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Legacies of Globalization in Canada: Beyond Residential Schools

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Legacies of Globalization in Canada: Beyond Residential Schools

  1. 1. Legacies of Globalization in Canada BEYOND RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS
  2. 2. The Seven Years‟ War: 1756-1763  In your text: p. 170  Competition between Britain and France for resources in what-is-now Canada erupted into war in 1756  Colonies around the world were implicated in the war, North America, West Africa, Cuba, Philippines, and India
  3. 3. “The First Global War”  The involvement of so many countries and colonies has prompted some historians to call this the first global war.
  4. 4. Legacies of the War in North America  Britain took over New France, Cape Breton Island and Florida.  The Royal Proclamation 1763  Britain needed to define how their territories would be governed.
  5. 5. The Royal Proclamation 1763  Offered land to former British soldiers in hopes of attracting settlers  Limited settlement in North America by reserving land for First Nations – intended to maintain peace with FN  Individual settlers were prohibited from purchasing land – only Britain could buy land from FN
  6. 6. The Royal Proclamation 1763 Cont‟d  Attempt to limit European settlement in Canada failed - settlers continued to enter Canada  Britain‟s limit on settlers, plus their mercantilist policies are considered important causes of the American Revolution  For FN, the Proclamation was ground-breaking because it recognized their land rights (some)  The Proclamation committed Britain to make treaties with FN – remains in effect today.
  7. 7. How Do Legacies Continue to Affect Canada? (page 180) Immigration is an extremely important and highly visible legacy of historical globalization that affects all Canadians •The size of the circles on the map represent the proportion of immigrants from those regions. Which is biggest?
  8. 8. A Cultural Mosaic  Diversity has been a characteristic of Canadian society since confederation, though not all immigrants were equally welcomed Early immigration policies were based on race, the Chinese  head tax of 1885 is evidence of this.  By the late 1960‟s the immigration policies were becoming more fair, and since the 1970‟s the majority of immigrants have been visible minorities  A 2001 census showed that 18% of Canadians were born in another country
  9. 9. Multiculturalism & Cultural Pluralism  Multiculturalism: an official Canadian policy founded on the idea that Canadian society is made of many culturally distinct groups who are free to affirm and promote their own culture.  CANADA COINED THIS TERM, AND IS THE FIRST COUNTRY TO ADOPT THIS POLICY!  The heart of Canada‟s multicultural policy is Cultural Pluralism, the idea that people are free to maintain their own cultural distinctions.  How does this differ from policies in the U.S.A.?
  10. 10. Controversy – Against Multiculturalism  May divide Canadians  Could erode „British‟ heritage  Attack on “Canadians”  Will undermine Francophone culture – no special status for Quebec  “Has highlighted our differences rather than diminished them, has heightened division rather than encourage union” (Neil Bissoondath)  Institutionalized ghetto mentality: stereotyping
  11. 11. Land Claims: A Continuing Legacy  There were no treaties signed with First Nations in Quebec, Yukon, NWT, or British Columbia  This motivated FN to press the government to recognize their rights  As a result of their organization, two types of land claims were recognized in 1973: Comprehensive: in places where no land claims have been  signed Specific: in places where treaties had been signed but  conditions have not been met
  12. 12. Land Claims Today  Nunavut was created out of a comprehensive land claim  In 2007, 70 comprehensive claims were still in progress  Over 1000 specific claims remain unsettled  We will investigate this more in chapter 8