ISSN: 2278 – 1323                            International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technolo...
ISSN: 2278 – 1323                          International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology...
ISSN: 2278 – 1323                                   International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & T...
ISSN: 2278 – 1323                                                                                                         ...
ISSN: 2278 – 1323                              International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Techno...
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  1. 1. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Design and Simulation Based Studies of a Dual Band Antenna for WLAN/WiMax Application Shrikant Pandey1, Sudeep Baudha2, Rahul Singh Rathore3 Department of Electronics & Communication, Gyan Ganga College of technology, Jabalpur (M.P)1,, this rapid changing world in antennas must become smaller to fit inside them.wireless communication systems, multibandantenna has been playing a very important role for This paper aims at presenting three miniaturizedwireless service requirements. Rectangular line slot dual band u-slot patch antennas for WLANdesigns of a dual band patch antenna have been application. The paper also confirms theinvestigated in this paper. By using rectangular technique of shifting resonance frequency byline slot patch geometry dual band operation has varying the u-slot broadness. Besides, the gainbeen obtained. The patch antenna is simulated and directivity have been improved in twoby Ansoft HFSS and antenna magus software designs of the patch antenna. Apart from it,which is finite element method based simulators. emphasis has been given to the miniaturization.After the antenna performance characteristics such At the end, the balance between the dimensionas, input impedance, return loss, polar plot areobtained.. This observation has provided us and performance of the antenna has beensufficient insight to optimize the antennaparameters carefully established by parametric study. Forto meet the design requirements. The proposed brevity, the results of parametric study havedesigns of the antenna operate in 2.4 GHz been omitted in this paper. A simple patchband which is common to all two designs but antenna with basic rectangular patch operatesthe second operating band is different. By in a single frequency band. A patch antennavarying the slot broadness the second frequency intended to operate at a center resonanceband can be shifted.IEEE802.11b (2.45 GHz), frequency fr mounted on a substrate havingIEEE802.11y (3.2 GHz) andIEEE802.11a(5.775 dielectric constant εr would have length L andGHz) standards which would allow WLAN width W of the patch as found from theoperation. This patch antenna has been following equations neglecting the fringingintended to be used in portable devices thatdemand miniaturized constituent parts. effect. cKeywords— Patch antenna, slot, dual band, gain, Ldirectivity. 2 fr  r I.INTRODUCTION c 2 W 2 fr  r  1The use of multiband antennas in portabledevices like mobile phone, laptop, gaming A basic single band rectangular patchconsole etc. is inevitable now-a-days. Due to the antenna can be modified into a multibandconcept of miniaturization the size of these antenna by introducing slots in the patch. Thedevices is shrinking rapidly. Consequently, the shapes and position of the slot play an important role in determining the resonance frequency. 126 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  2. 2. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012The slot shapes like C, E, F, H, L, V, U and characteristic of a general slot patch antennamany others are well known. template.Sometimes, more than one slot of differentshapes is used in the same patch for desiredperformance. The u-slot was introduced in a II.ANTENNA DESIGN PARAMETERSpaper published in 1995 and the antenna The structure of the proposed antenna is shownshowed wideband behaviour and was linearly in Figure 1 below. For a rectangular patch,polarized . Although the initial investigations of the length L of the patch is usually 0.3333u-slot patch antenna were based on air and foam λ0< L < 0.5 λ0, where λ0 is the free-spacesubstrate, later it was found that the antenna wave length. The patch is selected to be veryretained its wideband characteristic when thin such that t << λ0 (where t is the patchmaterial substrate was used instead of air and thickness).The height h of the dielectricfoam substrate. Initially, u-slot was regarded substrate is usually 0.003 λ0 <= h <= 0.05 λ0as a mean of achieving only wideband (Balanis, 2005).characteristic rather than multibandcharacteristic of the patch antenna.Interestingly, subsequent researches revealedthat wideband characteristic can be modifiedto multiband characteristic by intelligentplacement of u-slot, thereby perturbing thesurface current flow in the patch Not only theband characteristic but also the polarizationcharacteristic can be altered by manipulating u-slot. The antennas investigated in andexhibited circular polarization. Moreover, u-slot patch antenna with reconfigurable Fig:1Geometry of Proposed Dual Band Antennapolarization has been reported recently In thatpaper, PIN diodes have been used to change the III. PHYSICAL PARAMETERS OFlength of the u-slot arms, which alters the ANTENNApolarization state of the antenna and it can Step 1: Calculation of the Width (W): The widthswitch between linear and circular of the Microstrip patch antenna is given by:polarization. Besides, the antenna can alsoswitch between right hand and left hand  1  o   r  1 2circular polarization. All theseresearches have Wunveiled different interesting aspects of slot 2  2   patch antenna.It is now well established fact thatby using slot patch geometry multiband Step 2: Calculation of Effective dielectriccharacteristic can be obtained. Therefore, slot constant (εreff): Equation gives the effectivepatch geometry is now regarded as a general dielectric constant as:template which can be customized to best suit  r  1  r 1 1therequirements. The proposed antennas in this  eff  1 2 2paper are three specific cases of the dual band  h 2 1  12   w 127 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  3. 3. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012Step 3: Calculation of the Effective length IV.SIMULATION SETUP AND RESULTS(Leff): Equation gives the effective length as: cLeff  The software used to model and simulate 2 f 0  reff the microstrip patch antenna is HFSS software. HFSS software is a full-waveStep 4: Calculation of the length extension (∆L): electromagnetic simulator based on the finite element method. It analyzes 3D and multilayer wL  0.412h  eff  0.3 h  0.264 structures of general shapes. It has been   0.258  w  0.8 widely used in the design of MICs, RFICs, eff patch antennas, wire antennas, and other h RF/wireless antennas. It can be used toStep 5: Calculation of actual length of patch (L): calculateand plot the S parameters, VSWR,The actual length is obtained by re-writing current distributions as well as the radiationEquation as: patterns.L = Leff - 2 ∆L V.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONStep 6: Determination of feed point location Return loss is important parameter for(fx,fyfz, ) : A Micro strip feed line is to be used calculating the bandwidth of the antenna. Thein this design. As shown in Figure 1, the solutionfrequency is selected as the one at whichfeed point location is given by the co-ordinates the return loss is minimum. Here we are( fx , fy,, fz ) from the origin. The united feed getting dual band graph one at 2.45 GHz andline-patch excited by the lumped port where the other at 3.2 GHz. Name X Y Return Loss Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 ANSOFTthe input impedance is 50 ohms for the resonant 0.91 1.5956 -0.0410 m1 m2 1.6083 -0.0416 m1 m2 Curve Info dB(St(1,1)) Setup1 : Sw eep1frequency. Hence, a hit and trial method is usedto locate the feed point. For different -2.50locations of the feed point, the return loss(R.L) is compared and that feed point isselected where the R.L is most negative (below - -7.5010 dB). There exists a point along the length ofthe patch where the R.L is minimum. dB(St(1,1))Design of Dual Band Microstrip Patch Antenna -12.50Width of the Patch(W) 46.9 mmEffective dielectric constant 2.2922of the Patch,( εeff ) -17.50Length of the Patch(L) 39.6 mmInput Resistance of the 50 ΩPatch(Rin)Width of slots(w1) 1.4 mm -22.50 Name Delta(X) Delta(Y) Slope(Y) InvSlope(Y)Length of slots(L1 ) 14.2 mm d(m1,m2) 0.0127 1.00 -0.0005 -0.0414 1.50 -24.1665 2.00 2.50 Freq [GHz] 3.00 3.50 4.00Width of non-radiating 1.4 mmedge( s1) Fig. 3 Measured Return Loss (-28db at 2.45GHz && -16.6db at 3.45GHz)Table 1:.Design parameter of Proposed Dual Band Antenna 128 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  4. 4. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012 Input Impedance Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 ANSOFT 100 90 80 Curve Inf o 110 1.00 70 S11 120 60 Setup1 : Sw eep1 VI. CONCLUDING REMARKS 130 0.50 2.00 50 140 40 150 30 Rectangular line slot designs of a dual band slot 160 0.20 5.00 20170 10 patch antenna have been proposed for WLAN 0.00180 0.00 0.20 0.50 1.00 2.00 5.00 0 application. They are dimensionally small and-170 -10 have impressive performance characteristics as -160 -0.20 -5.00 -20 pointed out in this paper. Even though this paper -150 -30 -140 -40 presents simulation based results, the use of -0.50 -2.00 -130 -120 -60 -50 HFSS software for simulation ensures that there -110 -1.00 -70 would not be large discrepancies between the -100 -90 -80 Fig 4. Input Impedance in smith simulated and measured results in case the chart proposed antennas are fabricated and measured. Being powerful and commercial software, HFSS ff_2D_GainTotal Patch_Antenna_ADKv1 ANSOFT is capable of delivering accurate simulation 10.00 Curve Info dB(GainTotal) Setup1 : LastAdaptive Freq=2.53GHz Phi=0deg results. Besides, numerous simulations have dB(GainTotal)_1 Setup1 : LastAdaptive 5.00 Freq=2.53GHz Phi=90deg been performed to confirm the results and the 0.00 accuracy settings of the software have been -5.00 carefully set up to minimize the approximation errors. Y1 -10.00 -15.00 VII. REFERENCES -20.00 [1]. Md. NazmulHasan*, Syed Waqar Shah*, Mohammad Inayatullah Babar*, ZeeshanSabir* “Design and simulation -25.00 -30.00 -200.00 -150.00 -100.00 -50.00 0.00 50.00 100.00 150.00 200.00 based studies of a dual band u-slot patch antenna for Theta [deg] WLAN application” Advanced Communication Fig 5. 2D gain of Proposed Dual Band Antenna Technology (ICACT), 2012 14th International Conference phonixpark ,korea(South). [2]. FitriYuliZulkifli*, Dian Rodhiah, and EkoTjiptoRahardjo “Dual band microstrip antenna using U Standards/ Bandwidth Resonance Gain Antennas (MHz) Frequencies (Resonance and S slots for WLAN application”, Antennas and (Centre (|S11| dB) Frequency) Propagation Society International Symposium, 2007 IEEE , Resonance Honolulu, HI, 9-15 June 2007 ,on page 2049 Frequency) [3]. T. Archevapanich1, J. Nakasuwan2, B. Purahong3, N. IEEE802.11y 50 -10 3db Anantrasirichai3, O. Sangaroon3 “Inset Dual U-Strip Slot (3.675 GHz) Antenna Fed by Microstrip Line for WLAN Applications” , IEEE802.11b 83 -10 3db (2.45 GHz) International Conference on Control, Automation and Proposed 90 -28 7.685db Systems 2008 Oct. 14-17, 2008 in COEX, Seoul, Korea [ Antenna- 4] High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS), Tutorial 2.45GHz by Dr. Otman El Mrabet IETR, UMR CNRS 6164, Proposed 120 -16.6 7.58db INSA, 20 avenue Butte des Coësmes 35043 Rennes, Antenna France. 3.65GHz [5] Antenna Theory analysis and design by Table 2: Comparison with standard values Constantine A. Balanis with special reference to Microstrip Antenna. 129 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET
  5. 5. ISSN: 2278 – 1323 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Engineering & Technology Volume 1, Issue 4, June 2012[6] S. Weigand, G. H. Huff, K. H. Pan, J. T. Bernhard,"Analysis and design of broad-band single-layerrectangular u-slot microstrip patch antennas", IEEE Trans.Antennas Propag.,Vol. 51, pp. 457 - 468, Mar. 2003.[7]. Linxi Zhang; Qi Zhang; Chufeng Hu ,”The Influenceof Dielectric Constant on Bandwidth of U-notch MicrostripPatch Antenna” 2010 IEEE International Conference,Nanjing 2010[8]. H. F. AbuTarboush, H. S. Al-Raweshidy and R.Nilavalan “Bandwidth Enhancement for Microstrip PatchAntenna Using Stacked Patch and Slot “ , IEEEInternational Workshop on Antenna Technology, SantaMonica, CA ,2009.[9]. Yang, C.F.; Tzou, W.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Chen, H.M.;Lin, Y.F”Enhance antenna bandwidth by using highpermittivity ceramic and FR4 stacked structure” IEEEInternational Workshop on Antennas and PropagationSociety International Symposium, Honolulu, HI 2007 130 All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCET