EHSDI and FAO, 2018
  12. 12. Rational use of AM, reduced AMR, safer food Improve understanding of drug use and strengthen capacity in AMR /AMU surveillance Pig health and health management practices 1 Antibiotic resistance in pigs and antibiotic residues in pork products Effective interventions for improving pig health management 3 Veterinary drug use among pig farmers 2 4 VIDA-PIG 4 work packages One Heath Pig farms, feed mills, abattoirs, veterinarians, etc. Hung Nguyen et al. 2018
  13. 13. An intervention controlled trial Dong Thap province Feb 2020 • Farmer Training • Farm Health Plan (level 1) • Diagnostic support • Farmer Training • Farm Health Plan (level 2) • Diagnostic support • No intervention Mar 2018 Oct 2016 ViParc, 2018
  14. 14. Engaging the food and agriculture sectors in sub‐Saharan Africa and South and South‐East Asia in the global efforts to combat antimicrobial resistance using a One Health approach (GCP/GLO/710/UK) 2018-2019
  15. 15. Research needed and ongoing efforts • Understand AMR and AMU drivers • AMR monitoring and surveillance system: One Health effort • Improved drug quality • Intervention studies • Policy optimization  Mr Hoan’s talk from MARD
  16. 16. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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