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  1. Play Home TV Shows Movies Browse by Languages Episodes 1. Introduction 2. Concept of vibration and waves 3. Queen Bee 4. The Hive
  2. Vibration is the back and forth motion of an object in a certain time interval through the equilibrium point. A wave is a disturbance that propagates energy from one point to another. Waves can also be interpreted as the propagation of vibrational energy from one point to another.
  3. he time it takes to make one vibration. the number of vibrations that occur per unit of time.. Maximum deviation or the farthest deviation from the equilibrium poin.. the distance between the position of the vibrating object and the equilibrium point..
  4. According to M. Ali Yaz, a sound is a wave caused by the vibration of an object and propagated through the medium from one place to another. Sound can also be interpreted as the result of vibrations of an object that propagates in the form of waves. For this reason, sounds are often referred to as sound waves.
  5. This sound cannot be heard by humans, and hasa can be heard by only a few animals including dogs, spiders, and crickets Audiosonic sound is sound that can be heard by humans and many other living things This sound cannot be heard by humans and can only be heard by certain animals, namely bats and dolphins
  6. Consist of a hair with a base portion containing a nerve supply Consist a group of scolophores taht atached at one end by a spinous process to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). In some species the development of elaborate antennal plumes and brushlike terminations has led the suggestion they also serve for hearing The electrode that placed on the nerve trunk of the organ that rich nerve supply a discharge of impulses can be detected when the brush is exposed to sound
  7. All Vertebrates have two labyrinths that lie deep in the side of the head, adjacent to the brain.
  8. Fishes have structures in the inner ear called otoliths which are much denser than water and a Fish’s body.
  9. The reptilian auditory apparatus is typically made up of a typanum, a thin membrane located at the rearof the head; the stapes, a small bone running between the typanum and the skull in the tympanic cavity (the middle ear); the inner ear; and a eustachian tube connecting the middle ear with the mouth cavity. .
  10. Sonar or Sound Navigation and Ranging is a method of using ultrasonic waves to estimate the size, shape, and depth of objects. The sonar system is a system that is used to detect places in motion by detecting high- frequency (ultrasonic) sounds.
  11. -Bats very rarely crash into cave walls or the walls in front of them. -Bats emit high frequency sounds (ultrasonic sound, f>20,000 Hz)
  12. -Dolphins have a system that allows them to communicate and receive stimuli, namely the sonar system. - This system is useful for sensing objects in the ocean, foraging for food, and communicating.
  13. Dolphins breathe through holes in the top of their heads. Just below this hole, there are small pockets filled with air. By passing air through these sacs, dolphins produce high-frequency sounds. These air sacs act as acoustic mirrors that focus the sound produced by tiny lumps of fatty tissue just below the respiratory opening.
  14. The sound of an elephant calling its group is an example of infrasound sound. listening to low frequencies and are most sensitive at 1 kHz Elephants themselves are known to be able to communicate among members of their group through sounds like trumpets. In motion communication, elephants also communicate among group members by wrapping and touching their trunks. With large ears, elephants can hear the sound of clouds gathering before the rain. Elephants can pick up infrasound waves They also hear with their feet, using nerve endings that detect ground vibrations.
  15. The process of producing the human voice can be analogous to the sound produced by a harmonica. The harmonica player produces sounds in his mouth with vibrations on his lips that come from the air passing from the mouth.
  16. Sound is produced when an aerodynamic phenomenon occurs that causes the vocal cords to vibrate rapidly. The speed of the vibration cycle can be distinguished by gender and age. • a man :110 vibration per second “low pitch” •A womam : 220 vibration per second “ hight pitch” •A kids: 300 vibration per second “ highest pitch”
  17. The following briefly describes the process of producing sound. 1. The air pressure column is moved towards the vocal cords •2. The vocal cords vibrate according to the vibration cycle •3. Voice channel–
  18. VOICE PARAMETERS In measuring the difference in sound, especially between one person and another, two parameters are used, namely frequency and amplitude. Loudness occurs when there is an increase in the amplitude of the vocal cord vibrations. This increase is due to increased airflow, causing the vocal cords to become wider. While pitch (sound height) occurs when there is an increase in the frequency of vibrations in the vocal cords. Frequency Frequency is the number of times the pendulum crosses its diameter per second. Frequency measures the speed of vibration. Amplitude Amplitude is how far the pendulum swings away from its centerline, in any direction. Amplitude measures the strength of the vibration. Amplitude is measured in decibels (dB).
  19. vocal folds (vocal fold) Soft tissue in the form of folds that are the main vibration component of the larynx. It consists of a cover (epithelium, basement membrane, and superficial lamina propria), vocal ligaments (intermediate and deep lamina propria), and a core (thyroarytenoid muscle). These layers work together to produce vocal cord