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Science partnerships in international development today - Willem Janssen

  1. Science partnerships in international development today WILLEM JANSSEN LEAD AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIST July 7, 2016
  2. Today’s story – The state of science and technology in agriculture – How agricultural science is changing – Implications for reorganizing agricultural science: progress and challenges – The World Bank and agricultural science and technology – Some examples on partnership approaches – Evaluating partnerships – Some gentle conclusions
  3. Spending trends: developing countries catching up China, India, and Brazil accounted for half of combined spending in developing countries. Source: ASTI
  4. Trends: Private spending, especially in food processing is up Private spending concentrated in developed countries, and growing in Brazil, India, China Source: ASTI
  5. Behind the trends: new sources of change in agriculture, often from the private sector – IT: data processing, data management – IT: self driving cars, drones, tractors – IT: market information, climate and weather – Science of genes: genome management, genetic modification, breeding – Nanotechnology and material sciences; storage technologies, equipment – ………… Presentation Title National Livestock Information System • epidemiological control • food safety standards
  6. Behind the numbers: knowledge use and generation is changing – The knowledge society – Digital media and the Web – Search and consultation to generate knowledge – Big data – Social media and virtual collaboration – The interactive model: problem solving while generating new knowledge – The knowledge elite – Paper to share knowledge – Research as the key tool to generate knowledge – Experimentation – Creating centers and critical mass – The linear model: research> knowledge> adaptation> use of innovations
  7. New issues: Climate smart agriculture - The triple win! - Systems oriented research (socio- economic and biophysical) - Natural resource management - Landscape approaches - Data management and ICT
  8. New issues: the sustainable global food system - Soil depletion and pollution - Scarcity and waste - Stunting and obesity - Food safety - Regulatory research - Nudging approaches and consumer science - From more to better
  9. A lot of change, can we figure it out?
  10. From a cloakroom token to a Toyota logo - 1 NARES
  11. From a cloakroom token to a Toyota logo - 2 NARES IT start-ups and companies Gene science mechanization
  12. From a cloakroom token to a Toyota logo-3 NARES NGOs, development projects Farmer organizations Private sector IT start-ups and companies Gene science mechanization
  13. The solution: partnerships!! – Horizontal: to increase the scientific capacity to be employed in the scientific process – Vertical: to apply science in problem solving and in pursuing sustainable development ++ ??
  14. Characteristics of successful vertical (technology) partnerships – The initiative may come from the researcher or from the problem solver – The goals are clear, unambiguous and measurable, the timeframe is set – Both knowledge sets are respected and appreciated – Markets drive large part of the change pursued – Both parties truly gain, financially or mandate- wise – The terms of engagement (including budget) are clear, and enforceable – The partnership may evolve, if this is clear and agreed by both – A drink helps!
  15. The World Bank and agricultural science and technology World Bank supported public investments ($millions) Under implementation In preparation Agriculture 20,625 7,563 Agricultural R&D 2,018 494 More than 30% of projects support R&D Less than 10% of projects focus on Ag R&D Source: WBG, portfolio indicators
  16. Future WB- CGIAR collaboration (Africa) Deepening collaboration, in particular with CGIAR research programs on – Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) and on – Biofortified foods to improve nutrition and public health – new partnership modalities – Linking the CGIAR to Country Programs (e.g. Tanzania: aligning the CGIAR research agenda with national priorities)
  17. Some (vertical) partnerships models applied in WB supported projects
  18. NAIP-India: Consortia as the partnership model • Led by public or private organizations • Selected through competitive processes • a " helpdesk“ to assist in engagement • Support to non-traditional partners • Large proposals ($ 1-4m) • Knowledge management! • Start-up issues • Satisfactory performance
  19. The productive alliance model: four building blocks (21 projects; $1b; LAC) Organizing farmers Linking them with a market Investing in production and marketing Technical assistance
  20. The productive alliance concept Attacks several issues in an integrated approach: - Lack of negotiation power - Lack of knowledge - Lack of money - Lack of market access Benefits farmers that: - Are willing and able to organize themselves - Can rely on their land for their income - Are sufficiently close to the market Powerful and imaginative, or complicated and costly?
  21. Crowdsourcing through competitions and challenges: corporations and governments opening up to ideas and insights from networks and communities
  22. Innovation challenges that have been “crowdsourced” or “hackathoned” – What will it take to end poverty? – Apps for Development – Apps for climate change issues – IT for agricultural extension
  23. Agricultural Pull programs: AgResults – Prizes to reward technological breakthroughs – Grain storage technology – Afla Safe maize – Legume seed supply – Brucellosis vaccin – “Pulling” in the private sector – Very early days, just starting – Getting the design parameters right! – How to anticipate innovation pathway?
  24. Evaluating or assessing impact of research partnerships -1 – Impact assessment has been a contentious subject……. – Attribution….. Enabling investments….. Length of impact……Counterfactuals…… Parallel initiatives….. Interdependencies…… Rates of Return – Partnerships require further analysis of contributions, or not? – Partnerships reflect the complex and interdependent structure of the innovation system and the sector as a whole – Learning: Understanding the downstream side of the CGIAR’s work: what works, what does not work; what is the CGIAR’s comparative advantage; how can it position itself?
  25. Evaluating or assessing impact of research partnerships - 2 Best practice has four elements: – Theory of Change (Kusek and Rist, 2004): (i) inputs, (ii) activities, (iii) outputs, (iv) outcomes and (v) impacts – An effective M&E system and follow up during implementation – Baseline and End line – Control group and target group Some evaluators propose randomized control trials Does the CGIAR have the skill sets to define and apply best practice? How good are its theories of change?
  26. Evaluating or assessing impact of research partnerships - 3 Problems specific to technological change: – Boundaries: timeframes are often long and impact areas are hard to define – Control groups lose out, or step out – Costs of impact assessment can run up enormously So there is a need for some “second best strategies” – Inventories of the use of CGIAR outputs (evidence!) – Qualities of networks – Satisfaction among partners – Case studies to document and to learn – Partnerships at country level to do impact analysis
  27. Conclusions: for the WB science is a tool and the CGIAR a valued partner – “ A renewed urgency, and international and national commitment, is needed to sustain climate-smart agricultural research to deliver needed science based solutions”. (Shaping a Climate-Smart Global Food System, WBG 2015) – Incorporate technical assistance in productive alliance and other market based approaches (Linking farmers to markets through Productive Alliances: an assessment of the World Bank experience in Latin America) – “Increase research and development of more nutrient-rich crops” (Shaping the Global Food system to Deliver Improved Nutrition and Health, WBG 2016) – Strengthen partnerships with the CGIAR and other knowledge providers (Shaping a Climate-Smart Global Food System, WBG 2015)
  28. Conclusions: the CGIAR and science partnerships – Partnerships respond to: – the need to increase and broaden scientific capacities, also because of new sources of change – From real to virtual centers of excellence – the need to hook up with the development of the sector” ensure the application of science in problem solving and sustainable progress – The future agenda requires systemic approaches, at the least in the initial analysis, requiring further partnerships – Partnerships have become much easier to run then in the past: communication costs are down, contracting is easier, there is more knowledge to go around
  29. Some gentle ideas - Strengthen engagement with systems approaches and social sciences - Information technology…… - Explore vertical partnerships, e.g., with Africa’s sub-regional organizations - Ensure that CGIAR centers partner at the invitation of others - Invest in the science of delivery: comprehensive risk assessments; selective impact analysis; pilot projects; importance of enabling environment; feasibility of impact pathways - Invest in better understanding some prevalent partnerships: community driven development; innovation platforms, consortia. - Enabling CGIAR members to partner purposefully for development impact
  30. Thank you!