1. The words you have seen are related to?
2. What is Swimming? When and where did
3. What are the benefits in swimming?
4. What facilities and equipment should be
5. What are the Basic Skills and Strokes in
Swimming is an individual or team sport that
uses arms and legs to move the body through
The sport takes place in pools or open water (e.g.,
in a sea or lake).
Competitive swimming is one of the most popular
Olympic sports, with varied distance events in
butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke, freestyle, and
14. In addition to these individual events, four
swimmers can take part in either a freestyle or
medley relay. Swimming each stroke requires
specific techniques, and in competition, there are
specific regulations concerning the acceptable form
for different strokes.
There are also regulations on what types of
swimsuits, caps, jewelry and injury tape are allowed
at competitions. Although it is possible for
competitive swimmers to incur several injuries from
the sport -- such as tendinitis in the shoulder-- there
are also multiple health benefits associated with the
16. Common Locations of Tendonitis
Tendonitis can happen almost anywhere on the
body and is typically classified by its location.
Because the condition is associated with the
repetitive movement, we tend to see it in people
who perform certain tasks by routine or who engage
in specific sports activities.
23. Symptoms and Diagnosis
Tendonitis is characterized by the sudden
appearance of pain and inflammation and
should not be confused with tendinosis in
which symptoms are chronic and
In many cases, the appearance of symptoms
will be abrupt, often associated with an injury
or a period of excessive activity. At other
times, the symptoms will appear gradually
and worsen over time.
The treatment of tendonitis involves three
1.Restriction of movement of the affected
2. Reduction of inflammation
3.Rehabilitation of the injured tendon, joint,
26. Physical property Specified value
Length 50.0 m
Width 25.0 m
2.0 m (6 ft 7 in) minimum, 3.0 m (9 ft 10 in)
Number of lanes 10
Lane width 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in)
Water temperature 25–28 °C (77–82 °F)
29. FINAor Fédération internationale de
(English: International Swimming
Federation) is the international federation
recognized by the International Olympic
Committee (IOC) for administering
international competition in water sports.
Founded in 1908, the federation was
officially renamed World Aquatics in
31. Some swimmers use earplugs to
block water from entering the ear
canal while they are swimming.
Excess water entering the ear can cause
discomfort for several hours after
swimming and can also increase your
chances of developing an outer ear
infection, known as "swimmer's ear."
Some swimmers also use nose clips
to prevent water from entering their
nose while they are swimming.
32. Swimmer’s Ear
Inflammation of the
canal in the outer ear
that is characterized by
swelling, pain, and
discharge and that
typically occurs when
water trapped in the
outer ear during
infected usually with a
Otitis externa is often referred to as
"swimmer's ear" because repeated
exposure to water can make the
ear canal more vulnerable to
Most pools contain high levels of chlorine or other
chemicals to help keep the water free of bacteria
and control the growth of algae in the water, states
the Environmental Protection Agency. However,
chlorine can irritate the eyes.
*Goggles allow you to see while your head is
immersed in the water, without having to worry
about chlorine irritation.
35. Swim Caps
The swim cap is a piece of
equipment that provides multiple
*For professional swimmers, swim
caps reduce drag to increase
speed in the water. *Swim caps
also keep hair out of the face,
help reduce the effects of
chlorine on the hair and help
swimmers retain body heat
when they are swimming in
36. Training Tools
Numerous pieces of swimming equipment are
designed to help in strength training and
technique while swimming.
*For example, pull buoys are foam flotation
devices that can be placed between the legs
and used to strengthen and place focus on
*The pull buoy forces swimmers to rely less on
their legs to push through the water and more
on the arms.
37. Training Tools
*Swim paddles develop arm strength by
increasing resistance in the water, and they
also help develop proper stroke mechanics.
*Kickboards switch the majority of work
onto the legs when swimming to strengthen
the legs as well as help develop proper
*Stretch cords and resistance bands
develop both arm and leg strength.
Kickboards switch the
majority of work onto the
legs when swimming to
strengthen the legs as well
as help develop proper
A kickboard simply makes
you work your lower half.
The less buoyant the
kickboard, the more you
have to engage your core.
39. Just as a kickboard isolates your legs,
a pull buoy isolates your upper body
while you swim. If the weakest part
of your swimming is your upper
body, pull buoys are a great way to
bring focus to that area.
Pull buoys are foam flotation devices
that can be placed between the legs and
used to strengthen and place focus on
The pull buoy forces swimmers to
rely less on their legs to push through
the water and more on the arms.
40. Paddles Swim paddles develop
arm strength by
increasing resistance in
the water, and they also
help develop proper
Paddles work really well with pull
buoys, as you isolate your upper body and
then increase both the strength of your
pulls and their resistance.
Paddles are a terrific shoulder workout
that are guaranteed to leave you sore
getting out of the pool.
41. Fins will have you flying
through the water, but will
wear out your legs quickly
due to their weight.
If you're not a great kicker,
then using fins is a great way
to build up your strength.
A parachute adds resistance while you swim, it
will eliminate all the inefficient parts of your
stroke out as you struggle to keep your speed up.
I wouldn't recommend using a parachute on day
one, but they're a fun way to shake up a workout.
43. Resistance Socks
Resistance socks works
oppositely with fins though
they produce same result.
A little easier than adding
a full parachute to your
swim, resistance socks are
a brutal addition to your
44. Tempo Trainers can fit right on your goggle strap
or in your cap and will beep every interval you set.
They're generally used to help swimmers establish a
stroke rhythm — for a long swim, every second; for
a sprint, every half second.
As so much of swimming is based on breath
control, snorkels are one of the best ways to limit
breathing, or to work on your stroke
without the breathbreaking it up.
46. Pace clock *A good swim workout is
meaning you swim a certain
number of yards in a certain
amount of time, rinse, and repeat.
*The pace clocks serve as a giant
stopwatch that runs continuously.
Traditionally, pace clocks are used
to time swims, time rest intervals,
and to keep each swimmer
separated from other swimmers in a
Pace clocks can be digital or
47. Starting blocks
• Swimming Starting Blocks are visible in most
Olympic pools and competitive pools where
everyone starts their swim or relay with a dive from
• Backstrokes races, however, don’t need an individual to
use the starting blocks. The swimming starting blocks
have grips, handles, and slots, with the handle being
parallel to the end wall surface. The swimming starting
blocks are available in different styles and varieties. The
high variety type is fitted on the floor with projecting
steps for an athlete to climb to the starting block and the
low variety type fixed on the head wall.
49. SWIMMING POOLS
Short Course vs Long Course
The term “25-metre” and “50-metre” refers to the length of
the swimming pool. The width depends on the number of
lanes. Olympic-sized swimming pools have 10 lanes, each
with a width of 2.5 metres making them a total width of 25
25-metre pools are typically called short courses and 50-
metres pools are called long courses.
51. Lane lines
• Plastics buoys strung
together on a line
dividing the pool into
• Keep swimmers from
swimming into each other.
• Help to decrease water turbulence,
waves created by a swimmer
moving through the water.
The more relaxed you are in the
water, the less oxygen is used by
our body while length of time
spent underwater increases.
The ability to submerge the face
is arguably one of the most
important stages when learning
to swim, particularly when
overcoming a fear of water.
54. 3 Types of Submerging
1. Sitting – a position on which a person
rests his legs directly on a platform or a
2. Supine – lying on your back with
your face upward.
3. Pronate – lying on your chest with
your face downward.
55. BASIC SKILLS IN SWIMMING
a. BUBBLING/BLOWING BUBBLES
d. TREADING WATER
56. A. Bubbling/ Bubbles
Hold the side of the wall. Inhale
through your mouth, submerge
your head and blow bubbles out
your nose for 10 seconds. Come up
and inhale through your mouth,
submerge and blow nose bubbles 10
more seconds. Set a goal of three
consecutive, 10-second breaths of
submerged nose blowing, or make a 3
sets of 10 repetitions of the same
57. B. Breathing
An often overlooked basic skill in
swimming is the ability to time your
breaths. If you're not comfortable
breathing while swimming, you'll
struggle to make streamlined,
The basic idea involves breathing out
through both nose and mouth when
your head is underwater, then lift
your head to the side, taking a full
breath before plunging your face
back down under the surface.
58. C. Floating
Knowing how to float in the water for long
periods of time could save your life in an
Although you often see swimmers floating
on their backs, this is just one of many
possible positions. Relaxing and staying
motionless help you float more easily,
regardless of the position.
Note: No matter how confident you are
in your floating abilities, always carry a
life jacket on any boating trip.
65. D. Treading Water
Treading water makes it easy to transition between
floating positions. Because your head remains
completely above the water's surface, treading
water is ideal in situations where you need to
look at your surroundings. Keeping your arms
outstretched, move them slowly just under the
surface of the water while performing scissor
kicks to stay afloat.
67. E. Gliding
Gliding through the water is a basic
skill to master before you even
consider kicking and paddling,
according to swimming instructor Ian
Cross, speaking to "The Guardian.“
Gliding helps you to get used to the
sensation of moving through the
water headfirst. Try gently pushing
off the side wall of the pool with
your arms stretched out in front of
your head. Keep your head face-
down in the water and glide until
you slow down.
68. F. Kicking
Kicking provides propulsion through the water.
Once you are comfortable with floating, kicking is the
logical next step.
Kicking is also used in treading water, which is the process
of remaining in one place while keeping your head above
the water line.
Many coaches use kickboards, or flat flotation devices
made of foam or plastic, to support the swimmer’s body.
A kickboard allows you to focus solely on your kicking
technique without worrying about staying afloat.
69. FLUTTER KICK
When you do a flutter kick, you
scissor your legs up and down. Your
legs should be extended with the
knees relaxed as you kick. Avoid
kicking from your knees. Instead,
kick from your hips, allowing your
body to rotate side to side slightly.
The kicks should be short and fast,
with your legs just below the surface
of the water. Try to keep an even
rhythm, with your kicks twice as fast
as your arm strokes.
70. DOLPHIN KICK
To do a dolphin kick, you’ll
bring your legs together from
thighs to toes and kick them
together from your hips. You’ll
probably find that most of your
body moves along with your
hips and legs, which is perfectly
normal. The dolphin kick is
usually done in combination
with the butterfly stroke.
71. BREASTSTROKE KICK
This kick starts out like the dolphin kick,
with your legs together from thighs to toes.
From there, you’ll bend your knees,
keeping your heels together and allowing
the feet to flex as you bring your feet
towards your buttocks. After bringing your
feet in, kick your legs out strongly towards
the sides of the pool before bringing them
back together in the starting position. This
kick may make you feel a bit like a frog as
you swim. As you might imagine, the
breaststroke kick is done together with the
72. G. Sculling
Sculling is a hand technique that allows swimmers to “feel
the water” and maintain the ideal hand and arm position to
move through the water.
Sculling allows the swimmer to maximize surface area for
effective propulsion and lift.
73. H. Stroke
This is a method of moving the
arms and legs to push against the
water and propel the swimmer
75. STROKES: THE FREESTYLE
In terms of competitive swimming, freestyle refers to any stroke you want.
However, because it is the fastest, the front crawl (or Australian crawl)
is favored and has claimed the name of “freestyle”.
The freestyle is one of the easier strokes to learn, along with the
The freestyle stroke does require coordination of the legs and the arms in
conjunction with the movements of the head and breathing. For this stroke,
the head is forward and down while the propulsion is provided by the
combination of legs alternately kicking and the full reaching strokes of the
arms with cupped hands acting like paddles as the swimmer’s body is
pushed through the water. Recreational swimmers will use this stroke most
of the time and it is the most exciting event in swimming. The freestyle
starts with the contestants at the edge of the pool, and their bodies are
lowered, contracted and ready to release an enormous leap off the stand
into the waters below.
76. Front crawl is based on the Trudgen stroke that was
improved by Richmond Cavill from Sydney,Australia.
Cavill developed the stroke by observing a young boy
from the Solomon Islands, Alick Wickham. Cavill and his
brothers spread the Australian crawl to England, New
Zealand andAmerica. Richmond Cavill used this stroke
in 1902 at an International Championships in England
to set a new world record by swimming 100 yards (91 m)
in 58.4 seconds. Freestyle competitions have also been
swum completely and partially in other styles, especially
at lower ranking competitions as some swimmers find
their backstroke quicker than their front crawl.
77. During the Olympic Games, front crawl is
swum almost exclusively during freestyle.
Some of the few rules are that swimmers
must touch the end of the pool during each
length and cannot push off the bottom or
hang on the wall or pull on the lane lines
during the course of the race. As with all
competitive events, false starts are not
allowed (the number of false starts depends
upon the particular competitive rules for that
79. STROKES: THE BUTTERFLY
The butterfly stroke is the hardest to execute but the most
fun to watch. The butterfly seems to defy science, but it
can be accomplished with sufficient strength in the
swimmer’s legs and upper body. It involves the person
propelling their body through the water by spreading their
arms out like wings above the water and paddling back
under the water. The feet during this style are connected
and being pushed up and down to increase speed. This
stroke must be learned to make the swim team in high
school but is low on the agenda of strokes for beginning
swimmers to master.
80. The butterfly (colloquially shortened to the fly) is
a swimming stroke swum on the chest, with both
arms moving symmetrically, accompanied by the
butterfly kick (also known as the "dolphin kick").
While other styles like the breaststroke, front
crawl, or backstroke can be swum adequately by
beginners, the butterfly is a more difficult stroke
that requires good technique as well as strong
muscles. It is the newest swimming style swum in
competition, first swum in 1933 and originating
out of breaststroke.
81. Speed and ergonomics
The peak speed of the butterfly is faster than that
of the front crawl, or freestyle due to the
synchronous pull/push with both arms and legs.
Yet since speed drops significantly during the
recovery phase, it is overall slightly slower than
front crawl, especially over longer distances.
Another reason it is slower is because of the
extremely different physical exertion it puts on the
swimmer compared to the freestyle.
83. STROKES: THE BREASTSTROKE
The breaststroke is seen as one of the slowest moving
swim techniques; however, it is one of the most suitable
for long distance swims. Along with the butterfly stroke, it
is one of the more difficult swim techniques to perform. It
can be performed through pushing your hand straight
through the water, and waving your hands back to your
hips going all the way around. This stroke will engage
your forearms, chest, and upper back more than any other
swim style. The breaststroke can be performed at any pace
and is a great workout.
84. Breaststroke is the slowest of the four
official styles in competitive swimming.
The fastest breaststrokers can swim about
1.70 meters per second. It is sometimes the
hardest to teach to rising swimmers after
butterfly due to the importance of timing and
the coordination required to move the legs
Speed and Ergonomics
85. In the breaststroke, the swimmer leans on the chest,
arms breaking the surface of the water slightly, legs
always underwater and the head underwater for the
second half of the stroke. The kick is sometimes
referred to as a "frog kick" because of the
resemblance to the movement of a frog's hind
legs; however, when done correctly it is more of
a "whip kick" due to the whip-like motion that
moves starting at the core down through the
Speed and Ergonomics
86. There are three steps
to the arm
88. STROKES: THE BACKSTROKE
The backstroke is popular for those recreational swimmers
who like to watch the clouds in the sky. The face never
goes below the surface of the water for recreational
swimmers, but for competitive swimmers, there is the turn
at the end of the pool’s length. For the majority of the
swim, you will be laying on top of the water on your back
and paddling backwards. This stroke is not as easy as it
looks in competitive events because it is easy to violate the
swim lanes and become entangled with the lane markers,
but when there are interesting clouds in the sky at the
beach, it cannot be topped.
89. Arm movement
In backstroke, the arms contribute most of the
forward movement. The arm stroke consists
of two main parts: the power phase
(consisting of three separate parts) and the
recovery. The arms alternate so that always
one arm is underwater while the other arm is
recovering. One complete arm turn is
considered one cycle.
90. *Doggy Paddle
The dog paddle or doggy paddle is a simple swimming style. It is
characterized by the swimmer lying on their chest and moving their
hands and legs alternately in a manner reminiscent of how dogs and
other quadrupedal mammals swim. It is effectively a "trot" in water,
instead of land.
It was the first swimming stroke used by ancient humans, believed to
have been learned by observing animals swim.
It is often the first swimming stroke used by young children when
they are learning to swim.
The dog paddle has also been taught as a military swimming stroke
when a silent stroke is needed - since neither arms or legs break the
91. I. Diving
It involves leaping and springing into water, while trying to
perfect a series of perfect body positions. But it is also very
92. TYPES OF SWIMMING DIVES
F. ARM STAND
93. J. Coordination
Swimming requires a lot of coordination! While each
swimming stroke is different, they all require simultaneous
movement from arms and legs in different directions. As
you learn how to swim using a variety of swimming
strokes, you are learning how to coordinate multiple
movements from multiple body parts at the same time.
95. Swimming Events
There are currently 16 swimming events on the Olympic
program, for both men and women.
Swimming events with distances
freestyle: 50m, 100m, 200m, 400m and 1500m
backstroke: 100m and 200m
breaststroke: 100m and 200m
butterfly: 100m and 200m
(IM) Individual medley: 200m, 400m
freestyle relay: 4 x 100m, 4 x 200m
medley relay: 4 x 100m
96. Swimming events with distances
and number of laps
freestyle: 50m (1L), 100m (2L), 200m (4L), 400m (8L)
and 1500m (30L)
backstroke: 100m (2L) and 200m (4L)
breaststroke: 100m (2L) and 200m (4L)
butterfly: 100m (2L) and 200m (4L)
(IM)Individual medley: 200m (4L) 1L /stroke,
400m (8L) 2L/stroke
freestyle relay: 4 x 100m 2L/person , 4 x 200m 4L/person
medley relay: 4 x 100m 2L/person/stroke
98. Medley is a combination of four different
swimming styles butterfly stroke,
backstroke, breaststroke, and freestyle into
one race. This race is either swum by one
swimmer as individual medley (IM) or by
four swimmers as a medley relay.
99. Individual medley consists of a single
swimmer swimming equal distances of four
different strokes within one race.
100. Individual medley consists of four strokes. The
swimmer will swim one quarter of the race in each
style, in a certain order. The strokes are swum in
4.Freestyle (this can be any stroke except the
butterfly, backstroke, or breaststroke; most
swimmers use the front crawl)
101. Medley relay consists of four different
swimmers in one relay race, each swimming
one of the four strokes.
102. Medley relay is swum by four different swimmers,
each swimming one of the four strokes. Backstroke
is the first event as backstroke is started from the
water. If backstroke were not the first event, the
starting backstroke swimmer and the finishing
previous swimmer could block each other. The
remaining strokes are sorted according to the
speed, with breaststroke being the slowest and
freestyle being the fastest stroke.
103. The order of the strokes is as follows:
•Freestyle the only limitation being that
none of backstroke, breaststroke, or
butterfly stroke may be used for this leg.
Most swimmers use the front crawl.
104. These are the official rules of the FINAregarding medley
• In individual medley events, the swimmer covers the
four swimming styles in the following order: butterfly,
backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle.
•In medley relay events, swimmers will cover the four
swimming styles in the following order: backstroke,
breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle.
•Each section must be finished in accordance with the
rule which applies to the style concerned.
105. Freestyle includes a special regulation for
•Freestyle means that in an event so
designated the swimmer may swim any style,
except that in individual medley or medley
relay events, freestyle means any style other
than backstroke, breaststroke or butterfly.
106. Additionally, the normal rules of relay events apply:
• In relay events, the team of a swimmer whose feet lose
touch with the starting platform before the preceding
team-mate touches the wall shall be disqualified, unless
the swimmer in default returns to the original starting
point at the wall, but it shall not be necessary to return to
the starting platform.
• Any relay team shall be disqualified from a race if a
team member, other than the swimmer designated to swim
that length, enters the water when the race is being
conducted, before all swimmers of all teams have finished
107. •The members of a relay team and their order of
competing must be nominated before the race.Any
relay team member may compete in a race only once.
The composition of a relay team may be changed
between the heats and finals of an event, provided that it
is made up from the list of swimmers properly entered by
a member for that event. Failure to swim in the order
listed will result in disqualification. Substitutions may
be made only in the case of a documented medical
108. •Any swimmer having finished his race, or their
distance in a relay event, must leave the pool as
soon as possible without obstructing any other
swimmer who has not yet finished their race.
Otherwise the swimmer committing the fault, or
their relay team, shall be disqualified.
•There shall be four swimmers on each relay
1. What does a person gain or benefit from swimming
in terms of his or health?
2. Among the different swimming strokes, which one
do you believe can be managed by your capacity? Justify
3. How will you explain the relevance of the basic skills
in swimming? Do you think that we can skip the basic
skills in swimming and proceed right away to the
4. Do you think swimming is an important activity in your
life? Justify your answer.
Based on your subjective judgement, rank your expertise on the said sport honestly.
On a scale of 1-5, “5” being you as an expert and “1” if you only have a common
knowledge or understanding of basic techniques and concepts. Put a check on your
answer and you may write also any remarks.
Muscle contraction is the tightening, shortening, or lengthening of muscles when you do some activity. It can happen when you hold or pick up something, or when you stretch or exercise with weights. Muscle contraction is often followed by muscle relaxation, when contracted muscles return to their normal state.
Of the three types of contractions--shortening (concentric), isometric, and lengthening (eccentric)--injury is most likely to occur and the severity of the injury is greatest during lengthening contractions.
Diagnosis is typically made with a physical examination. If the cause is not clear or there are co-occurring conditions, the doctor may order additional tests. X-rays and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are generally less helpful in making a diagnosis and are really only used if there are concerns about a possible fracture or joint damage.
a true “Olympic-sized” pool has a depth of at least two meters and 10 lanes, with a width of two and a half meters each.
Practice this motion when/while holding onto the side of the pool with your arms outstretched.
These four strokes are necessary for competitive swimming, but most recreational swimmers only use the freestyle and once in a while the backstroke. If you want to add another stroke to your freestyle, there are adult swimming lessons in Somerset NJ to help guide you through the proper techniques to master your favorite swim style.