MEDIA EXPOSURE AND LANGUAGE
PROFICIENCY OF GRADE 11 STUDENTS OF
MALAMIG NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL: BASIS
MEDIA-GUIDED LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
JANE M. GERONIMO
◆ For many years, the teaching of the English language has been around,
yet learners in Public Secondary Schools are still not proficient enough
in terms of its use. However, in the advent of the modern world and the
modern technology, there is an immense variety of language learning
tools that can be used in classrooms. The development of the modern
world offers an immense variety of language learning tools for the
◆ In Malamig National High School, it was observed that students are
having difficulty in speaking English making it harder for them to
understand other subjects as well as their proficiency.
◆ General Objectives - This study aims to determine the relationship
between the media exposure and the level of language proficiency of
selected Grade 11 students of Malamig National High School.
◆ Specific Objectives
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What is the extent of Grade 11 students media exposure in
1.1 online reading resources;
1.2 print materials;
1.3 videos and television; and
1.4 social media/networking sites?
2. What is the level of language proficiency of the students in terms of:
2.2 Grammar; and
2.3 Comprehension skills?
3. Is there a significant relationship between the Grade 11 students extent of media
exposure and language proficiency?
4. Based on the results of the study, what media-guided language development
program could be proposed to enhance the language proficiency of the Grade 11
students of Malamig National High School?
◆ There is no significant relationship between the
Grade 11 students extent of media exposure and
the language proficiency?
◆ This research study will be of great
significance not only to the students, but also to
the administrators, teachers, parents and the
◆ This study focuses on the relationship between the media exposure and language
proficiency of the Grade 11 students in Malamig National High School as basis for
the formulation of a media-guided language development program. This study is
limited to seventy-six (76) Grade 11 High School students who are chosen as
◆ The study assesses the extent of media exposure of the students in terms of types
of media exposed to and length of exposure. Also included is the language
proficiency of the Grade 11 students in terms of the five macro skills such as
reading, listening, writing, viewing and speaking. The findings of this study are true
only to the students who serve as respondents and any application of the findings to
other population must be done with extra care and with particular consideration on
the qualities of the group or population compared.
This study is closely supported by Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second
Language Acquisition and Bandura’s Social Learning Theory.
◆ The Input hypothesis is Krashen's attempt to explain how the learner acquires a second
language – how second language acquisition takes place. The Input hypothesis is only
concerned with 'acquisition', not 'learning'. According to this hypothesis, the learner
improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second
language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
◆ Observational learning could not occur unless cognitive processes were at work. These
mental factors mediate (i.e., intervene) in the learning process to determine whether a
new response is acquired.
◆ Therefore, individuals do not automatically observe the behavior of a model and imitate it.
There is some thought prior to imitation, and this consideration is called mediational
processes. This occurs between observing the behavior (stimulus) and imitating it or not
Literacy is everyone's concern. A country's social and economic well-being
depends on how literate her citizens are. Since literacy is an important tool in the
march towards progress, there is need for educators to engage learners in practical
steps that will achieve this objective. Educators can achieve this through the use of
literacy materials since these materials play a vital role in facilitating learning and
According to Anigbogu (2019) educators can help students to develop their
language by actively involving them in the use of literacy materials. The unique value
of literacy materials must be emphasized in schools since the materials are catalysts
for language growth and development
While a number of scholars have investigated the association
between English language proficiency and media exposure, literature is
scarce on the relationship between English proficiency and media
exposure in the Philippines. Lack of English proficiency may be an
impediment to students’ success and in acquiring knowledge and skills
to produce globally competitive graduates. Understanding the influence
of English language proficiency on the is thereby necessary
According to Yaratan (2011) in his study, as a result of this substantial
change in language teaching, teachers needed extra aids to provide
learners with the desired environments and foster exposition to
authenticity. Therefore, this study would give a thorough and deep
knowledge to every language teacher that through the use of media,
these give abundant information and create continuous communicative
competence among ESL learners that a media can develop and
enhance the learning of English language in classrooms where they
spend a lot of their time
• This research is a descriptive-correlational study.
• According to Aquino (1982) cited that descriptive research as a fact-
finding method with reflective thinking and data gathered is reported from
the point of view the objectives and the basic assumptions of the project
• The correlational method on the other hand, will be used to determine
the relationship between the media exposure and language proficiency
of the Grade 11 students in Malamig National High School.
Respondents of the Study
The main respondents of this study will be the Grade 11 students in Malamig National
High School during the school year 2022-2023.
Population Sample and Sampling Technique
Total renumeration of the respondents will be utilized. No sampling will be used.
Name of School Section
G11 – Mahogany 39 39
G11 – Narra 37 37
TOTAL 76 76
The researcher will use a researcher-made questionnaire divided into two parts.
Part I will focus on the extent of media exposure of Grade 11 students in terms of online
reading resources; print materials; videos and television; and social media/networking sites
whereas part II will determine the students level of language proficiency in terms of grammar,
vocabulary and comprehension skills. The study will use a 5-point Likert Scaling Technique.
Validity of the Research Instrument
To guarantee the validity of the research instrument to be used in this
study, three (3) Secondary Teachers who are experts in the field of English will
evaluate and validate the survey forms and language proficiency test prior to the
administration of the instrument.
Reliability of the Research Instrument
The reliability of the instrument will be tested through the use of test-retest
method. The test-retest will be properly administered to 10 Grade 11 students of a
non-respondent school with ten (10) days interval. The said students are not
included in this study. After the test-retest, the results will be analyzed through the
use of Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation of the Pearson’s r.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The study will use the descriptive and inferential statistics in analyzing the results.
The statistical tools that will be included are the following:
Weighted mean. This will be used to determine the average score of the students with
regards to the Extent of Media Exposure of Grade 11 Students
To test the hypotheses of the study, Pearson’s r Product Moment Correlation
Coefficient will be used by the researcher. Person’s r- this will be used to determine the
significant relationship of the two variables: