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Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot
interventions targeting slaughter and retail in
selected provinces in ...
Outline
• Introduction
• Material and methods
• Results
• Conclusions
Introduction - pork and food safety in Vietnam
Pork is an important component of the Vietnamese diet
• The most widely con...
PigRISK
Sep
2017
Pig competiveness
2008
-2012
ILRI’s and partners pig value chain work in Vietnam
SAFEPork
Small holder pi...
Pork safety assessments and pathways towards safer pork
PigRISK (2012-2017) http://pigrisk.ilriwikis.org SAFE Pork (ongoin...
Results from risk assessment under Pig RISK
Microbial Risk assessment:
Salmonella contamination started at farm and increa...
Investments in FS can save lives and $$$
• 94 million people
• Cases of foodborne diseases (FBD) by
Salmonella in pork at ...
SAFE Pork
Food safety performance of key pork supply chains
Method: Standardised food safety performance tool (KAP, trust,...
SAFE Pork
Food safety performance of key pork supply chains - results
Traditional/
wet market (all
sites)
Street food, Han...
SAFE Pork – interventions
Challenges for improving food safety including pork
• Various approaches to improving safety had...
Pilot intervention / behaviour change
The pilot trial also demonstrated that technical
solutions must go along with behavi...
12
FBD- a new priority – most from livestock
Millions DALYs lost per year (global)
Safe PORK
Approach used for interventio...
Safe PORK – interventions
Slaughter: Reduce contamination of pork
Portable ozone machines to plug into water supply
Status...
Safe PORK – interventions
Reduce contamination of pork
More hygienic slaughter (Tien Lu)
- Elevated grid
- Change of work ...
Safe PORK – interventions
Retailer package
Where: Hung Yen, Tien Lu, retailers supplied by above slaughterhouse
Interventi...
Safe PORK – interventions
Increasing transparency and traceability in food system
24 hour on farm, slaughter (?), branding...
Vietnam food safety task force : translational research
Vietnam Food Safety (FS) Task Force
• Led by national FS researche...
18
FBD- a new priority – most from livestock
Millions DALYs lost per year (global)
Safe PORK
Conclusions
From assessments:...
Safer pork can be achieved but technical solutions
need to be:
• Evidence based
• Identified and implemented in a strong p...
Acknowledgements: Pig RISK & SAFE Pork teams, VNUA, HUPH, NIAS, NIVR, local
authorities, value chain actors & BacTom, Aqua...
This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence.
better lives throu...
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Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces in northern Vietnam

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Presented by Fred Unger at the Markets and Agricultures Linkages for Cities in Asia (MALICA) Annual Scientific Meeting 2019, Hanoi, Vietnam, 5 November 2019.

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Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces in northern Vietnam

  1. 1. Pork safety assessment and first results from pilot interventions targeting slaughter and retail in selected provinces in northern Vietnam Fred Unger International Livestock Research Institute Markets and agricultures linkages for cities in Asia (MALICA) Annual Scientific Meeting 2019 5 November 2019, Hanoi, Vietnam
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • Material and methods • Results • Conclusions
  3. 3. Introduction - pork and food safety in Vietnam Pork is an important component of the Vietnamese diet • The most widely consumed meat: 29.1Kg/person • >80% comes from very small or small farms (proportion reduced due to ASF) • 76% of pigs are processed in small slaughtering • Preference for fresh “warm” pork supplied in traditional markets (>80% of all pork marketed) Food safety among the most pressing issues for people in Vietnam, more important than education or health care Food exports relatively well managed but deficits in domestic markets
  4. 4. PigRISK Sep 2017 Pig competiveness 2008 -2012 ILRI’s and partners pig value chain work in Vietnam SAFEPork Small holder pig sector is important and competitive Oct 2017 Policy engaegement Capacity building and scientific evidence Mar 2022 Pork safety - Assessment PPBD **Local pigs Viet GAHP*survey PFBD** local pigs AMR *Viet GAHP (Good Animal Husbandry Practices) ** PFBD (Paraistic Foodborne Diseases) Pork safety - Interventions Jul 2012
  5. 5. Pork safety assessments and pathways towards safer pork PigRISK (2012-2017) http://pigrisk.ilriwikis.org SAFE Pork (ongoing) Research questions Is pork safe in Vietnam? Methods: Value chain assessment, quantitative and qualitative risk assessment (QMRA) Cost of food borne diseases (FBD) Cross-contaminations (household) • Interdisciplinary team • Risk based approach • Farm to fork • Food safety hazards: – Biological and chemical Research questions What are faesable interventions? Methods: Food safety (FS) performance of pork value chains FS interventions & risk communication
  6. 6. Results from risk assessment under Pig RISK Microbial Risk assessment: Salmonella contamination started at farm and increased along the pork chain (farm – slaughter – market) mainly related to poor hygienic practices 44 to 83% of pork across different retail contaminated with Salmonella Misperception towards risk – public most concerned on chemical hazards but major health risk related to microbiological hazards Risk for pork consumer: 1 – 2 person out of 10 (17%) estimated to suffer Salmonella caused food borne diseaes annually Chemical risk assessment: Risk due to chemical hazards is low (heavy metals, grow promoters and antibiotics) Hospitalization costs of foodborne diarrhoea per treatment episode: USD 107 Is pork safe? SAFE Pork: Focus on food safety interventions along pork value chains
  7. 7. Investments in FS can save lives and $$$ • 94 million people • Cases of foodborne diseases (FBD) by Salmonella in pork at 17%: 16 million get sick annually • Proportion of illnesses hospitalized 20%: 3.2 million cases (based on data from USA and Australia) • Cost $ 107 to treat a case: $342 million • Potential intervention to reduce 20% FBD burden:$ 68 million saved (this does not include the cost of treating cases who are not hospitalized) Potential health impact – FBD Vietnam Based on PigRISK results
  8. 8. SAFE Pork Food safety performance of key pork supply chains Method: Standardised food safety performance tool (KAP, trust, hazard sampling) Focus group discussions (11), key informant interviews (543) & biological sampling (705) Traditional/ wet market (all sites) Street food, Hanoi Canteens, Hanoi „Boutique“ food chains, niche but emerging, Hanoi Supermarket/ convienient stores, Hanoi Native pigs, niche market, Hoa Binh, „safe by nature“, prime price Selection criteria for value chains: contribution to pork supply, novel approaches, scalability, local support, complementary to other initiative or joint project sites
  9. 9. SAFE Pork Food safety performance of key pork supply chains - results Traditional/ wet market (all sites) Street food, Hanoi Canteens, Hanoi „Boutique“ food chains, niche but emerging, Hanoi Supermarket/ convienient stores, Hanoi Native pigs, niche market, Hoa Binh Results: - Poor food safety outcomes (Salmonella) and hygienic deficits across all retail types - Trust in food safety was higher in rural areas and at the producer end than in urban areas and at the consumer end of the value chain - Consumers trusted television and local radio more than social media for food safety information - VC actors relate “Safe Pork” to not using antibiotics/growth promoters and less to poor hygiene
  10. 10. SAFE Pork – interventions Challenges for improving food safety including pork • Various approaches to improving safety had been tried, largely based on systems used in developed countries e.g.: – GAHP (Good animal husbandry practices), traceability, certification, modernising retail etc.) • However, safe meat production has not yet take a significant share of pork retail in Vietnam (e.g. VietGAHP < 10%) • Key constraints to uptake include: – high cost of adoption, lack of benefits from changing behaviour • To overcome these constraints our focus will be on: – gradual improvements to the food system in place, rather than introduction of a new system – rather simple interventions – incentive-based
  11. 11. Pilot intervention / behaviour change The pilot trial also demonstrated that technical solutions must go along with behaviour change of butchers. The improvement in hygiene (using grid versus floor) was indicated by lower coliform load (p = 0.002) on the carcass surface compared to the control. Private sector (canteens) attracted by food safety practice change
  12. 12. 12 FBD- a new priority – most from livestock Millions DALYs lost per year (global) Safe PORK Approach used for interventions • Selection of suitable value chains and intervention points – Pig RISK results and food safety performance assessment (Safe PORK) – Value chain assessment • Participatory diagnostic – With local authorties and trageted VC actors using meetings, FGD, Key informant interviews and system effect modelling (barriers and enablers for interventions) • Supporting research – Behaviour nudges, system effect & lab trials • Intervention trials including assessment
  13. 13. Safe PORK – interventions Slaughter: Reduce contamination of pork Portable ozone machines to plug into water supply Status: Installed and currently piloted (Soc Son) Simple, rapid tests that detect contaminated food Could be used directly by retailers or consumer Status: Tested, but not promising Reduce use of antimicrobial (in collaboration with private sector), replacement of antimicrobials by pro-biotics Groups: Control (AM) and treatment (probiotics but w/o AM) Both business as usual Indicators: Weight gain and AMR Status: Dec 19 – April 20 (Vin Phuc)
  14. 14. Safe PORK – interventions Reduce contamination of pork More hygienic slaughter (Tien Lu) - Elevated grid - Change of work flow e.g. separation of clean and dirty area Status: • Intervention discussed and agreed with slaughterhouse owner • Grid currently build • Co-investment
  15. 15. Safe PORK – interventions Retailer package Where: Hung Yen, Tien Lu, retailers supplied by above slaughterhouse Intervention: Antimicrobial cutting boards, cotton cloths, frequent W&D and Training Design: Step wise involvement of retailers (5/20, 10/10/15,5 & all), base line Indicators: Coliform load and practice (observational) checklist Supporting activities: • Lab trials (done) Test of antimicrobial efficacy of five type of cutting 2 of 5 boards show promising results • Assessment of the potential to use nudges for improved food safety behaviour & practice (behavioural economist)
  16. 16. Safe PORK – interventions Increasing transparency and traceability in food system 24 hour on farm, slaughter (?), branding and certification, done with private sector Consumer:  Awareness campaigns (All & com experts) Animal welfare Low perception of butchers & consumers Entry point: New law of livestock includes chapter on animal welfare Some good perception by consumers on producer level But slaughter remains challenge – link to meat quality Status: Lit review and 1st observational study (ongoing)
  17. 17. Vietnam food safety task force : translational research Vietnam Food Safety (FS) Task Force • Led by national FS researchers • Engagement – Government e.g. through WB funded FS assessment • New WB Food Safety Initative focus on 4 urban centers (2021 onwards) Meeting with DPM Vietnam, 2 Dec 2016 (Photo: Tuyet Hanh) Launch of report with DPM Vietnam, 2018
  18. 18. 18 FBD- a new priority – most from livestock Millions DALYs lost per year (global) Safe PORK Conclusions From assessments: • Pork is not safe – PH risk is considerable • Modern retail not safer than traditional retail • Microbiological hazards are most important Pathways towards safer pork: • Government efforts to improve food safety need to include all retail types - the informal sector has been relatively ignored. • Techincal innovations require also practice change and incentives • Risk communication messages must be tailored to the audience and use most trusted channels
  19. 19. Safer pork can be achieved but technical solutions need to be: • Evidence based • Identified and implemented in a strong participatory process • Incentivized • Rather simple & cost - effective • Innovative • Scalable
  20. 20. Acknowledgements: Pig RISK & SAFE Pork teams, VNUA, HUPH, NIAS, NIVR, local authorities, value chain actors & BacTom, Aqua 21 (UK) Donors: ACIAR and A4NH Further readings: http://pigrisk.ilriwikis.org 16 peer reviewed international publication Acknowledgements
  21. 21. This presentation is licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence. better lives through livestock ilri.org ILRI thanks all donors and organizations who globally supported its work through their contributions to the CGIAR system

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