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Introduction to cookery

  1. 1. Associate Prof Imran Sayyed HOD IQAC Coordinator
  2. 2.  1.1 Origin of modern cookery practices  1.2 Factors influencing eating habits,  1.3 Sectors of hospitality/ Catering industry.  1.4 Attitudes and behavior in kitchen  1.5 Personal hygiene & food safety  1.6 Kitchen uniform – importance  1.7 Aims & objective of cooking
  3. 3. Louise XIV Boufet service
  4. 4.  A HISTORY OF MODERN FOOD SERVICE An important lesson of history is that the way we cook now is the result of the work done by countless chefs over hundreds of years.Cooking is as much science as it is art. Cooking techniques are not based on arbitrary rules that some chefs made up long ago. Rather,they are based on an understanding of how different foods react when heated in various ways, when combined in various proportions, and so on
  5. 5.  Quantity cookery has existed for thousands of years, as long as there have been large groups of people to feed,such as armies.But modern food service is said to have begun shortly after the middle of the eighteenth century. At this time, food production in France was controlled by guilds
  6. 6.  Georges-Auguste Escoffier (1847–1935), the greatest chef of his time, is still today revered by chefs and gourmets as the father of twentieth-century cookery.His two main contributions were (1) the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu, and the reorganization of the kitchen
  7. 7.  Today’s kitchens look much different from those of Escoffier’s day,even though our basic cooking principles are the same. Also,the dishes we eat have gradually changed due to the innovations and creativity of modern chefs. The process of simplification and refinement, to which Carême and Escoffier made monumental contributions, is still ongoing, adapting classical cooking to modern conditions and tastes.
  8. 8.  We take for granted such basic equipment as gas and electric ranges and ovens and electric refrigerators. But even these essential tools did not exist until fairly recently . The easily controlled heat of modern cooking equipment , as well as motorized food cutters, mixers ,and other processing equipment, has greatly simplified food production. Research and technology continue to produce sophisticated tools for the kitchen.
  9. 9.  All these developments have helped change cooking styles, menus, and eating habits. The evolution of cuisine that has been going on for hundreds of years continues. Changes occur not only because of technological developments, such as those just described, but also because of our reactions to culinary traditions. Two opposing forces can be seen at work throughout the history of cooking.
  10. 10.  Advances in agriculture and food preservation have had disadvantages as well as advantages. Everyone is familiar with hard, tasteless fruits and vegetables that were developed to ship well and last long, without regard for eating quality. Many people, including chefs, began to question not only the flavor but also the health value and the environmental effects of genetically engineered foods , of produce raised with chemical pesticides and fertilizers, and of animals raised with antibiotics and other drugs and hormones.
  11. 11.  After the middle of the twentieth century, as travel became easier and as immigrants arrived in Europe and North America from around the world, awareness of and taste for regional dishes grew . Chefs became more knowledgeable not only about the traditional cuisines of other parts of Europe but about those of Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere.
  12. 12. How do you choose the food you eat?  In today’s era, we are bombarded with so many information, including about the food we eat. Some health experts suggest that certain foods are healthy, others say that they are not. Which makes it very confusing and overwhelming for the average person when it comes to deciding which food to include in their nutritional plan. Whose advice should you take?  When choosing what to eat we are influenced by many internal and external factors, which rarely have much to do with the food itself. Whether we make those choices consciously or unconsciously, here are a few of the factors which have major impact on the decisions we make when choosing our food:
  13. 13.  A positive attitude towards the job is expected from the kitchen personnel as the job requires a lot of hard work and patience. To become a successful chef, zeal to learn, creative nature and strong sense of responsibility is desired.  While working in the kitchen, a person is dealing with the sharp tools, electric machines with blades, gas, fires which all are very dangerous if treated without carefulness, therefore a presence of mind is a must.
  14. 14.  Good personal hygiene is essential for any food handler and minimises the risk of food contamination. Most people carry harmful bacteria on their bodies and can unwittingly transport them to food. Touching your mouth, nose, hair or even your clothing can spread bacteria and cause contamination.
  15. 15.  Personal hygiene is important to prevent food poisoning. When handling food, wash your hands thoroughly and often. If you are sick, do not go to work, because you can contaminate food more easily. Food handlers should be properly trained in safe food handling
  16. 16.  Wearing the appropriate uniform is just one positive step you can take towards ensuring food safety. Chefs must wear the correct protective clothing in food areas at all times, as this will help to ensure that any contaminants carried on normal clothing, such as pet hairs or dirt, do not contaminate the food.  We all know how messy the whole process of cooking can get. Food color, soup, cooking oil, vegetable juices, and spices are examples of substances that can severely stain our clothes. Wearing an apron when cooking will protect your clothes from stains that would otherwise make you look untidy
  17. 17.  1) Cooking increases palatability. Cooking pleases the eye and is receptive to the palate and helps to stimulate the digestive juices, thereby creating an appetite.  2) Cooking helps to provide a balanced meal. The different ingredients combined together in one dish make it easier to provide a balanced meal.  3) Cooking sterilizes the food partially. Cooked food can be stored for a longer time and it prevents food poisoning and diseases when stored properly. Some of the disease producing germs is killed by cooking. They are killed because of high temperature during the cooking process. A temperature of 600°C applied over 30 or more minutes, kills most of the pathogenic germs.
  18. 18.  4) Cooking retains, as far as possible, the nutritive and flavouring ingredients. The flavour depends upon the amount and kind of extractive present, and the acids developed. Nutritive value is enhanced if the fat proportion in the meat is more. While cooking, the nutrition could be preserved by using the cooking liquor.  5) Cooking gives a variety to the menu, as one food item could be cooked in various ways and given different textures, e.g. mutton in a soup, roast joint, croquettes, stews, keema, sookha meat, boti kababs, etc. Different methods of cooking when used make the menu interesting and enhance variety. It is, therefore, easier to plan a balanced diet.  6) Cooking preserves food for a longer time. The high temperature destroys bacteria and limits spoilage. It is economical as the cooked leftovers could be utilized and new dishes could be prepared.

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