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Rosenwald Schools of Palm Beach County, Florida

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The history of the Julius Rosenwald school building fund and the eleven schools in Palm Beach County Florida. Presentation created by Janet M. DeVries, MLIS for Palm Beach State College LLRC Lake Worth Campus in conjunction with Black History Month, February, 2016

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Rosenwald Schools of Palm Beach County, Florida

  1. 1. ; —- HAROLD C. MANOR -’ LIBRARY PALM BEACH STATE LAM Wom H COLLEGE PRESENTS The Rosenwald Schools of Palm Beach County ll r-o lmllllnlm vw Researched and Designed by Janet M. Devries, MI. IS Palm Beach State College LLRC, Lake Worth Campus lnrarmamn and omages mnnesy Llhtavy oi cmgaas, mstunal Soc-ew at Palm Beach coumy, Boymm seam Hssnncal Sooety, Delrav Beach msloncal sonny and H50: umveslty Aruwes
  2. 2. Introduction to Rosenwald Schools Early Education in Palm Beach County The landscape of schools for Black students in Palm Beach County began to change in the 19205. Until that time, little had been done in the name of formal education for Black students. when it came to building public schools and paying teachers to educate Black youngsters, separate and unequal heatment still reigned in the south. Though he was not the first white philanthropist to support the education of Blacks, Julius Rosenwald, the president of the Sears Roebuck Company propelled the effort to new heights. Rosenwald was the impetus that created better schools, longer school years and school libraries for southem Black children. Mr. Joseph Youngblood, who served as the first president of Palm Beach Junior College (now Palm Beach State College), was instrumental in petitioning for better schools for Black students. 1900 Black School 1929 Canal Point School Boynbon School Delray shop Better Schools Initiative Between 1925 and 1931, the Julius Rosenwald Foundation Fund provided money to erect 11 much-needed public schoolhouse: for Black children in Palm Beach County. The buildings ranged in cost from $2,491 to $17, 150 to erect. Though none of the original school buildings are still in existence today, the new schoolhouses provided not only a place for Black students to get an education, but the new structures provided space for community events and provided a haven for peace, order and cleanliness in their livs. The Rosenwald Foundation not only created permanent schoolhouses for Black children in Palm Beach County, the end result was a longer school year, more Black students attending high school, and a sense of pride and self—esteem for the Black community. When Palm Beach County schools integrated in the 19605, the Rosenwald schools were phased out and the schoolhouses replaced by newer school buildings. lnlnmlatlm and irrlaqes ouurtesy Nlsloncal sixiery of Palm seam County, Boynton Beach Nlswrlcal S0(Ii‘l’Y. Delray Beach rimoncal Society arid nsu University Anauves
  3. 3. Booker T. Washington Founding principal and teacher at Tuskegee Institute Booker Taliaferro Washington 1856-1915 Booker T. Washington, a freed slave, valued education and served as the founding principal of Tuskegee Institute. in addition to teacher training, the school taught students practical skills including construction and agriculture. As part of their work~study programs, students constructed most of the new buildings. Washington networked with wealthy American philanthropists who donated to the school, such as Andrew Carnegie, George Eastman, John D. Rockefeller and Julius Rosenwald. Washington encouraged Rosenwald to address the poor state of African- Amerlcan education in the US, which suffered from inadequate buildings and books. lniotmatmvi and images courtesy of the Litnary oi Congress
  4. 4. Julius Rosenwald Early 20th Century Philanthropist and President of Sears, Roebuck & Company Sears, Roebuck & Co. Chicago Mercantile Plant SEARS MUDERINI HOMES -) 3 / -2.“? ‘/ ‘~35-L}, ?§.4.-; _‘, '.' i ~» . ‘Pia -am? -ILLT. 'i_. i— i. __‘ . , , - a 1909 Sears, Roebuck & Co. Mail Order Catalog ‘ ’ Sears Mail Order Catalog Kit Hausa Julius Rosenwald 1862-1932 Booker T. Washington encouraged Rosenwald to help the poor state of African-American education in me US, which suffered from inadequate buildings and books. In 1912, on his 50'" birthday, Rosenwald donated $25,000 to the Tuskegee institute and Washington used the leftover $2,100 to build six small, rural schoolhouses. Rosenwald donated an additional $30,000 to Tuskegee to build 100 similar schools in rural Alabama. In 1917, Rosenwald created a fund but required communities to raise matching funds to encourage local collaboration between blacks and whites. Rosenwald and Washington stimulated the construction and operation of more than 5,000 small community schools and supporting resources for the education of blacks throughout the rural South into the 19305. iniovmation and images am. -tc-sy Rsk university Aumnvce
  5. 5. Community School Plans Initially designed by Tuskegee Architects and later S. L. Smith one-Teacher school Two-Teacher school Three-Teacher School The flrst published guidance for what came to be known as Rosenwald Schools came from Tuskegee institute. Professors R. R. Taylor, Director of the Department of Mechanical Industries, and w. A. Hazel, of the Division of Architecture created the designs, which were published in a 1915 as . In 1920, control of the school-building program shiited to the new Rosenwald Fund office in Nashville, where director S. L. Smith drew up a new set of designs. These first appeared in book fonn in 1924 as Qmmuniu xhml Plans and remained in print with revised editions into the 19405. The blueprints were carefully designed with specifications to allow the maximum amount of light and air into me classrooms. inlormouon and Imagls courlisy or Tuskegee lnsuiuic, Fsk unwus-xy Arm-vcs and me Nuboml ms: for mun: Picsmaauou
  6. 6. First Rosenwald School in Palm Beach County Boynton School Community School Plans for the Boynton School Boynton School The Boynton School. constructed in 1925-26 for 517,150, survived the devastating 1928 hurricane. Blanche Hearst Girtman, (shown left) taught classes at the Boynton School, also known as Boynton Colored School and later Porriclana School, for nearly three decades. The Boynton School, constructed according to the Tuskegee architect's blueprints for the Three Teacher Community School, only suffered $600 in damages from the 1928 hurricane. Most other schools in Palm Beach County were highly damaged or completely leveled by the storm. After the devastating hurricane, school oflicials and community leaders looked to the Rosenwald Fund school building program to help rebuild Palm Beach County schools. information and images coittesy of Fisk University Ardiives, Slate Archives of Fionda and the Boynton Beach Historical Society
  7. 7. Killer Hurricane Hits Palm Beach County September 9, 1928 Joseph Youngblood Superintendent of Palm Beach County Board of Public Instruction (leri) Youngblood and Smith Damage Survey Mission (right and below) Extensive Hurricane Damage After the 1928 Hurricane, Joseph Youngblood, Superintendent of Palm Beach County Schools, wrote to Mr. D. E. Williams, the State Agent for Negro Schools, and advised him that the powerful hurricane had damaged every school building in Palm Beach County and had totally demolished 33 buildings. Youngblood and Mr. S. L. Smith, the head of the Rosenwald Rural School Building Fund toured the county surveying the extent of the damages to Palm Beach County Schools. Photos of damage ho Palm Beach County Negro Schools taken by Youngblood and Smith Information and imag€S courtesy oi risk Urliverslly Amiives, State Archives ol nnnaa am Palm Beach Sm». College Archives
  8. 8. Glades Area Schools Constructed after the Hurricane of 1928 Belle Glade Pahfikefi 500th 33V Canal Point 1923.29 1928-29 1928-29 1923.29 Two-Teacher Design FOUPTEBCNEF Design TW0*TE8Ch€| ’ D6519” Three—Teacher Design $5,105 $7,950 $4.597 $5,625 Four of the eleven Rosenwald Schools were constructed in the Glades after the 1928 Hurricane. The schools ranged in price from $4,597 for a TwcrTeacher design to $7,950 for a Four—Teacher design. The Rosenwald Fund contributed between $500 and $1,000 for each school, with the rest of the money funded by the Board of Public Instruction and donations from community members. The school in Canal Point had a Rosenwald funded library and the school in South Bay still bears the name Rosenwald. Information and Imagts counesy 0! pg University Archives
  9. 9. Shop at Delray School Constructed after the Hurricane of 1928 The Delray Shop building was the first of two shop facilities erected in Palm Beach County and was funded with aid from the Rosenwald Foundation. The shop, constructed at a cost of $8,462, helped students to develop and refine building and carpentry skills. The building complimented the Delray County Industrial School (1917) which provided agriculture training. On dwe recommendation of Dr. Booker T. Washington, Solomon Spady, a former student of Dr. George Washington Carver at Tuskegee Institute, came to Florida and served as teacher and principal of the Delray School. information and images Counfly of mi: Duray Beach Nislovical Society, State Archives at Florida and Fisk UlllIL"9ly' Archives
  10. 10. The 11 Rosenwald Schools of Palm Beach County Constructed Between 1925 and 1932 Schools in order of Rosenwald Fund Application 1.Boynton 2.Ke| sey City 3.Boca Raton 4.Shop at Delray 5.South Bay 6.Shop at Industrial 7.Jupiter 8.Pahokee 9.Beile Glade 10.Cana| Point 11.lndustriai High lnlormouon and iiiiagcs COI. irli. Sy oi the Ddiay B0301 Nislblicfll SOCICIV, Slate Ardlivts al Florida and Fi: '~k Lmivwyly AICIWBS
  11. 11. How Many Schools did Rosenwald Fund? THE JULIUS ROSENWALD FUND SCHOOLHOUSE CONSTRUCIION MAP 5357 BUILDINGS ‘ ‘H’ ‘ JULY I. I932. By 1932, Rosenwald had stimulated the funding of 5,357 public schoolhouses in the American rural south totaling over 17 million dollars. The chief contribution of the fund was seed money for the schools, encouraging states and counties, and blacks and whites to work together toward the betterment of public schools and education for all people. lnlormaziori and images roiirtesy Di the Julius Rosenwald Film
  12. 12. For more information on the Rosenwald Schools Books and Movies “i'i“ '-r ‘N'. _r9 , ' ~‘~*‘. ’i'i, ii "__. (Z; .‘ll_"_. _' _, ,‘_g l{n5~i . 'l ii