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Demand for porcine cysticercosis vaccine in Uganda: Lessons and insights

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Presented at the IFPRI’s Food Industries for People and Planet workshop, Washington, DC, June 2017

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Demand for porcine cysticercosis vaccine in Uganda: Lessons and insights

  1. 1. Demand for porcine cysticercosis vaccine in Uganda: lessons and insights Emily Ouma, Michel Dione, Nadhem Mtimet, Peter Lule, Angie Colston, Sam Adediran and Delia Grace IFPRI’s Food Industries for People and Planet workshop in Washington, DC, June 2017
  2. 2. Importance of the pig sector in Uganda  Main source of livelihood for over 2 million smallholder pig producers and thousands of other value chain actors  Rising pig population driven by growing demand for pork – Uganda has the highest per capita of pork in Eastern Africa (3.4 kg per capita)  Zoonotic diseases, especially porcine cysticercosis is a key challenge to the sector – Results in economic losses and public health impact 0 2 4 6 8 10 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 kg/person/year Per capita consumption of beef, pork and mutton (1970 - 2010) Pork Beef Mutton 187 190 1160 1573 1710 3184 3600 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 2008 2014 Animals x 1000 Pig population (1970 - 2014)
  3. 3. What is porcine cysticercosis (PC)? Pork infected with cysts  Pork tapeworm, (Taenia solium) is a zoonosis associated with pig farming in Uganda.  Human beings acquire tapeworm following ingestion of raw or undercooked pork infected with viable cysts.  It affects swine as porcine cysticercosis, through faecal infection caused by the ingestion of tapeworm eggs dispersed by a human carrier. Cysts under the tongue of pigs identified through lingual screening Photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione Photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione
  4. 4. Significance of porcine cysticercosis  The larval stage of the pork tapeworm (cysts) has for decades caused direct human health defects: – The cysts lodge in the human brain, eyes and muscles causing epilepsy, blindness and paralysis (estimated to result in 9 disability adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1000 persons per year). – High social impact, given the negative perception of epilepsy in Uganda and other African countries  It significantly lowers economic productivity of infected pigs.
  5. 5. Significance of porcine cysticercosis  High prevalence rates of porcine cysticercosis reported from field surveys: – Average of 24% in five districts in the Lake Kyoga basin – 38% in Moyo district (Northern region) – 11 – 13% in high pig density areas such as Masaka and Mukono districts (Central region)  Main risk factors that facilitate transmission: – Pig management practices (free- ranging) – Poor hygiene practices – Open defecation – Consumption of undercooked pork Source: Nsadha et al, 2014; Kungu et al; 2016
  6. 6. Research motivation  New vaccine (TSOL18) has been developed for protection of pigs against porcine cysticercosis.  Field trials of the vaccine in Uganda by GALVmed has proven its effectiveness when administered in combination with a drug, oxfendazole (Paranthic™ 10%).  Oxfendazole eliminates cysts lodged in the pigs before vaccination. Its also effective against other internal parasites.  Both vaccine and oxfendazole not yet available in Uganda TSOL18 (Cysvax) vaccine Photo credit: GALVmed Oxfendazole (Paranthic 10%) Photo credit: GALVmed
  7. 7. Research motivation Oxfendazole dosing in a young pig Photo credit: KE Mwape, UNZA  Primary vaccination in pigs given from 2 months of age, and a booster after 3-4 weeks (*3-4 months)  Immunity develops within 2 weeks of booster vaccination  If pigs are on the farm 6 months later, then a re-vaccination is recommended  The potential for marketing the vaccine and oxfendazole as a private good is not yet clear, – willingness of the pig value chain actors to invest in it and the market mechanisms to incentivise uptake remains unknown *Puodel et. al manuscript in preparation
  8. 8. Research objective  To assess the potential demand for the TSOL 18 vaccine and Oxfendazole package by pig farmers and demand for vaccinated pigs by traders.
  9. 9. Methodology  Application of choice experiment methodology (CE): – To assess farmers willingness to pay for the porcine cysticercosis vaccine- oxfendazole package – To assess traders willingness to pay for PC-vaccinated pigs  Priority attributes for the willingness to pay design identified based on literature and field experience – 6 attributes of the vaccine with 2 - 3 levels for farmer WTP Identified attributes for farmer WTP A. Cost of the vaccine and Oxfendazole B. Administration cost C. Pig weight gain D. Price premium due to vaccination E. Frequency of vaccination to attain immunity F. Availability of a vaccine viability detector
  10. 10. Methodology  4 attributes of vaccinated pigs with 2-3 levels for trader WTP  The attributes and their levels were combined based on a fractional factorial orthogonal main effects only experimental design Identified attributes for trader WTP A. Premium price due to vaccination B. Proof of vaccination C. Market price of pig D. Improved carcass weight gain – 12 generic choice sets for farmers, each with 3 alternatives and a “no-buy option” - blocked into 2 groups – 8 generic choice sets for traders each with 3 alternatives and a “no-buy option”  Choice sets were used to construct choice cards with pictorial profiles – factors influencing choice estimated using a conditional logit model
  11. 11. Methodology  Choice experiment administered to 294 pig farmers in Masaka and Bukedea districts and 33 traders in Bukedea district.  Example of a choice set administered to farmers:
  12. 12. Results Attribute USD UGX Standard Error Vaccine-oxfendazole package administration cost 3.7754* 13,591.4 1.9869 Price premium on vaccinated pig 0.4431** 1,595.2 0.2085 Low vaccination frequency (once at 2 months) 1.6651* 5,994.4 0.9287 Medium vaccination frequency (twice) 0.9723 3,500.3 0.7198 Weight gain 0.1217 438.1 0.4323 Vaccine viability detector 4.0111** 14,439.9 1.8571 Wald Statistic=4.78289 Prob. from Chi-squared [6]=0.0576 Functions are computed at means of variables. ***, **, and * denote significant variables at 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively Attribute implicit prices (willingness to pay values) for PC vaccine
  13. 13. Results  Farmers are willing to pay: – US$0.40 more if the vaccine results in an additional dollar premium price for vaccinated pigs – US$4 if the vaccine comes with a viability detector  High WTP for a vaccine-oxfendazole package with a viability detector – Reflects existing quality uncertainty of veterinary products and information asymmetry between buyers and sellers (depicts a “lemons- market”)  The trader CE results show that traders’ most preferred attribute was high pig carcass weight gain – Proof of vaccination and premium price attribute due to vaccination not significant in the model. – Weight gain can be achieved through appropriate feeding and deworming regimes such as use of oxfendazole to eliminate parasites
  14. 14. Results: Farmers WTP for combined attributes of the vaccine using compensating surplus model Attribute WTP in Uganda Shillings WTP in US Dollars % of farmers who chose the vaccine option Base scenario (current vaccine attributes) ADMIN COST PER PIG – USh 6000 PRICE PREMIUM – 15% of market price VACCINATION FREQUENCY – twice WEIGHT GAIN – 5% VIABILITY DETECTOR – none 9,396 2.61 19.7 Scenario 1 ADMIN COST PER PIG – USh 2500 PRICE PREMIUM – 50% of market price VACCINATION FREQUENCY – once WEIGHT GAIN – 5% VIABILITY DETECTOR - none 46,224 12.84 37.4 Scenario 2 ADMIN COST PER PIG – USh 6000 PRICE PREMIUM – 50% of market price VACCINATION FREQUENCY –once WEIGHT GAIN – 10% VIABILITY DETECTOR - yes 60,984 16.94 49.0
  15. 15. Conclusions and implications  Farmer CE results show that obtaining a premium price for immunized pigs is a strong incentive to vaccinate pigs for porcine cysticercosis – Implication: The potential for marketing the vaccine as a private good is low given that the current marketing system does not pay premium price for “safe” pigs or reward food safety generally.  Alternative is to have government take up the vaccine as a public good with associated costs to be met from public sector investments – A purely public good approach may not be a sustainable option for Uganda, possible private-public cost sharing arrangements could be considered.
  16. 16. Conclusions and implications  Quality assurance concerns by farmers for the vaccine and oxfendazole package – demonstrated through high preference for a viability detector – Reflects quality uncertainty concerns over existing veterinary products in the market – Has implications for the currently weak implementation of quality assurance systems for veterinary products Photo credit: ILRI/Michel Dione
  17. 17. Funding support
  18. 18. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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