Se ha denunciado esta presentación.
Se está descargando tu SlideShare. ×

HUMAN-PERSON-AND-DEATH-PRESENTATION.pptx

Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Anuncio
Cargando en…3
×

Eche un vistazo a continuación

1 de 22 Anuncio

Más Contenido Relacionado

Similares a HUMAN-PERSON-AND-DEATH-PRESENTATION.pptx (20)

Anuncio

Más reciente (20)

HUMAN-PERSON-AND-DEATH-PRESENTATION.pptx

  1. 1. THE HUMAN PERSON AND DEATH INTRODUCTION TO THE PHILOSOPHY OF HUMAN PERSON
  2. 2. Reflect on the meaning of one’s life Explain the meaning of one’s life Enumerate the projects or goals one wants to accomplish in life
  3. 3. What is the meaning life?How can humans attain a meaningful life?
  4. 4. Socrates •Socrates believes that knowing oneself is a condition to solve the present problem. •For Socrates, for a person to be happy, he has to live a virtuous life. •Virtue is not something to be taught or acquiredthrough education, but rather it is merely an awakening of the seeds of good deeds that lay dormant in the mind and heart of a person. •Knowing what is in the mind and heart of a humanbeing is achieved through self-knowledge. •True knowledge means wisdom, which in turn, means virtue.
  5. 5. Socrates major ethical claims: happiness is impossible without moral virtuaa unethical actions harm the person who performs them more than the people they victimize. Plato •For Plato, contemplation means that the mind is in communion with the universal and eternal ideas. •Contemplation is very important because this is theonly available means for a mortal human being to free himself from his space-time confinement to ascend to the heaven of ideas and there commune with the immortal, eternal, the infinite, and thedivine truths. ;
  6. 6. •The body, for Plato, causes us turmoil and confusionin our inquiries. •To see the truth, we must quit the body —the soul in it self must behold things in themselves. •Knowledge, however, can be attained (if at all) after death: for while in the company of the body, the soulcannot have pure knowledge. Aristotle •Aristotle’s account of change calls upon actuality and potentiality. • Everything in nature seeks to realize itself —to develop its potentialities and finally realize its actualities.
  7. 7. •Entelechy means that nothing happens by chance. •Nature not only has a built-in pattern, but also differentlevels of being. •For the world of potential things to exist, there must first be something actual (form) at a level abovepotential or perishing things (matter). •All things in the world are potentially in motion and continuously changing; there must be something that is actual motion and which is moved by nothingexternal (Unmoved Mover). •The Unmoved Mover is eternal, immaterial, with pure actuality or perfection, and with no potentiality. Recognize the Meaning of One’s Life
  8. 8. • Objects and human beings move toward their divineorigin and perfection as they strive to realize themselves. • Reason finds its perfection in contemplating theUnmoved Mover. • The Unmoved Mover is the form of the world moving it toward its divine end. • The highest human activity is contemplating aboutthe Unmoved Mover. Recognize the Meaning of One’s Life
  9. 9. These self-examination activities will bring moreunderstanding about you and the project/s you may want to accomplish. A.Know thyself. Write your strengths and weaknesses. Goals One Wants to Accomplish
  10. 10. Goals One Wants to Accomplish B. Before you itemize what you want to achieve, first, ask questions regarding what you want to achieve.
  11. 11. Friedrich Nietzsche • Nietzsche analyzedthe art of Athenian tragedy as the product of the Greeks’ deep and non -evasive thinking about the meaning of life in the face ofextreme vulnerability. • Athenian tragedy reminded its audience of the senseless horrors of human existence but at the same time provided an experiential reinforcement ofinsights that we can nonetheless marvel at beautywithin life, and that our true existence is not our individual lives but our participation in the drama of life and history. Meaning of Life
  12. 12. Morality was based on healthy self-assertion, notself-abasement and the renunciation of the instincts. • Realizing one’s “higher self” means fulfilling one’s loftiest vision, noblest ideal. • The individual has to liberate himself from environmental influences that are false to one’s essential beings and draw a sharp conflict betweenthe higher self and the lower self, between the idealaspired to and the contemptibly imperfect present. Meaning of Life
  13. 13. Arthur Schopenhauer • Schopenhauer begins with the predicament of the self with its struggles and its destiny: What am I?What shall I do with my life? • Schopenhauer utilized Kant’s distinction between the noumenal(the world-in-itself, which is Will) and the phenomenal (the world of experience andinclination) realms. • Schopenhauer departs from Kant both in denying the rationality of the Will and in claiming that we can have experience of the thing-in-itself as Will • For Schopenhauer, there is but One Will, and it underlies everything.
  14. 14. • Every being in the phenomenal world manifests theWill in its own way: as a natural force, as instinct or,in our case, as intellectually enlightened willing. • Will is ultimately without purpose, therefore, cannot be satisfied and this led Schopenhauer to see thewillfulnature of reality — a reality that has no pointand cannot be satisfied. • Schopenhauer contends that all of life is suffering which is caused by desire. • Our desire make us see other people as separate and opposed beings in competition for the satisfactions we crave leading us to harm each other. • We can alleviate suffering by “putting an end to desire.”
  15. 15. Martin Heidegger • In Heidegger’s analysis, human existence is exhibited in care, a finite temporality which reaches with death. • Care’s threefold structure: Possibility. Humanity constructs the instrumental world on the basis of the persons’ concerns. Facticity. A person is not pure possibility but facticalpossibility: possibilities open to him at any time conditioned and limited by circumstances. Fallenness. Humanity has fallen away from one’s authentic possibility into an authentic existence of irresponsibility and illusory security. Meaning of Life
  16. 16. • Heidegger claims that only by living through the nothingness of death in anticipation do one attain authentic existence. • Death is not accidental, nor should be analyzed rather it belongs to humanity’s facticity (limitations
  17. 17. Jean-Paul Sartre • the human person desires to be God; the desire toexist as a being that has its sufficient ground in itself • The human person builds the road to the destiny ofhis/her choosing; he/she is the creator • Sartre’s dualism: en-soi (in-itself) –signifies the permeable and dense, silent and dead pour-soi (for-itself)–the world only has meaning according to what the person gives to it. Meaning of Life
  18. 18. • The person, first of all exists, encounters himself,surges up in the world, and defines himself afterward. • Freedom, therefore, is the very core and the door toauthentic existence. • The human person who tries to escape obligations and strives to be en-soi is acting on bad faith ( mauvais foi ). Meaning of Life
  19. 19. Karl Jaspers • Jasper’s philosophy places the person’s temporal existence in the face of the transcendent God, anabsolute imperative. • Transcendence relates to us through limit-situation(Grenzsituation). • To live an authentic existence always requires a leapof faith. • Authentic existence (existenz) is freedom and God. • Human beings should be loyal to their own faiths without impugning the faith of others.
  20. 20. Gabriel Marcel • Philosophy has the tension (the essence of drama)and the harmony (that is the essence of music). • Marcel’s Phenomenological Method Primary Reflection. This method looks at theworld or at any object as a problem, detachedfrom the self and fragment. Secondary Reflection. Secondary reflection is concrete, individual, heuristic, and open. It isconcerned not with object but with presencesand recaptures the unity of original experience.
  21. 21. •Secondary reflection is an ingathering, a recollection, a pulling toegether of the scattered fragments of our experience. •Beyond one’s experience, beyond the circle of fellow human beings, one turns to the Absolute Thou, the unobjectifiableTranscendent Thou. Meaning of Life
  22. 22. 1.From the perspective of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle,how can human beings attain happiness? 2.In your view, how can one attain a “higher self”? 3.Discuss how desire can lead us to suffering from the point of view of Schopenhauer. 4.Explain Martin Heidegger’s concept of “Care”. 5.Compare Jasper’s and Marcel’s philosophies. What are their similarities and differences?

×