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  1. Innovation Innovation studies and
  2. TOPIC OUTLINE • Defining innovation • Economic sociology of innovation • Innovation studies
  3. DEFINING INNOVATION • The transformation of an existing state of things in order to make something new
  4. INNOVATION IS PROCESSUAL (Rogers, 2003) • The identification of a need or a problem that requires a solution • The decision to carry out research to find this solution • The development of innovation to give it a form & content that meet the needs of target users
  5. INNOVATION IS PROCESSUAL (Rogers, 2003) • The marketing (production and distribution) of product/service that contains the innovation • Its adoption and diffusion • The consequences and changes associated to the adoption of innovation
  6. PROCESS OF COMPANY INNOVATION • The input stage (initiating research and innovation by investing human and financial resources) • The throughput stage (the path that the company must take to transform input into output through innovation)
  7. PROCESS OF COMPANY INNOVATION • The output stage (results are achieved; the fruits of innovation in terms of new products or services offered in the market) • Linear (direct current) vs. Circular (alternating current)
  8. INNOVATION IS RELATIONAL • Relative to time period • Relative to context • Innovation relies on the contribution of social actors (generation, implementation and diffusion)
  9. INNOVATION IS DIFFERENT FROM CHANGE • Change is broader; intended & unintended • The doing of new things or the doing of things that are already being done in a new way (Schumpeter 1947)
  10. INNOVATION VS INVENTION • Invention means to conceive new products or process. • Innovation implies putting these new ideas in practice for the first time. • ‘the inventor produces ideas, the entrepreneur gets [new] things done’ (Schumpeter 1947)
  11. INNOVATION DOES NOT ALWAYS BRING POSITIVE RESULTS • Approach innovation with a neutral stance; open for critique • Innovation is also subject to failures that are technological, social, economic)
  12. ECONOMIC INNOVATION • Process of change that introduces new economic and regulatory elements: in the needs that are met, goods and services produced and modes of production, distribution and usage [not limited to technological change]
  13. ECONOMIC SOCIOLOGY & INNOVATION • The needs and actors it considers are not only those of the market • Social and institutional factors (in addition to economic) ae found in each phase of the process
  14. TYPES OF INNOVATION (Oslo Manual) • Product innovation • Process innovation • Organizational innovation • Marketing innovation
  15. TYPES OF INNOVATION (based on degree of newness) • Incremental innovation • Radical innovation ____________________________ • Architectural innovation • Shifts in technological systems & techno-economic paradigms
  16. INNOVATION STUDIES • Interdisciplinary in nature • Focus is centered on the theme of economic innovation • Hosts a large community of scholars • Possesses shared intellectual references and research centers
  17. DEVIANCE 1. Deviance varies according cultural norms. 2. People are deviant because they are labeled as deviant (location, audience, and the individual committing the act) 3. Defining social norms as social power