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INDIA’S IRRIGATION CHALLENGE:
IS PMKSY EQUAL TO IT?
Tushaar Shah
Senior Fellow,
International Water Management Institute, ...
HIGHLIGHTS
• Three phases in evolution of Indian irrigation
• How do our farmers irrigate today?
• What are key constraint...
ERA OF ADAPTIVE IRRIGATION-UPTO 1830
• Community was the unit of irrigation management
Rainfall, soil-moisture, floods
Rai...
ERA OF CANAL CONSTRUCTION-1830-1970
• State emerged as the architect, builder, manager of irrigation
Canal and tank
irriga...
ERA OF ATOMISTIC PUMP IRRIGATION:1970-TODATE
Individual farmer as the irrigation manager
Scavenged
Ground and
Surface
wate...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
India inherited the world’s largest canal infrastructure in 1947;
today India i...
% OF CULTIVATED AREA IRRIGATED
Little groundwater
irrigation
Pre-
197
0
1970-
80
1980-
90
After
1990
India’s
Groundwater
Juggernaut is still
Accelerating!!!
India today has some 25 mi...
2006-07
EACH DOT IN THIS MAP REPRESENTS 5000 IRRIGATION WELLS.
IRRIGATION IS LOW, WHERE GROUNDWATER IS NOT DEVELOPED
OR MA...
India’s Energy
Divide, 2006-07 Eastern India has
abundant
groundwater but no
energy to pump it
In western India,
perverse ...
India’s pockets
of serious
groundwater
depletion
54% of India’s
Groundwater
wells are
decreasing
Scarce or
depleted
ground...
DOES PMKSY ADDRESS THESE PRIORITIES?
PMKSY
Components
Ministry/
Deptt.
Physical Target
(in lakh ha)
Indicative outlay
(in ...
DURING THE PAST DECADE, GUJARAT AND MADHYA PRADESH HAVE
MADE RAPID STRIDES IN IRRIGATION.
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
22...
MP INCREASED IRRIGATED AREA FROM 6 LAKH HA TO
30 LAKH HA IN 5 YEARS
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Particulars (in ha) 2003-04 2010-11
1) Monsoon cropped area 1,10,92,327 1,25,12...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
Figure 1 a Electricity Network Before Figure 1 b Electricity Network after
GUJA...
GUJARAT’S AGRICULTURE HAS BEEN GROWING @ 9+%
THIS GROWTH IS ENERGIZED BY GROUNDWATER
IRRIGATION.
YET, GUJARAT IS THE ONLY ...
SEVEN STRATEGIES TO ENSURE
“HAR KHET KO PANI”
• Tighter management of canal systems to bring larger
areas under command;
•...
SOLAR PUMPS OFFER A GROUND-BREAKING
IRRIGATION OPPORTUNITY THAT PMKSY IGNORES
• Solar pumps can quickly provide affordable...
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
IWMI-WLE SPaRC Pilot in
Anand
www.iwmi.org
Water for a food-secure world
IWMI-WLE SPaRC Pilot in
Anand
RamanBhai Parmar, Village Thamna, Anand
Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI
THANK YOU FOR THIS
OPPOR...
India’s Irrigation Challenge: Is PMKSY equal to it?
India’s Irrigation Challenge: Is PMKSY equal to it?
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India’s Irrigation Challenge: Is PMKSY equal to it?

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Presented by IWMI's Tushaar Shah at a consultation to a group of 26 Members of Indian Parliament on March 10, in New Delhi, India.

The consultation focused on the implications of the 2016 Union Budget for irrigation and agriculture development. The Presentation is on the central government's core irrigation scheme: Prime Minister Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) and is based on the first issue of the new series of IWMI-Tata Water Policy Research (ITP) Highlights.

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India’s Irrigation Challenge: Is PMKSY equal to it?

  1. 1. INDIA’S IRRIGATION CHALLENGE: IS PMKSY EQUAL TO IT? Tushaar Shah Senior Fellow, International Water Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka Field Office: Anand, Gujarat 388001, India
  2. 2. HIGHLIGHTS • Three phases in evolution of Indian irrigation • How do our farmers irrigate today? • What are key constraints to irrigation expansion? • What can be done to overcome these? • Example of Madhya Pradesh • Example of Gujarat • How should PMKSY be refocussed?
  3. 3. ERA OF ADAPTIVE IRRIGATION-UPTO 1830 • Community was the unit of irrigation management Rainfall, soil-moisture, floods Rainfall and Soil moisture Flow irrigation from tanks, canals, rivers Lift irrigation from wells and surface sources % of water consumptively used in agriculture % Contribution to aggregate Farm output and incomes
  4. 4. ERA OF CANAL CONSTRUCTION-1830-1970 • State emerged as the architect, builder, manager of irrigation Canal and tank irrigation Soil moisture management Flow irrigation from tanks, canals, rivers Lift irrigation from wells & surface sources % water consumptively used in agriculture % Contribution to aggregate Farm output and incomes
  5. 5. ERA OF ATOMISTIC PUMP IRRIGATION:1970-TODATE Individual farmer as the irrigation manager Scavenged Ground and Surface water Soil moisture management Flow irrigation Pump irrigation from wells, tube wells, canals % of water consumptively used in agriculture % Contribution To Farm output & incomes
  6. 6. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world India inherited the world’s largest canal infrastructure in 1947; today India is the world’s groundwater champion!
  7. 7. % OF CULTIVATED AREA IRRIGATED Little groundwater irrigation
  8. 8. Pre- 197 0 1970- 80 1980- 90 After 1990 India’s Groundwater Juggernaut is still Accelerating!!! India today has some 25 million irrigation wells. 2/3rd of these were sunk after 1990.. Over 70% of irrigated areas are served by groundwater wells. Yet, India’s Irrigation investments are focused on canal irrigation, neglecting groundwater.
  9. 9. 2006-07 EACH DOT IN THIS MAP REPRESENTS 5000 IRRIGATION WELLS. IRRIGATION IS LOW, WHERE GROUNDWATER IS NOT DEVELOPED OR MANAGED
  10. 10. India’s Energy Divide, 2006-07 Eastern India has abundant groundwater but no energy to pump it In western India, perverse power subsidies have ruined aquifers .
  11. 11. India’s pockets of serious groundwater depletion 54% of India’s Groundwater wells are decreasing Scarce or depleted groundwater
  12. 12. DOES PMKSY ADDRESS THESE PRIORITIES? PMKSY Components Ministry/ Deptt. Physical Target (in lakh ha) Indicative outlay (in Rs. crores) 2015-20 2015-16 2015-20 2015-16 AIBP MoWR, RD&GR 7.50 1.20 11060 1000 Har Khet Ko Pani 21.00 2.80 9050 1000 Per Drop, More Crop DAC 100.00 5.00 16300 1800 Watershed Development DoLR 11.50 4.40 13590 1500 Total - - - 50000 5300 • AIBP - Major and Medium Irrigation Projects • Har Khet Ko Pani - CAD, Minor Irrigation (Surface and Ground Water) and RRR of Water Bodies
  13. 13. DURING THE PAST DECADE, GUJARAT AND MADHYA PRADESH HAVE MADE RAPID STRIDES IN IRRIGATION. 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Figure 1Index ofCanal Irrigated area (2000-01=100) Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Maharashtra India Gujarat MadhyaPradesh AndhraPradesh Maharashtra India 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 Figure 2 Index of Net Area Irrigated from all Sources (2000-01=100) Andhra Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Gujarat Maharashtra India MadhyaPradesh Gujarat India Maharashtra AndhraPradesh Maharashtra & AP invested heavily in canal construction with little increase in irrigation Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh focused on groundwater, farm power and improving canal management
  14. 14. MP INCREASED IRRIGATED AREA FROM 6 LAKH HA TO 30 LAKH HA IN 5 YEARS
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Particulars (in ha) 2003-04 2010-11 1) Monsoon cropped area 1,10,92,327 1,25,12,769 1) Rabi cropped area 55,27,918 89,55,230 1) Summer cropped area 13,77,562 21,69,342 Total 1,79,97,807 2,36,37,737 GUJARAT GOVERNMENT SUPPORTED COMMUNITY BASED CHECKDAM MOVEMENT IN SAURASHTRA, KUTCH AND NORTH GUJARAT WITH REMARKABLE RESULTS
  16. 16. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Figure 1 a Electricity Network Before Figure 1 b Electricity Network after GUJARAT INVESTED RS 1250 CRORE IN FEEDER SEPARATION; BUT IT HELPED IMPROVE POWER QUALITY AND CONTROLLED GROUNDWATER DEPLETION
  17. 17. GUJARAT’S AGRICULTURE HAS BEEN GROWING @ 9+% THIS GROWTH IS ENERGIZED BY GROUNDWATER IRRIGATION. YET, GUJARAT IS THE ONLY STATE IN WESTERN INDIA WHERE GROUNDWATER LEVELS ARE IMPROVING..
  18. 18. SEVEN STRATEGIES TO ENSURE “HAR KHET KO PANI” • Tighter management of canal systems to bring larger areas under command; • Rationalize farm power subsidies in western states; • Improve the quality of farm power supply; • Accelerate pump electrification in Bihar, Orissa, Assam • Decentralised Managed Aquifer Recharge programs; • Revitalize 600,000 irrigation tanks in peninsular India; • Solarize the groundwater economy by promoting solar energy as a ‘remunerative crop’.
  19. 19. SOLAR PUMPS OFFER A GROUND-BREAKING IRRIGATION OPPORTUNITY THAT PMKSY IGNORES • Solar pumps can quickly provide affordable energy to farmers of eastern India and kick- start its green revolution. • In western India, solar pumps with a buyback guarantee for surplus solar power can offer reliable day-time energy for irrigation, stable cash income and incentive for conserving power and water.
  20. 20. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world IWMI-WLE SPaRC Pilot in Anand
  21. 21. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world IWMI-WLE SPaRC Pilot in Anand RamanBhai Parmar, Village Thamna, Anand
  22. 22. Photo:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:TomvanCakenberghe/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMIPhoto:DavidBrazier/IWMI THANK YOU FOR THIS OPPORTUNITY.

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