1. Presented by- Jyoti Saroj
Department.- Fisheries Resource Management
College of Fisheries, Veraval
2. Mugil cephalus is commonly known as striped
It is a euryhaline fish, cultured either alone or in
combination with other fishes such as
Tilapia/Milk fish/Pearl spot/Chinese carp.
3. Grey mullet has been farmed for centuries in
extensive and semi-intensive ponds.
Subsistence farming in ponds and enclosures has
been traditional in the Mediterranean region, South
East Asia, Taiwan Province of China, Japan and
Since the early 1960s, flathead grey mullet has also
been cultured in semi-intensive ponds with tilapia
and carps in Egypt.
This species was first introduced to be cultured with
carp in Israel in 1957.
4. • Italy
• Hong kong
• Taiwan province of China
5. • Mugil cephalus is cosmopolitan in the coastal
• It is found from Nova Scotia, Canada south to
Brazil, including the Gulf of Mexico and absent
in the Bahamas and the Caribbean Sea.
• The flathead grey mullet is catadromous.
• Flathead grey mullet is a diurnal feeder,
consuming mainly zooplankton, dead plant
matter and detritus.
• Mullet have thick-walled gizzard-like segments
in their stomach.
7. The sexes are separate. Males are generally smaller and
slender whereas, in females belly shall be distended and
swollen during spawning season.
In India Mugil cephalus breeds during the post monsoon
Absolute fecundity of Mugil cephalus in India is
13,20,000 and relative fecundity is 849 eggs/g body
8. • Collected from river mouths, tidal streams, tidal
creeks, swamps and tidal flats.
• In India, the fry of Mugil cephalus are restricted
to the period from June to August.
• The early mullet fry are collected using dip nets,
hapa nets and closed-meshed seines during high
9. • Large numbers of sexually mature individuals are
kept under optimum environmental conditions.
• Ripe fish are selected and placed in plastic or
fibreglass tanks filled with seawater.
• Male:Female ratio 2–3:1 shortly before
10. • Females are injected by pituitary gonadotropin.
Females spawn after 12 hours.
• Eggs are produced at a rate of 650–850/g body
• Hatching takes place after 50-64 hrs .
11. After acclimatization, fry are stocked in earthen
nurseries at high densities, where they depend
mainly on natural food.
Fry are kept in the nursery ponds for 4–6 months.
Stocking density 30,000/ha in nursery pond.
Rice or wheat bran is sometimes used as an
additional source of food.
12. • Grey mullet are usually culture in poly culture in
semi-intensive pond with common carp, grass
carp, silver carp, tilapia and milk fish
• Intensive polyculture of mullets along with
Chinese carps is carried out in Honkong.
• Mullet fingerlings stocked @ 10,000-15,000/ha
and Chinese carp fingerlings stocked @ 1000-
13. Rice or wheat bran added daily in amount of
0.5-1 % of biomass
Growing season is normally about 7-8 months.
After 7-8 months mullet reach 75-1 kg.
14. • Monoculture : Natural foods, grain mills
and rice polishing plants.
• Polyculture: Extruded pellets are used in
feed for Tilapia and Common carp
17. • Modified estuaries are called Valli, produce
primarily eels but mullet are the principal crop
in the most advanced valli.
• Four Species are commonly stocked, according
to the season, largest and most valued species is
Mugil cephalus is found in the lagoon.
18. Valli including all the 300-500 ha structures in
the venice area, located above the high tide line
and connected with sea, from which brackish
water pumped at high tide, creating an artificial
The total annual yield of valli ranges from 90-
200kg/ha of fish.
19. • Mainly in West Bengal, Karnataka, Kerala and Goa.
• In monoculture stocking density is 6000no./ha
production rate is 1189-1200kg/ha/year.
• Mullet is cultured with pearl spot and milk fish in
• Various species of shrimp often stocked in mullet.
• The net production in the grey mullet-milk fish
combination ranged between 1600 and 2189
20. Egypt is the largest producer country in
the mullet culture.
Year Production in tones
1. 1997 25600
2. 2003 147000
21. Ergasilus lizae
Caligus paget (Sea lice)
Bacterial fin rot
Large scale natural mortalities occur during
22. As aquaculture grey mullet depends largely on
collection of wild fry, it is affecting the resources
for capture fisheries.
In countries where wild fry collection for
aquaculture practiced, social problems usually
result from the competition for resources
between fish farmers and fisherman.
23. • The grey mullet are polycultured with other
compatible species of fish and shrimps.
• Production average 2.0-2.5 tonns/ha/year
during 8-9 months grow out periods.
• Intensive farming is restricted due to non
availabilty hatchery seeds.
• Highly production comes from traditional
culture system such as Valli culture in Italy.
• Milk fish production is also very high in
combination with Mullet culture.
24. • T.V.R. Pillay and M. N. Kutty, Aquacultre
Principles and Practices, Page No.(417-423)
• Dr. P.C.Thomas, Dr. Suresh Ch. Rath, Dr.(Mrs)
Kanta Das Mohapatra, Breeding and Seed
Production of Fin Fish and Shell Fish, Page
• John E. Bardach, John H. Ryther, and William O.
McLarney, Aquaculture the Farming and
Husbandry of Freshwater and Marine Organisms,