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Irrigation methods

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Comparison Of Different Irrigation Methods, Drawbacks And Benefits

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Irrigation methods

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  2. 2. Presented By: M.Imran (AGL-15-44) B.Sc (Hons) Agriculture (Agronomy) Presented To: Dr. Muhammad Nawaz Topic: Comparison Of Different Irrigation Methods, Drawbacks And Benefits
  3. 3. IRRIGATION “The artificial application or supply of water to land or crops to help growth, typically by means of channels”. If the water requirement of crop is met by natural rainfall during the growth period, there is no need of irrigation. 3
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  5. 5. 1. Surface Irrigation: There Are Four Variations Under This Method Viz. (1) Flooding, (2) Bed Or Border Method (3) Basin Method (4) Furrow Method (Ridges And Furrows, Broad Ridges Or Raised Beds) 5
  6. 6. A. Flooding: It consist of opening a water channel in a plot or field so that water can flow freely in all directions and cover the surface of the land in a continuous sheet. It is inefficient method, about 20% of the water is actually used by plants. The rest being lost as a runoff, seepage and evaporation. Water distribution is very uneven and crop growth is not uniform. It is suitable for uneven land where the cost of leveling is high and where a cheap and abundant supply of water is available. It is unsuitable for crops that are sensitive to water logging. This method suitable where broadcast crops, particularly pastures, alfalfa, peas and small grains are produced. Adaptations: (1) An abundant supply of water . (2) Close growing crops. (3) Soils that is permeable. (4) Irregular topography. (5) Areas where water is cheap. 6
  7. 7. A. Flooding: 7
  8. 8. A. Flooding: Advantages: (1) Can be used on shallow soils. (2) Can be employed where expense of leveling is great. (3) Installation and operation costs are low. (4) System is not damaged by livestock and does not interfere with use of farm implements. Disadvantages: (1) Excessive loss of water by runoff and deep percolation . (2) Excessive soil erosion on steep land. (3) Fertilizer and FYM are eroded from the soil. 8
  9. 9. B. Bed or Border Method:  In this method the field is leveled and divided into small beds surrounded by bunds of 15 to 30 cm high. Small irrigation channels are provided between two adjacent rows of beds.  The length of the bed varies from 30 meters for loamy soils to 90 meters for clayey soils.  This method is adaptable to most soil textures except sandy soils and is suitable for high value crops. It is more efficient in the use of water and ensures its uniform application. It is suitable for crops plant in lines or sown by broadcast.  Suitable for close growing crops like alfalfa, wheat. Barley, legumes etc. 9
  10. 10. B. Bed or Border Method: 10
  11. 11. B. Bed or Border Method: 11
  12. 12. B. Bed or Border Method: Adaptations: (1) A large supply of water. (2) Most soil textures including sandy loam, loams and clays. (3) Soil at least 90 cm deep. (4) Suitable for close growing crops. Advantages: 1) Improves ability to irrigate small crops. 2) No need to repair or rebuild borders between irrigations. 3) Better possibility of growing the crops on the borders. 4) Easier to share water with rice. 12
  13. 13. B. Bed or Border Method: Disadvantages: (1) Fairly large supply of water is needed. (2) Land must be leveled. (3) Suited only to soils that do not readily disperse. (4) Drainage must be provided. 13
  14. 14. C. Basin Irrigation: • This method is suitable for orchards and other high value crops where the size of the plot to be irrigated is very small. The basin may be square, rectangular or circular shape. A variation in this method viz. Ring and basin is commonly used for irrigating fruit trees. • A small bund of 15 to 22 cm high is formed around the stump of the tree at a distance of about 30 to 60 cm to keep soil dry. • It is suitable for rice, pastures (alfalfa, clover), fodder crops (berseem, shaftal) and cereals. Adaptations: 1) Most soil texture. 2) High value crops, 3) Smooth topography. 4) High water value/ha. 14
  15. 15. C. Basin Irrigation: 15
  16. 16. C. Basin Irrigation: Advantages: 1) Varying supply of water. 2) No water loss by run off. 3) Rapid irrigation possible. 4) No loss of fertilizers and organic manures. 5) Satisfactory. Disadvantages: 1) If land is not leveled initial cost may be high. 2) Suitable mainly for orchids, rice, jute, etc.. 3) Except rice, not suitable for soils that disperse easily and readily from a crust. 16
  17. 17. D. Furrow Method: Furrow irrigation avoids flooding the entire field surface by channeling the flow along the primary direction of the field using ‘furrows,’ ‘grooves’, ‘lines’ The length of furrow is determined mostly by soil permeability. In sandy and clay loams soils, water does not come in contact with the plant stems. There is a great economy in use of water. Row crops such as potatoes, cotton, sugarcane, vegetable etc. Can be irrigated by furrow method. 17
  18. 18. D. Furrow Method: 18
  19. 19. D. Furrow Method: Adaptations: 1) Medium and fine textured soils. 2) Variable water supply. 3) Farms with only small amount of equipment. 19
  20. 20. D. Furrow Method: Advantages: 1) High water efficiency. 2) Can be used in any row crop. 3) Relatively easy to manage, 4) Not expensive to maintain. 5) Adapted to most soils. Disadvantages: 1) Requirement of skilled labour is more. 2) A hazard to operation of machinery. 3) Drainage must be provided. 20
  21. 21. 2. Subsurface Method: • Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is the irrigation of crops through buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. • The sub surface irrigation method consists of supplying water directly to the root zone of the plants. • Subsurface irrigation may be natural or artificial. Natural sub surface irrigation is possible where an impervious layer exists below the root zone. Water is allowed in to series of ditches dug up to the impervious layer, which then moves laterally and wets root zone. • In artificial sub surface irrigation, perforated or porous pipes are laid out underground below the root zone and water is led into the pipes by suitable means. In either case, the idea is to raise the water by capillary movement. • Suitable for tomato, pepper, strawberry, cucumber, potato and sweet corn. 21
  22. 22. 2. Subsurface Method: Adaptation: 1. Moderate slope. 2. Uniform topographic condition. 3. Good quality of irrigation water. 4. Impervious sub-soil at reasonable depth. (I.E. 2-3 m depth). 22
  23. 23. 2. Sub surface Method: 23
  24. 24. 2. Subsurface Method: Advantages: • In soils having low water capacity and a high infiltration rates. • Evaporation loss from ground surface are minimum. • Possible to maintain the water level at optimum depths for crops required at different growth stages. Disadvantages: • It is quite expensive and labour intensive in the beginning. • The method requires an unusual combination of natural conditions, therefore its scope is limited. • Frequent removal of accumulated soil and other materials from channels is necessary. 24
  25. 25. 3. Sprinkler Or Overhead Irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation is a method of applying irrigation water which is similar to natural rainfall. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. It is particularly useful for sandy soils because they absorb water too fast. Soils that are too shallow, too steep or rolling can be irrigated efficiently with sprinklers. This method is suitable for areas having uneven topography and where erosion hazards are great. Its installation cost is about 75,000 per acre. 25
  26. 26. 3. Sprinkler 26
  27. 27. 3. Sprinkler Or Overhead Irrigation: Advantages: 1. It ensures uniform distribution of water. 2. It offers no hindrance to the use of farm implements. 3. material may be evenly applied through sprinklers. 4. Water losses are reduced to a minimum extent. 5. More land can be irrigated. 6. Costly land leveling operations are not necessary. 7. Water can be controlled to meet the needs of young seedling or mature crops. 27
  28. 28. 3. Sprinkler Or Overhead Irrigation: Disadvantages: 1) The initial cost is rather very high. 2) Any cost of power to provide pressure must be added to the irrigation charges. 3) Wind interferes with the distribution pattern, reducing spread or increasing application rate near lateral pipe. 4) There is often trouble from clogged nozzle or the failure of sprinklers to revolve. 5) The cost of operations and maintenance is very high. 6) It requires a dependable constant supply of water free slit and suspended matter. 7) It is suitable for high value crops. 28
  29. 29. 4. Drip Or Trickle Irrigation: • Drip irrigation allows for targeted water applications, where runoff, leaching and wetting of non- targeted areas is avoided or completely eliminated. • In drip irrigation, water is applied near the plant root through emitters or drippers, on or below the soil surface, at a low rate varying from 2 - 20 Litter per hour. • The soil moisture is kept at an optimum level with frequent irrigations. • Drip irrigation results in a very high water application efficiency of about 90-95 %. • It is adopted extensively in areas facing water shortages mostly for sugarcane, cotton, maize, tomato, citrus, brinjal, grapes, banana, onion and cauliflower crops. • It costs around $500-1000 per acre. 29
  30. 30. 4. Drip Or Trickle Irrigation: 30
  31. 31. 4. Drip Or Trickle Irrigation: Advantages Of Drip Irrigation: 1. Maximum use of available water. 2. No water being available to weeds. 3. Maximum crop yield. 4. High efficiency in the use of fertilizers. 5. Less weed growth and restricts population of potential hosts. 6. Low labour and relatively low operation cost. 7. No soil erosion. 8. Improved infiltration in soil of low intake. 9. Ready adjustment to sophisticated automatic control. 10. No runoff of fertilizers into ground water. 11. Less evaporation losses of water as compared to surface irrigation. 12. Improves seed germination. 13. Decreased to tillage operations. 31
  32. 32. 4. Drip Or Trickle Irrigation: Disadvantages: 1. Sensitivity to clogging. 2. Moisture distribution problem. 3. Salinity hazards. 4. High cost compared to furrow. 5. High skill is required for design, install and operation. 32
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