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Dynamics of food security and livelihood strategies in Eastern Africa

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Presented by Nils Teufel, Jim Hammond, Simon Fraval, Mark van Wijk (ILRI) at the Strengthening Food And Nutrition Security Conference, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, 11-12 July 2018

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Dynamics of food security and livelihood strategies in Eastern Africa

  1. 1. Dynamics of food security and livelihood strategies in Eastern Africa Nils Teufel, Jim Hammond, Simon Fraval, Mark van Wijk International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) STRENGTHENING FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY CONFERENCE Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania 11-12/07/2018
  2. 2. Introduction & objectives It is generally perceived that poverty levels have been remaining persistently high in rural areas of Eastern Africa. However, many discussions focus less on • structure and dynamics of poverty, • the contribution of various livelihood sources in combating poverty and • how poverty dynamics affect livelihoods. Standardised surveys for wide application.
  3. 3. Tools & Methods Tools ImpactLite & RHoMIS, incl. standard livelihood indicators, Hh surveys tools on farming systems & food security Main poverty indicator Total value of activities (TVA), comprised of food production (consumed & sold) & off-farm income, shown in USD/male adult equivalent (MAE) Poverty category thresholds of TVA - USD equivalent of 3000 kcal/(MAE*d) (WHO minimum) - 1.90 USD /(MAE*d) (old WB poverty threshold) Poverty categories: low – medium – high
  4. 4. Wote, Kenya, n=160 Market access to Nairobi Rapid expansion of off farm opportunities Rakai, Uganda, n=129 Natural resource base particularly important; few market and off farm opportunities Nyando, Kenya, n=161 Dry climate, various value chain initiatives and off farm opportunities Lushoto, Tanzania, n=147 Market access to Dar es Salaam, vegetable sales booming. Livestock and cattle highly valued. Hammond et al in prep. Study sites 4 study sites, 2 rounds (2012 & 2015/17), 597 households, randomly selected within 10km x 10km research blocks
  5. 5. Results – household categorization 2012 30% 33% 37% Prosperity 2012
  6. 6. Results – household categorization 2015-17 27% 33% 41% Prosperity 2015-17
  7. 7. Household category trajectories
  8. 8. Characteristics of trajectory classes: Change in consumption of farm products   --   --
  9. 9. Characteristics of trajectory classes: Change in farm product sales & off-farm income   --   --   --
  10. 10. Impacts of poverty dynamics on household diet diversity   --   --
  11. 11. Conclusions • Considerable dynamics in poverty present great opportunity to – strengthen capacity to escape poverty – reduce risk of falling into poverty • Off-farm income most important to move out of poverty – crops can help • Diet diversity closely follows poverty dynamics, especially when falling into extreme poverty
  12. 12. This work was financed by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and the CGIAR Research Program on Livestock Thanks for your attention
  13. 13. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock
  14. 14. Household category trajectories