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Water Security and Sustainable Growth in Drylands

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Presented by Dr. Claudia Sadoff, IWMI Director General,at the 13th International Conference on Development of Drylands, February 12, 2019, in Jodhpur, India

Publicado en: Medio ambiente

Water Security and Sustainable Growth in Drylands

  1. 1. A water-secure world Water Security and Sustainable Growth in Drylands Dr Claudia Sadoff Director General InternationalWater Management Institute 13th International Conference on Development of Drylands February 12, 2019 Jodhpur, India
  2. 2. Food Climate Growth To improve food security while sustainably managing water resources & conserving ecosystems To adapt and mitigate climate change while building resilience to disruption To reduce poverty and advance inclusion and equality as agriculture transforms, energy transitions and urbanization intensifies Our mission is to find water solutions for sustainable development Our vision is a water-secure world The International Water Management Institute is a non-profit, scientific research organization focusing on the sustainable use of water and land resources in developing countries
  3. 3. A water-secure world Our history • 1984: Established in Sri Lanka as the International Irrigation Management Institute (IIMI) • 1991: Joined the CGIAR • 1996: Broadened mandate: became the InternationalWater Management Institute (IWMI) • 2012: Awarded StockholmWater Prize • 2013: Selected to lead CGIAR Research Program “Water, Lands and Ecosystems”
  4. 4. A water-secure world Our offices
  5. 5. A water-secure world Outline Drylands Drylands and water security Drivers of change in Drylands Five innovations for strengthening water security in drylands
  6. 6. A water-secure world DRYLANDS Drylands are a defining feature of our planet • Drylands cover 41% of the Earth's surface • Home to 1/3 of the world’s population – 90% in developing countries • GDP in drylands is 50% lower than non-drylands
  7. 7. A water-secure world DRYLANDS Why are drylands important?
  8. 8. A water-secure world Outline Drylands Drylands and water security Climate Change in Drylands Five innovations for strengthening water security in drylands
  9. 9. A water-secure world Water scarcity Physical & economic Delinking hydrology & growth Climate/water-related resilience Water risks Water security vs water scarcity DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY What is water security?
  10. 10. A water-secure world Leverage productive aspects of water Manage destructive aspects of water Sink or Swim Sadoff & Grey (2007) “The availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water related risks to people, environments and economies” DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY Water security: a working definition
  11. 11. A water-secure world • Water scarcity is by definition characteristic of dryland systems • Only 8% of global renewable water supply is in dryland regions • 4 billion people live in areas of severe water scarcity globally • 1 billion of these are in India DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY Water scarcity Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2016)
  12. 12. A water-secure world • Substantial inter-annual and seasonal variation • Frequent water related disasters, droughts and floods • Makes water management more challenging Inter-Annual water variability Seasonal water variability DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY Unreliable and erratic water availability Gassert et al. 2013 [WRI]
  13. 13. A water-secure world • Scarcity & unreliability leads to more reliance on groundwater • Drylands have low recharge rates • Steady decline in groundwater reserves in recent decades Wada and Bierkens (2014) DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY Groundwater depletion: running out of water “savings accounts” Share of unsustainable groundwater use
  14. 14. A water-secure world • Failure to address water security: – Compounds disruptions in economic and social systems – Acts as a threat multiplier – Undermines sustainable development DRYLANDS ANDWATER SECURITY The cost of inaction to secure water
  15. 15. A water-secure world Outline Drylands Drylands andWater Security Drivers of Change in Drylands Five innovations for strengthening water security in drylands
  16. 16. A water-secure world JRC (2018) World atlas of desertification DRIVERS OF CHANGE Extent of drylands increasing due to climate change 2011-20402071-2100
  17. 17. A water-secure world • Drylands at higher risk from climate change • In a 4 °C warmer world: – Dryland areas could increase to an additional 7% of the global land surface by 2100 – Up to 1.9 billion more people would be living in drylands DRIVERS OF CHANGE Global warming of 1.5oC
  18. 18. A water-secure world Source: Prudhomme et al. PNAS 2014;111:9:3262-3267 • Likely increase in severity of drought by end of the 21st century • In a 4oC warmer world, drought events increase by 50% Percentage increase in the number of days with drought DRIVERS OF CHANGE Increase in the global severity of droughts
  19. 19. A water-secure world • Degradation – About 10% of drylands are degraded • Urbanization – By 2050, about 40% of the urban populations will live in cities located in drylands Share of the population living in urban areas in 2050 JRC (2018) World atlas of desertification DRIVERS OF CHANGE Desertification and urbanization
  20. 20. A water-secure world In our future: more dryland farming and scarcer and more unpredictable water
  21. 21. A water-secure world Outline Drylands Drylands and water security Drivers of Change in Drylands Five innovations for strengthening water security in drylands
  22. 22. A water-secure world Better water capture, storage & conservation • Small-scale irrigation systems • Participatory groundwater management • ‘Green’ solutions i.e., rainwater harvesting, integrated watershed management Water productivity innovations • Crop varieties that use less water • Micro irrigation to increase water-use efficiency • Increased investments & enabling policies INNOVATION #1 Water smart agriculture Conservation Agriculture Broad bed & furrow MicroirrigationRain harvesting
  23. 23. A water-secure world SPaRC – Solar Power as a Remunerative Crop An innovative concept linking farmer’s solar irrigation pump to electricity grid with the choice to sell the surplus power SPICE – Solar Pump Irrigators’ Cooperative Enterprise Institutionalizing the idea of SPaRC through a cooperative model -- Pilot in Gujarat [dryland] • Solar potential is high in dryland areas • Improving Productivity and Livelihoods through smart Solar Irrigation INNOVATION #2 Solar irrigation
  24. 24. A water-secure world From small-scale, ground-based, citizen science like mobile weather stations… INNOVATION #3 Advanced monitoring and sensing platforms
  25. 25. A water-secure world …to large-scale, remotely sensed water balance frameworks like Water Accounting + that estimate water flows, stocks, consumption & services… INNOVATION #3 (cont’d) Advanced monitoring and sensing platforms
  26. 26. A water-secure world • South Asia Drought Monitoring System (SADMS) – Forecast & early warning of drought • Linking forecast & early warning with drought management plans • Last mile connectivity, i.e., apps • Bundled drought information through Smart phone for directly disseminating to farmers for drought preparedness Remotely sensed drought monitoring IWMI – ICAR weekly drought bulletins INNOVATION #4 Digital agriculture & information systems
  27. 27. A water-secure world Safely return resources - water, nutrients & energy – to productive uses • Groundwater recharge • Industrial & landscape water • Salt-water intrusion barrier wells • Fertilizer pellets from sludge • Energy from biogas Wastewater recycling removes hazards from the environment INNOVATION #5 Wastewater recycling and reuse
  28. 28. A water-secure world Water is a master variable of dryland development Water Efficient collection of runoff Soil moisture retention Efficient irrigation practices Strategic groundwater use Drought monitoring Wastewater reuse
  29. 29. A water-secure world Conclusion: Water security is a defining challenge for drylands • Water management is fundamental to achieving sustainable development in drylands • Innovation is needed at multiple scales from small- holder to central government • Innovation must be integrated with learning, policy dialogue, enhanced governance and increased investment • Research has a key role to play in piloting solutions and building capacity
  30. 30. Thank you