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Basic facts of islam

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overarching ppt presentation on Islam, basic facts of Islam and islamism

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Basic facts of islam

  1. 1. COL.COL. ENGR.ENGR. JANOSJANOS TOMOLYATOMOLYA PhDPhD
  2. 2. Basic Facts ofBasic Facts of IslamIslam Islam is theIslam is the thirdthird in successionin succession of the three great monotheisticof the three great monotheistic faiths born in the Middle East (Judaism,faiths born in the Middle East (Judaism, Christianity, Islam)Christianity, Islam)  Islam is theIslam is the secondsecond largest religion in worldlargest religion in world (1.2 billion adherents)(1.2 billion adherents)  Islam is theIslam is the fastestfastest growing religion in thegrowing religion in the worldworld
  3. 3.   Muslims believe that the Qu'ran is God's word as revealed to the prophet Muhammad (570- 632) through the angel Gabriel.  According to Islam, there are 25 prophet that sent by Allah;  Five major prophets: Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (he is the last prophet).  Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "one who submits to God" II.II. Basic Facts of IslamBasic Facts of Islam
  4. 4. The Prophet Muhammad • Born in Mecca in Arabia • Raised by merchants • Received a revelation from Allah (God) during the month of Ramadan • Tension between Muhammad’s monotheism and the polytheism of the people of Mecca
  5. 5. The Holy Quran • Muslims believe the Quran is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad • Written and read in Arabic
  6. 6. Spread of IslamSpread of Islam
  7. 7. The Islamic CaliphateThe Islamic Caliphate After the death of Muhammad, caliphs (leaders) controlled the Muslim world. Most famous caliphates: the Umayyad dynasty and the Abbasid dynasty. Umayyad capital city: Damascus (in Syria). Abbasid capital: Baghdad (in Iraq).
  8. 8. The Golden Age of IslamThe Golden Age of Islam (750-1258)(750-1258) Islam flourished as a religion during The Golden Age  The Golden Age took place during 750-1258 AD  It has now become the second largest religion in the world, after Christianity  Many people turned to Islam due to its solid belief system  Islam spread wide and fast across the world and soon became a major religion
  9. 9. Sunni-ShiaSunni-Shia  Islam has many denominations but the largest and most well known are the Sunni and Shia  Sunni is the largest sect of Islam.  Sunni is about 80% of all Muslims).  Sunni is the traditional path of the religion  Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the right successors to Muhammad and that a caliph should be chosen by all the community
  10. 10. ShiaShia  Shia is about 10-20% of Islam  It is the second largest branch of the religion  They believe in the political and religious leadership of Imam  They believe that a caliph is appointed by divine will  There are also many branches that pertain to Shia Islam  The most famous is the Twelvers who follow a tradition called Ja'fari jurisprudence.
  11. 11. Short Timeline of IslamShort Timeline of Islam  c. 570 CE Birth of Muhammad.  c. 610 CE Muhammad receives first vision in a cave near Mecca.  c. 610-22 CE Muhammad preaches in Mecca.  622 CE Hijira - Muhammad and followers flee to Medina.  624 CE Muslims successfully attack Meccan caravans at Badr.  625 Muslims are defeated by Meccans at Uhud.  630 Muslims capture Mecca. Ka'ba is cleansed, pilgrimage rites are Islamicized, tribes of Arabia vow allegiance to Muhammad  632 Death of Muhammad. Abu Bakr chosen as caliph.  680 Death of Husayn marks beginning of the Shi'at Ali ("party of Ali") or Shi'a sect.
  12. 12. The Muslim World • Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites • Most Muslims are Sunnis • Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
  13. 13. Islam and WomenIslam and Women  Women dress modestly out of reverence forWomen dress modestly out of reverence for God, not for men. Muslim women are not moreGod, not for men. Muslim women are not more submissive than other women. Some arguesubmissive than other women. Some argue that Muslim women, in fact, have been treatedthat Muslim women, in fact, have been treated better than women in other cultures. Forbetter than women in other cultures. For example, women in Islam were given the rightexample, women in Islam were given the right to vote about 1,400 years ago, centuries beforeto vote about 1,400 years ago, centuries before other women. Of course, like many otherother women. Of course, like many other cultures, patriarchal culture can corrupt Muslimcultures, patriarchal culture can corrupt Muslim culture.culture.
  14. 14. Islam TermsIslam Terms  Islam:Islam: an Arabic word that means “submittingan Arabic word that means “submitting to God” and “peace”to God” and “peace”  Muslim:Muslim: a person who follows the teachings ofa person who follows the teachings of Islam and “submits to God and finds peace inIslam and “submits to God and finds peace in Him”. All creation is Muslim.Him”. All creation is Muslim.  Shahadah:Shahadah: ““There is no god but God andThere is no god but God and Muhammad is the Messenger of GodMuhammad is the Messenger of God”.”.  Allah:Allah: Arabic name for God. It is preferredArabic name for God. It is preferred over other names because it has no genderover other names because it has no gender affiliation and does not have pluralityaffiliation and does not have plurality
  15. 15. Understanding IslamUnderstanding Islam  Islam is aIslam is a rationalrational religion:religion: ““The vilest of creatures are thoseThe vilest of creatures are those who choose to be deaf andwho choose to be deaf and dumb and do not use theirdumb and do not use their reason.reason.” (Qur’an 8:2)” (Qur’an 8:2)  Muhammad reminded hisMuhammad reminded his followers that “followers that “The first thing GodThe first thing God created was reasoncreated was reason”. Therefore,”. Therefore, believers must takebelievers must take personalpersonal responsibilityresponsibility for one’s actionsfor one’s actions and faith.and faith.
  16. 16. Freedom of ConscienceFreedom of Conscience  ““There is no compulsion in religion. TruthThere is no compulsion in religion. Truth stands out clearly from falsehood;stands out clearly from falsehood; whoever rejects evil and believes in Godwhoever rejects evil and believes in God has grasped the strongest rope that neverhas grasped the strongest rope that never breaks. And God is All Hearing and Allbreaks. And God is All Hearing and All Knowing”Knowing” Qur’an 2:256Qur’an 2:256
  17. 17. BeliefsBeliefs 1.1. Belief in only One GodBelief in only One God.. He is defined as Eternal, Absolute,He is defined as Eternal, Absolute, Infinite, Compassionate and Merciful, the sole Creator andInfinite, Compassionate and Merciful, the sole Creator and Provider.Provider. 2.2. Engage only in Righteous ActionsEngage only in Righteous Actions in all areas: spiritual,in all areas: spiritual, intellectual and physical activity.intellectual and physical activity. 3.3. All God’s creation is “Muslim”.All God’s creation is “Muslim”. Only humans are givenOnly humans are given CHOICE to submit (be Muslim) or reject submission to God’s will.CHOICE to submit (be Muslim) or reject submission to God’s will. 4.4. All children are born without sin and are MuslimAll children are born without sin and are Muslim. As they. As they grow older, they make their religious CHOICE.grow older, they make their religious CHOICE. 5.5. God created human beings with a body and soul.God created human beings with a body and soul. TheThe body is a temporal host for this life, whereas the soul is eternal. Itbody is a temporal host for this life, whereas the soul is eternal. It is the soul that will survive beyond death.is the soul that will survive beyond death. 6.6. Universality of the call.Universality of the call. All Muslims are brothers and equalsAll Muslims are brothers and equals without any distinction of class, race or tongue. Superiority is onlywithout any distinction of class, race or tongue. Superiority is only based on the greater fear of God and greater piety.based on the greater fear of God and greater piety.
  18. 18. PracticesPractices PrayerPrayer  worshippers line up in rows andworshippers line up in rows and enact ritual in unison (prostration)enact ritual in unison (prostration)  Friday midday prayers at mosqueFriday midday prayers at mosque FastingFasting  month of Ramadan (ninth month of lunarmonth of Ramadan (ninth month of lunar year) to test the spirit, discipline the willyear) to test the spirit, discipline the will and remind of the hungry and poorand remind of the hungry and poor  Numerous important events took placeNumerous important events took place during Ramadan (first revelation in 610 CE,during Ramadan (first revelation in 610 CE, flight to Mecca in 622 CE, victory in 624flight to Mecca in 622 CE, victory in 624 CE)CE)  Ramadan ends with Eid al-Fitr (period ofRamadan ends with Eid al-Fitr (period of spiritual and moral renewal)spiritual and moral renewal)
  19. 19. MosqueMosque  Muslim place of worship MuslimsMuslim place of worship Muslims come together in a mosque for prayerscome together in a mosque for prayers at midday on Friday (Muslim Holy Day)at midday on Friday (Muslim Holy Day)  MIHRABMIHRAB= small arch or hole in wall= small arch or hole in wall indicates the direction of the Ka’bah inindicates the direction of the Ka’bah in MeccaMecca  MINARETMINARET= high tower or dome from= high tower or dome from which a muezzin calls the faithful towhich a muezzin calls the faithful to prayerprayer  WUDUWUDU= cleansing process before= cleansing process before prayer (water)prayer (water)  IMAMIMAM= chief officer in the mosque who= chief officer in the mosque who leads prayersleads prayers
  20. 20. PROPHET’S MOSQUE in Madinah: the first mosque in Islam
  21. 21. QuranQuran  Holy book of Islam which means “Holy book of Islam which means “recitationrecitation””  Records the revealed word of God that came throughRecords the revealed word of God that came through Angel Gabriel to Muhammad over 23 yearsAngel Gabriel to Muhammad over 23 years  Muhammad dictated revelations to scribes andMuhammad dictated revelations to scribes and companions whocompanions who memorizedmemorized passagespassages  It is the only revealed book that hasIt is the only revealed book that has remained intact andremained intact and unchangedunchanged since its revelation (oral tradition)since its revelation (oral tradition)  Principle source of Muslim faith and practicePrinciple source of Muslim faith and practice  Children learn toChildren learn to memorizememorize the Qur’an as a childthe Qur’an as a child  Divided into 114Divided into 114 surassuras (chapters); longest chapter has 286(chapters); longest chapter has 286 verses, the shortest has 3 verses; approximately 78 000verses, the shortest has 3 verses; approximately 78 000 words in lengthwords in length
  22. 22. al-Fatihah (The Opening)al-Fatihah (The Opening) Qur’an 1: 1-7Qur’an 1: 1-7 ““In the name of Allah, Most Gracious MostIn the name of Allah, Most Gracious Most Merciful. Praise be to Allah, the CherisherMerciful. Praise be to Allah, the Cherisher and Sustainer of the Worlds. Mostand Sustainer of the Worlds. Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Master of theGracious, Most Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgment. Thee do we worshipDay of Judgment. Thee do we worship and Thine aid we seek: Show us theand Thine aid we seek: Show us the straight way. The way of those on whomstraight way. The way of those on whom Thou hast bestowed Thy Grace, thoseThou hast bestowed Thy Grace, those whose portion is not wrath and who go notwhose portion is not wrath and who go not astray.”astray.”
  23. 23. TheThe KabahKabah  KabahKabah- cube shaped- cube shaped building that was built bybuilding that was built by Abraham to honour GodAbraham to honour God  Viewed as Adam’sViewed as Adam’s original place of worshiporiginal place of worship  Was filled with idols asWas filled with idols as people in Arabia followedpeople in Arabia followed polytheismpolytheism  Muhammad- receivedMuhammad- received revelations that led torevelations that led to Islam and monotheismIslam and monotheism (and removal of idols)(and removal of idols)  Site ofSite of hajjhajj- pilgrimage to- pilgrimage to MeccaMecca
  24. 24. MuhammadMuhammad  SEAL of the Prophets (last in a line of 28SEAL of the Prophets (last in a line of 28 Prophets who all preached the religion of Islam)Prophets who all preached the religion of Islam)  Born in 570 CEBorn in 570 CE  Each succeeding Prophet added or improved upon theEach succeeding Prophet added or improved upon the cumulative message of Islamcumulative message of Islam  Through Muhammand (PBUH), the message of Islam wasThrough Muhammand (PBUH), the message of Islam was completed and is preserved intact in the Qur’ancompleted and is preserved intact in the Qur’an  In 622 CE, hijrah (migration) where Muhammad movedIn 622 CE, hijrah (migration) where Muhammad moved from Mecca to Madinah (marks the beginning of thefrom Mecca to Madinah (marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar)Muslim calendar)  Islam spread to Arabia, Spain and as far East as ChinaIslam spread to Arabia, Spain and as far East as China
  25. 25. Other ProphetsOther Prophets  These Prophets are regarded asThese Prophets are regarded as most significant:most significant: Muhammad,Muhammad, Moses, Abraham and NoahMoses, Abraham and Noah  JesusJesus is highly respected andis highly respected and considered as a great prophet byconsidered as a great prophet by MuslimsMuslims  Qur’an re-affirms the miraculousQur’an re-affirms the miraculous birth and abilities of Jesusbirth and abilities of Jesus  Muslims believe in the SecondMuslims believe in the Second Coming of Jesus before the endComing of Jesus before the end of timeof time
  26. 26. Human EqualityHuman Equality  ““O humankind! You were created from a singleO humankind! You were created from a single soul, male and female, and made you intosoul, male and female, and made you into peoples and tribes. So that you may know onepeoples and tribes. So that you may know one another. Truly, the most honored of you inanother. Truly, the most honored of you in God’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. GodGod’s sight is the greatest of you in piety. God is All Knowing, All Aware”is All Knowing, All Aware” (Qur’an 49:13)(Qur’an 49:13)
  27. 27. Islam and WarIslam and War  Like Christianity, Islam permitsLike Christianity, Islam permits fighting in self defense, in defensefighting in self defense, in defense of religion, or on the part of those who have beenof religion, or on the part of those who have been expelled forcibly from their homesexpelled forcibly from their homes  Strict rules for combat, which includes prohibitionsStrict rules for combat, which includes prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroyingagainst harming civilians and against destroying crops, trees and livestockcrops, trees and livestock  ““Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you,Fight in the cause of God against those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not lovebut do not transgress limits. God does not love transgressors” (Qur’an 2:190)transgressors” (Qur’an 2:190)  ““And fight them unitl persecution is no more, andAnd fight them unitl persecution is no more, and religion is for God. But if they desist, then let there bereligion is for God. But if they desist, then let there be no hosility excpet against wrongdoers” (Qur’an 2:193)no hosility excpet against wrongdoers” (Qur’an 2:193)
  28. 28. Day ofDay of JudgmentJudgment  All humans will be bodilyAll humans will be bodily resurrected and assembledresurrected and assembled for final accounting of deedsfor final accounting of deeds  Soul will move on to afterlifeSoul will move on to afterlife  Upon theUpon the Final JudgmentFinal Judgment = world will end and= world will end and we will stand before God to confront our own lifewe will stand before God to confront our own life and actionsand actions  Desire for purified soul=Desire for purified soul= heavenheaven (eternal abode(eternal abode of beauty and majesty)of beauty and majesty)  Disbelievers and unpure soul=Disbelievers and unpure soul= hellhell (abode of(abode of great torment and anguish)great torment and anguish)
  29. 29. JihadJihad  Jihad does not mean “holy war”Jihad does not mean “holy war”  Literally, jihad means toLiterally, jihad means to strive, struggle andstrive, struggle and exert effort.exert effort.  Concept includes struggle against evilConcept includes struggle against evil inclinations within oneself, struggle to improveinclinations within oneself, struggle to improve quality of life in society, struggle in the battlefieldquality of life in society, struggle in the battlefield for self defense or fighting against tyranny orfor self defense or fighting against tyranny or oppressionoppression  There is no such thing as “holy war” in Islam, butThere is no such thing as “holy war” in Islam, but it is the frequent repetition in the West that manyit is the frequent repetition in the West that many people accept it as if it were a factpeople accept it as if it were a fact
  30. 30. Women’s RightsWomen’s Rights  According to Quran, men and women are equal beforeAccording to Quran, men and women are equal before GodGod  Under Islamic law, women have the right to ownUnder Islamic law, women have the right to own property, receive an education and take part inproperty, receive an education and take part in community lifecommunity life  Islamic rules for simple, modest and dignified dressIslamic rules for simple, modest and dignified dress applies to women and men equallyapplies to women and men equally  In many Muslim countries there are cultural practicesIn many Muslim countries there are cultural practices that are inconsistent and contrary to the authenticthat are inconsistent and contrary to the authentic teachings of Islamteachings of Islam
  31. 31. Honor killing- deeply rooted inHonor killing- deeply rooted in Islamic cultureIslamic culture  Victim of rape isVictim of rape is killed…women’s faultkilled…women’s fault for beingfor being raped….thus, coverraped….thus, cover  Jordan, article 340 ofJordan, article 340 of the criminal codethe criminal code does not penalizedoes not penalize murder of womenmurder of women
  32. 32. Islam: ControversialIslam: Controversial IssuesIssues  Right to punish womenRight to punish women  PolygamyPolygamy  Jihad vs. Holy WarJihad vs. Holy War  Hijab : liberation or suppressionHijab : liberation or suppression  Muhammad Cartoons: freedom of speech vsMuhammad Cartoons: freedom of speech vs freedom of religionfreedom of religion  Appeal of Suicide BombersAppeal of Suicide Bombers  Afghanistan's TalibanAfghanistan's Taliban  War on IslamWar on Islam
  33. 33.  In the Islamic way of thinking religion is related toIn the Islamic way of thinking religion is related to politics - but this does not mean man does not needpolitics - but this does not mean man does not need the rationality of modern sciencethe rationality of modern science  Instead, it means that a devoted religious manInstead, it means that a devoted religious man should try to co-ordinate his political reactions withshould try to co-ordinate his political reactions with his religious values.his religious values.  DR MOHSEN KADIVAR, Iranian clericDR MOHSEN KADIVAR, Iranian cleric Role of Islam in SocietyRole of Islam in Society
  34. 34.  ““In the Islamic system of values and from the point ofIn the Islamic system of values and from the point of view of Muslim fundamentalists, religion cannot beview of Muslim fundamentalists, religion cannot be separated from any aspect of life.”separated from any aspect of life.”  ““Religion is omnipresent in every aspect of a MuslimReligion is omnipresent in every aspect of a Muslim individual's private and social life from the economy toindividual's private and social life from the economy to social relations.”social relations.”  ““What does harm to the society is not religion - it is theWhat does harm to the society is not religion - it is the way in which some of the rulers take advantage ofway in which some of the rulers take advantage of religion”religion” DR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian clericDR MEHDI KHAZALI, Iranian cleric Role of Islam in SocietyRole of Islam in Society
  35. 35. 5252 Terrorism and The MuslimTerrorism and The Muslim BrotherhoodBrotherhood – ““God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader,God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Quran our constitution, jihad our way andthe Quran our constitution, jihad our way and dying for God’s cause our supreme objective.”dying for God’s cause our supreme objective.” Hassan al-Banna founder of the MuslimHassan al-Banna founder of the Muslim BrotherhoodBrotherhood www.muslimbrotherhoodterrorism.webs.com
  36. 36. 5353 Merging the Taliban and Al QaedaMerging the Taliban and Al Qaeda  In the early 1980s, Mustafa Abu al-Yazid served threeIn the early 1980s, Mustafa Abu al-Yazid served three years in an Egyptian prison for links to the groupyears in an Egyptian prison for links to the group responsible for the 1981 assassination of Egyptianresponsible for the 1981 assassination of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (the Muslim Brotherhood).President Anwar Sadat (the Muslim Brotherhood). After his release, Yazid went to Afghanistan, andAfter his release, Yazid went to Afghanistan, and became a founding member of Al Qaeda.became a founding member of Al Qaeda.  He followed bin Laden to Sudan and back toHe followed bin Laden to Sudan and back to Afghanistan, where he served as al Qaeda's chiefAfghanistan, where he served as al Qaeda's chief financial officer, managing secret bank accounts in thefinancial officer, managing secret bank accounts in the Persian Gulf that were used to finance the Sept. 11Persian Gulf that were used to finance the Sept. 11 attacks.attacks.  After the U.S. and its allies invaded Afghanistan inAfter the U.S. and its allies invaded Afghanistan in 2001, Yazid went into hiding for years. He surfaced in2001, Yazid went into hiding for years. He surfaced in May 2007 during a 45-minute interview posted on theMay 2007 during a 45-minute interview posted on the Web by al Sabah, in which he was introduced as theWeb by al Sabah, in which he was introduced as the ``official in charge'' of the terrorist movement's``official in charge'' of the terrorist movement's operations in Afghanistan.operations in Afghanistan.  Mustafa Abu al-Yazid, the terror leader who earlier thisMustafa Abu al-Yazid, the terror leader who earlier this year said he would use nukes on America if he couldyear said he would use nukes on America if he could only get his hands on some.only get his hands on some.
  37. 37. 5454 Muslim Brotherhood Organizations Islamic Jihad, Al-Gama’a al Islamiya, Jihad Talaat al-Fath Hamas Al Qaeda Hezbollah Jamaat-e-Islami Islamic Salvation Front, Armed Islamic Group Hizballah Al-Hijaz National Islamic Front Jemaah Islamiyah
  38. 38. 5555 Radical Muslim Terror Attacks in EuropeRadical Muslim Terror Attacks in Europe  Mar. 2004 Madrid train bombings by an al-Qaeda-inspiredMar. 2004 Madrid train bombings by an al-Qaeda-inspired terrorist cell, three days before Spain's general elections. 191terrorist cell, three days before Spain's general elections. 191 killed; 1,755 wounded.killed; 1,755 wounded.  Nov. 2004 – Dutch film-maker Theo van Gogh is murdered byNov. 2004 – Dutch film-maker Theo van Gogh is murdered by Islamic extremist Mohammed Bouyeri, a Dutch citizen.Islamic extremist Mohammed Bouyeri, a Dutch citizen.  July 2005 - 52 people died in the London bombings carried outJuly 2005 - 52 people died in the London bombings carried out by four British Muslims.by four British Muslims.  Oct. 2005 - More than three weeks of rioting in France's mainlyOct. 2005 - More than three weeks of rioting in France's mainly Muslim suburbsMuslim suburbs  Jan. 2006 - Violent protests across Europe and Middle MastJan. 2006 - Violent protests across Europe and Middle Mast over publication by a Danish newspaper of cartoons of theover publication by a Danish newspaper of cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed.Prophet Mohammed.
  39. 39. 5656 Non-Assimilation in EuropeNon-Assimilation in Europe  FranceFrance – Oct. 2005 riots in Muslim suburb of Paris; continued– Oct. 2005 riots in Muslim suburb of Paris; continued concentration in poor suburbs of urban areas since 1980’sconcentration in poor suburbs of urban areas since 1980’s including Paris, Lille, Lyon, Marseilleincluding Paris, Lille, Lyon, Marseille  BritainBritain – Almost half the 1350 mosques are run by radical– Almost half the 1350 mosques are run by radical Deobandi sect that created the Taliban. A new generation ofDeobandi sect that created the Taliban. A new generation of British imams have a radical agenda: scorn for Muslims whoBritish imams have a radical agenda: scorn for Muslims who say they are British; preach friendship with a Jew or a Christiansay they are British; preach friendship with a Jew or a Christian makes “a mockery of Allah’s religion”. Seventeen of Britain’smakes “a mockery of Allah’s religion”. Seventeen of Britain’s 26 Islamic seminaries are run by Deobandis.26 Islamic seminaries are run by Deobandis.  NetherlandsNetherlands – Imams at 180 of 450 mosques have left; the– Imams at 180 of 450 mosques have left; the vacuum is being filled by unqualified, radical preachers. Onevacuum is being filled by unqualified, radical preachers. One million Muslims in Netherlands. Uproar over Nov. 2006 ban onmillion Muslims in Netherlands. Uproar over Nov. 2006 ban on burqas in public places.burqas in public places.
  40. 40. 5757 Oct. 16, 2009 Protesters rallied as anti-Islamic Dutch lawmaker Geert Wilders held a news conference in London. http://islamizationwatch.blogspot.com/
  41. 41. 5858 ShariaShariahh
  42. 42. 5959 Partial Assimilation in the U.S.Partial Assimilation in the U.S.  Roughly 5M Muslims in the U.S. accounting for aboutRoughly 5M Muslims in the U.S. accounting for about 1.6% of the U.S. population.1.6% of the U.S. population.  Largest segment is African-Americans (42% of U.S.Largest segment is African-Americans (42% of U.S. Muslims); followed by south Asians (24%), then ArabsMuslims); followed by south Asians (24%), then Arabs (12%). Other groups contribute 5% or less to the U.S.(12%). Other groups contribute 5% or less to the U.S. Muslim population.Muslim population.  Largest populations are in California (1M), New YorkLargest populations are in California (1M), New York (800K), Illinois (420K), and New Jersey (200K);(800K), Illinois (420K), and New Jersey (200K); Indiana, Michigan, Virginia, Texas and Ohio containIndiana, Michigan, Virginia, Texas and Ohio contain fewer than 200K each.fewer than 200K each.  The U.S. has 843 mosques and 165 Islamic schoolsThe U.S. has 843 mosques and 165 Islamic schools
  43. 43. Imam KhomeiniImam Khomeini "There is no room for play in Islam... It is deadly serious about everything." Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Speech at Qum, reported in Time magazine January 7, 1980
  44. 44. "The Vampires of the West and East all feeding on the Muslim Ummah." Revolutionary Art
  45. 45. Muslim clergy and soldiers clasp hands in friendship atop an armored personnel carrier.
  46. 46. Bernard Lewis: - Who did this to us? - Blaming the West vs. corrupt regimes vs. each other - Islam and liberal democracy - compatible? Communication Filters vis-à-vis West . . . Radical IslamRadical IslamAcross the globe, there are terrorists killing in the name of Islam, but a new study shows that al Qaeda attacks kill eight times more Muslims than non-Muslims.
  47. 47. The radical neo-fundamentalists view the action as more important than the result. Thus, individual jihad becomes more important than victory. The goal is to serve God, not to achieve a certain political agenda. The results will come when God wills it. - Magnus Norell Radical IslamRadical Islam
  48. 48. The Main Categories of Non-The Main Categories of Non- State Terrorist GroupsState Terrorist Groups  Ethno-nationalist separatist and irredentistEthno-nationalist separatist and irredentist groupsgroups  Secular left-wing groupsSecular left-wing groups  Secular right-wing groupsSecular right-wing groups  Religious terrorist groupsReligious terrorist groups  Single-issue groupsSingle-issue groups
  49. 49. Types Religious Terrorist GroupsTypes Religious Terrorist Groups Jihadist GroupsJihadist Groups Different Interest Integrating Groups(al –Qaida)Different Interest Integrating Groups(al –Qaida) State Sponsored Groups (Hezbollah)State Sponsored Groups (Hezbollah) Geographically fixed Groups (Hamas)Geographically fixed Groups (Hamas)
  50. 50. 1) Islamist terrorism; 2) Jewish fundamentalist terrorism, primarily inside Israel; 3) Christian terrorism, which can be further subdivided into fundamentalist terrorism of an Orthodox (mainly in Russia), Catholic, or Protestant stamp (which, in the U.S., is especially aimed at stopping the provision of abortions) and terrorism inspired by the idiosyncratic Christian Identity doctrine; 4) Hindu fundamentalist/nationalist terrorism; 5) Terrorism carried out by apocalyptic religious cults. Types Religious Terrorist GroupsTypes Religious Terrorist Groups IIII
  51. 51. Distribution of MuslimDistribution of Muslim populationpopulation  MuszlimMuszlim SzunnitaSzunnita SíitaSíita VahabitaVahabita SzikhSzikh BaháiBahái  1198,2 MILLIONS*1198,2 MILLIONS* 952,4952,4 111,8111,8 108,0108,0 20,020,0 6,06,0  ** ROSTOVÁNYI ZS.: Mit kell tudni azROSTOVÁNYI ZS.: Mit kell tudni az iszlámról? Kossuth Könyvkiadó,iszlámról? Kossuth Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1983., p. 239.Budapest, 1983., p. 239.
  52. 52. The Religions of the WorldThe Religions of the World
  53. 53. Al Qaida and affiliated groups Salafi-jihad ideologySalafi-jihad ideology Muslims Islamist s Salafis Jihadis
  54. 54. IslamIslam byby countrycountry
  55. 55. The Global CaliphateThe Global Caliphate  The Taliban and Al Qaeda in AfghanistanThe Taliban and Al Qaeda in Afghanistan 20092009  The Global CaliphateThe Global Caliphate  Why Islamic Radicals Hate the U.S. andWhy Islamic Radicals Hate the U.S. and the Westthe West  Non-assimilation in EuropeNon-assimilation in Europe  Partial Assimilation in the U.S.Partial Assimilation in the U.S.  What Islam is NotWhat Islam is Not
  56. 56. What Islam is Not http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JBeQYUce88
  57. 57. The Arab SpringThe Arab Spring  Al Qaeda in IraqAl Qaeda in Iraq  TunisiaTunisia  EgyptEgypt  LibyaLibya  BahrainBahrain  YemenYemen  Syria is DifferentSyria is Different  Mali and AQIMMali and AQIM
  58. 58. 7979 Al Qaeda in IraqAl Qaeda in Iraq 2003 - Al Qaeda in Iraq draws on Sunni Baathists to form an2003 - Al Qaeda in Iraq draws on Sunni Baathists to form an insurgency, supported by Iran.insurgency, supported by Iran. – Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) is 90% Iraqi membership however the leadershipAl Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) is 90% Iraqi membership however the leadership and suicide bombers are 90% foreign fighters.and suicide bombers are 90% foreign fighters. • Originally led by Jordanian, Abu Musab alOriginally led by Jordanian, Abu Musab al Zarqawi, who targeted Shia to provoke a Shia-Zarqawi, who targeted Shia to provoke a Shia- Sunni civil war.Sunni civil war. – Aug 03 bomb killed 85 Shia in Najaf; Mar 04 attacks Shia mosques duringAug 03 bomb killed 85 Shia in Najaf; Mar 04 attacks Shia mosques during Ashura, killing over 180; Feb 06 destroyed Shia Mosque in SamarraAshura, killing over 180; Feb 06 destroyed Shia Mosque in Samarra  June 2006 killed by U.S. forces; succeeded by Abu Ayyub al-Masri,June 2006 killed by U.S. forces; succeeded by Abu Ayyub al-Masri, an Egyptianan Egyptian Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
  59. 59. 8080 Al Qaeda in IraqAl Qaeda in Iraq  AQI recruits Sunnis and uses violence to terrorizeAQI recruits Sunnis and uses violence to terrorize Sunnis into participation.Sunnis into participation.  By 2006 AQI was so unpopular their continuedBy 2006 AQI was so unpopular their continued presence relied on continuous violence against theirpresence relied on continuous violence against their hosts.hosts.  AQI tried to solidify its position in Anbar by marryingAQI tried to solidify its position in Anbar by marrying some of its senior leaders to the daughters of Anbarisome of its senior leaders to the daughters of Anbari tribal leaders, as al Qaeda has done in South Asia.tribal leaders, as al Qaeda has done in South Asia. The sheikhs resisted; AQI attacked them and theirThe sheikhs resisted; AQI attacked them and their families.families.  AQI operations in Anbar were broken by sustainedAQI operations in Anbar were broken by sustained operations by Iraqi security forces assisting theoperations by Iraqi security forces assisting the coalition surge and commitment to remain in thecoalition surge and commitment to remain in the province after clearing AQI leaders to prevent theirprovince after clearing AQI leaders to prevent their
  60. 60. 8181 Close confidant of Ayman al Zawahiri; a memberClose confidant of Ayman al Zawahiri; a member of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the group that foldedof Egyptian Islamic Jihad, the group that folded into al Qaeda under Zawahiri’s leadership.into al Qaeda under Zawahiri’s leadership. 2002 - Entered Iraq prior to US invasion,2002 - Entered Iraq prior to US invasion, established the first terror cell in Baghdad.established the first terror cell in Baghdad. Experienced bomb maker; built car bombs andExperienced bomb maker; built car bombs and trained al Qaeda operatives.trained al Qaeda operatives. Attempted to unite disparate Sunni insurgentAttempted to unite disparate Sunni insurgent groupsgroups Oct 2006 - Al Qaeda established “Islamic State ofOct 2006 - Al Qaeda established “Islamic State of Iraq”Iraq” April 2010 killed by American and Iraqi forces nearApril 2010 killed by American and Iraqi forces near TikritTikrit Abu Ayyub al-MasriAbu Ayyub al-Masri Abu Ayyub al-Masri
  61. 61. 8282 The “Awakening People”The “Awakening People”  9/17/08 Dexter Filkins, NYTimes reporter and author of "Forever War"9/17/08 Dexter Filkins, NYTimes reporter and author of "Forever War" interviewed 9/17/08 on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition program.interviewed 9/17/08 on National Public Radio’s Morning Edition program.  Gen. Odierno (who relieved Gen. David Petraeus as Commanding General ofGen. Odierno (who relieved Gen. David Petraeus as Commanding General of Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I)) commented that al Qaeda drove carMulti-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I)) commented that al Qaeda drove car bombs into Shia mosques, and Shia militias would then retaliate in Sunnibombs into Shia mosques, and Shia militias would then retaliate in Sunni neighborhoods. When the Sunni turned on al Qaeda the cycle was broken.neighborhoods. When the Sunni turned on al Qaeda the cycle was broken.  The “awakening people” had been insurgents; then placed on the US payroll,The “awakening people” had been insurgents; then placed on the US payroll, about $500/mo. They wiped out much of the al Qaeda leadership in Iraq.about $500/mo. They wiped out much of the al Qaeda leadership in Iraq. The more moderate Iraqi insurgents turned on the fanatic al Qaeda leadersThe more moderate Iraqi insurgents turned on the fanatic al Qaeda leaders who were not capable of change and were killing Shia and keeping the civilwho were not capable of change and were killing Shia and keeping the civil war alive. A Sunni sheikh told Filkins that in six weeks they killed 466 alwar alive. A Sunni sheikh told Filkins that in six weeks they killed 466 al Qaeda leaders in his area, and he was very pleased with this. "We have aQaeda leaders in his area, and he was very pleased with this. "We have a list“ said the sheikh.list“ said the sheikh.  Filkins recounts how Baghdad has changed since 2003: neighborhoodsFilkins recounts how Baghdad has changed since 2003: neighborhoods where Americans couldn't even go in 2003 are now safe for Americans to gowhere Americans couldn't even go in 2003 are now safe for Americans to go jogging, as Filkins did. "Now women are walking around alone, which wasjogging, as Filkins did. "Now women are walking around alone, which was unheard of. They were wearing jeans and not covering their heads. It wasunheard of. They were wearing jeans and not covering their heads. It was completely normal."completely normal."  Reference:Reference: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94668565http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=94668565
  62. 62. 8383
  63. 63. TunisiaTunisia  Dec 2010 – 26-year-old vendorDec 2010 – 26-year-old vendor Mohamed Bouazizi immolatesMohamed Bouazizi immolates himself after police confiscatehimself after police confiscate his fruit and vegetable carthis fruit and vegetable cart because he lacks a permit;because he lacks a permit; protests and then riots followprotests and then riots follow  Jan 2011 - Pres. Zine El AbidineJan 2011 - Pres. Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees to Saudi ArabiaBen Ali flees to Saudi Arabia ending more than 20 years ofending more than 20 years of dictatorshipdictatorship  Oct 2011 – Islamic partyOct 2011 – Islamic party Ennahda wins first electionsEnnahda wins first elections 8484
  64. 64. EgyptEgypt  Jan 2011 protest erupt in Cairo’s Tahrir squareJan 2011 protest erupt in Cairo’s Tahrir square  Feb 2011 Pres. Hasni Mubarak steps down after nearly 30 years in power.Feb 2011 Pres. Hasni Mubarak steps down after nearly 30 years in power. The Muslim Brotherhood is the major opposition to the governmentThe Muslim Brotherhood is the major opposition to the government  Aug 2011 – Mubarak goes on trialAug 2011 – Mubarak goes on trial  Oct 2011 – Coptic Christians protest destruction of a church by Islamists;Oct 2011 – Coptic Christians protest destruction of a church by Islamists; Army attacks protesters with tanks, killing 27Army attacks protesters with tanks, killing 27  Nov 2011 – Muslim Brotherhood elected to a majority of seatsNov 2011 – Muslim Brotherhood elected to a majority of seats  June 2012 – Mohammed Morsi of Muslim Brotherhood elected president;June 2012 – Mohammed Morsi of Muslim Brotherhood elected president; Mubarek sentenced to life in prisonMubarek sentenced to life in prison  Nov 2012 – Protests against Morsi’s draft constitution giving him unlimitedNov 2012 – Protests against Morsi’s draft constitution giving him unlimited power including legislation without judicial oversight; drafted by Muslimpower including legislation without judicial oversight; drafted by Muslim Brotherhood and Salafist allies, it could allow clerics to intervene inBrotherhood and Salafist allies, it could allow clerics to intervene in lawmaking and leave minority groups without proper legal protectionlawmaking and leave minority groups without proper legal protection  Dec 2012 – Morsi signs new constitution into lawDec 2012 – Morsi signs new constitution into law 8585
  65. 65. LibyaLibya  Feb 2011 – Protest begin in Benghazi afterFeb 2011 – Protest begin in Benghazi after the arrest of a human rights activistthe arrest of a human rights activist  Mar 2011 – UN authorizes a no-fly zone;Mar 2011 – UN authorizes a no-fly zone; NATO airstrikes beginNATO airstrikes begin  Aug 2011 – Rebels enter TripoliAug 2011 – Rebels enter Tripoli  Oct 2011 – Moammar Gadhafi killed byOct 2011 – Moammar Gadhafi killed by rebels in Sirterebels in Sirte  Sept 2012 – Al Qaeda in Islamic MahgrebSept 2012 – Al Qaeda in Islamic Mahgreb (AQIM), Al-Qaida affiliate “Imprisoned Omar(AQIM), Al-Qaida affiliate “Imprisoned Omar Abdul Rahman Brigades”, and AnsarAbdul Rahman Brigades”, and Ansar alShariah attack US consulate and CIAalShariah attack US consulate and CIA annes in Benghazi, killing Ambassadorannes in Benghazi, killing Ambassador Christopher Stevens, Information OfficerChristopher Stevens, Information Officer Sean Smith, embassy security personnelSean Smith, embassy security personnel Glen Doherty and Tyrone Woods, andGlen Doherty and Tyrone Woods, and injuring 10 othersinjuring 10 others 8686
  66. 66. BahrainBahrain  Jan - Feb 2011: weeks of protests inJan - Feb 2011: weeks of protests in Bahrain are crushed by troops from SaudiBahrain are crushed by troops from Saudi ArabiaArabia  Nov 2011 – King Hamad bin Isa Al KhalifaNov 2011 – King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa promises reformspromises reforms 8787
  67. 67. YemenYemen  Feb 2011 – Protests in Yemen erupt then subsideFeb 2011 – Protests in Yemen erupt then subside when President Ali Abdullah Saleh pledges not towhen President Ali Abdullah Saleh pledges not to seek another termseek another term  June 2011 – Saleh injured in an explosion; goes toJune 2011 – Saleh injured in an explosion; goes to Saudi Arabia for treatment but does not relinquishSaudi Arabia for treatment but does not relinquish powerpower  Nov 2011 – Saleh steps down after 33 years; hisNov 2011 – Saleh steps down after 33 years; his relatives and associates continue to hold powerrelatives and associates continue to hold power  Feb 2012 – Saleh transfers powers to former viceFeb 2012 – Saleh transfers powers to former vice presidentpresident 8888
  68. 68. SyriaSyria  Muslim Brotherhood in Syria founded in the late 1930s. AfterMuslim Brotherhood in Syria founded in the late 1930s. After the 1963 coup brought the Ba'ath Party to power, it was bannedthe 1963 coup brought the Ba'ath Party to power, it was banned and became a resistance movement against Alawite Assadand became a resistance movement against Alawite Assad regime. Armed struggle climaxed in the Hama uprising of 1982regime. Armed struggle climaxed in the Hama uprising of 1982 - thousands killed by the military, and membership in the- thousands killed by the military, and membership in the Syrian Brotherhood became a capital offenceSyrian Brotherhood became a capital offence  March 2011 – protests erupt; the government of Bashar AssadMarch 2011 – protests erupt; the government of Bashar Assad immediately responds with troopsimmediately responds with troops  Feb 2012 – government attacks rebels in HomsFeb 2012 – government attacks rebels in Homs  July 2012 – government massacres 225 in Tremseh; rebelJuly 2012 – government massacres 225 in Tremseh; rebel bomb kills many of Assad’s top advisors; 200,000 refugeesbomb kills many of Assad’s top advisors; 200,000 refugees have fled Syriahave fled Syria  Increasingly Al Qaeda, Islamists, and Salafists from across theIncreasingly Al Qaeda, Islamists, and Salafists from across the Muslim world have swelled the ranks of rebel forces and call forMuslim world have swelled the ranks of rebel forces and call for sharia law and an Islamic republic to replace Assadsharia law and an Islamic republic to replace Assad8989
  69. 69. MaliMali  Mar 2012 military junior officers launch a coup inMar 2012 military junior officers launch a coup in protest to the government response to the rebel groupprotest to the government response to the rebel group National Movement for the Liberation of AzawadNational Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA)(MNLA)  Al Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM), active sinceAl Qaeda in the Islamic Magreb (AQIM), active since 2007 in Mali, allied with MNLA then drove them out of2007 in Mali, allied with MNLA then drove them out of northern Malinorthern Mali  AQIM, Ansar Dine, and Mauritanian offshoot of AQIMAQIM, Ansar Dine, and Mauritanian offshoot of AQIM called MUJAO (Movement for Unity and Jihad in Westcalled MUJAO (Movement for Unity and Jihad in West Africa), have imposed strict sharia law includingAfrica), have imposed strict sharia law including stonings, amputations, and floggings; kidnapped andstonings, amputations, and floggings; kidnapped and sometimes executed aid workers, businessmen, andsometimes executed aid workers, businessmen, and tourists; recruited and armed children as young as 12tourists; recruited and armed children as young as 12
  70. 70. Manhattan, Feb. 2006Manhattan, Feb. 2006
  71. 71. London, Feb. 2006London, Feb. 2006
  72. 72. Sharia Law Is Coming To EuropeSharia Law Is Coming To Europe  PolygamyPolygamy  StoningsStonings  Persecution of JewsPersecution of Jews  RapesRapes  Banning of national flagsBanning of national flags  No more piggy banks or baconNo more piggy banks or bacon  No more custard conesNo more custard cones  Cannot fly British flag in prisonsCannot fly British flag in prisons
  73. 73. London, Feb. 2006London, Feb. 2006
  74. 74. NorwayNorway  2006- Offensive statements about religion2006- Offensive statements about religion became punishable by fine andbecame punishable by fine and imprisonmentimprisonment  The accused is guilty until proven innocentThe accused is guilty until proven innocent  Oslo police afraid to crack down onOslo police afraid to crack down on Islamist gangsIslamist gangs  Finn Graff, cartoonist, depicts Jews asFinn Graff, cartoonist, depicts Jews as Nazis….afraid of IslamistsNazis….afraid of Islamists
  75. 75. EnglandEngland  Codie Scott, 14 y.o. arrested forCodie Scott, 14 y.o. arrested for complaining that her fellow Pakistanicomplaining that her fellow Pakistani students could not communicatestudents could not communicate  40% of Muslims want Sharia law40% of Muslims want Sharia law  70% refuse to condemn suicide bombers70% refuse to condemn suicide bombers  Ruth Kelly, GB communities secretary,Ruth Kelly, GB communities secretary, considers Sharia law in Muslimconsiders Sharia law in Muslim communitiescommunities
  76. 76. Pakistan, Feb. 2006Pakistan, Feb. 2006
  77. 77. Islamic terrorist attakcs in EuropeIslamic terrorist attakcs in Europe  France:France:  Danmark: duble attackDanmark: duble attack
  78. 78. Questions?Questions?

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