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Classroom Action Research (CAR)

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Classroom Action Research (CAR)

  2. 2. A. Definition of Classroom Action Research Action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research (Ferrance, 2000 : 1)
  3. 3. • According to Altrichter, Feldman, Posch & Somekh (2008:9) (as cited in Spector, Merrill, Elen & Bishop, 2014) defined that action research is a cyclical or spiraling process “that integrates theory with practice, through reflection and action planning”. • The process includes a series of steps including posing a question, collecting and analyzing data, and reporting findings.
  4. 4. B. The aim of Classroom Action Research Burns (2000) (as cited in Hien, 2009:98) • A means of remedying problems in a specific situations or somewhat improving a given set of circumstances. • A means of in-service training by equipping the teachers with new skills and methods, sharpening analytical powers and heightening self-awareness. • A means of injecting additional or innovatory approaches to teaching and learning into an ongoing system which normally inhibits innovation and change.
  5. 5. • A means of improving the normally poor communications between the practising teachers and the academic researchers and of remedying the failure of traditional research to give clear prescriptions. • A means of providing a preferable alternative to the more subjective, impressionistic approach to problem-solving in the classroom.
  6. 6. C. Characteristics of Classroom Action Reearch Based on Burns (2000:444): 1. Action research is situational – diagnosing a problem in a specific context and attempting to solve it in that context. 2. It is collaborative, with teams of rsearchers and practicioners working together. 3. It is participatory, as team members take part directly in implementing the research. 4. It is self evaluative – modifications are continuosly evaluated within the ongoing situation to improve practice.
  7. 7. D. The Principles of Classroom Action Research • Winter’s (1996, pp.13-14) explained about six key principles of action research (as cited in Cohen, Manion & Morrison, 2007) : 1. Reflexive critique, which is the process of becoming aware of our own perceptual biases 2. Dialectical critique, which is a way of understanding the relationships between the elements that make up various phenomena in our context 3. Collaboration, which is intended to mean that everyone’s view is taken as a contribution to understanding the situation 4. Risking disturbance, which is an understanding of our own taken-for-granted processess and willingness to submit them to critique
  8. 8. • Creating plural structures, which involves developing various accounts and critiques, rather than a single authorative interpretation • Theory and practice internalized, which is seeing theory and practices as two interdependent yet complementary phases of the change process
  9. 9. E. Types of Classroom Action Research Practical action research Participatory action research
  10. 10. • Definition of CAR types based on Creswell (2012): 1. Practical Action Research Teacher seek to research problems in their own classroom so that they can improve their students’ learning and their own professioanl performance. Example: • An elementary teacher studies the disruptive behavior of a child in her classroom. • A team composed of students, teachers and parents studies the result of implementing a new math program in the junior high. • A community college instructor studies his professional development using technology in teaching.
  11. 11. 2. Participatory action research Participatory action research has a social and community orientation and an emphasis on research that contributes to emacipation or change in our society. Example: • Tests that label and stereotype students • Texts that omit important historical persons or events of cultural and ethnic groups • Assessments that serve to confirm student failure rather than learning • K-12 classroom interactions that silence or quiet the voices of minority students
  12. 12. F. Model of Classroom Action Research (Adapted from Kemmis and Mc Taggart in Arikunto 2010:137) Planning ActingReflecting Observing Cycle 1 Planning Reflecting Observing ActingCycle 2 ?
  13. 13. G. Research Procedure 1. Planning Planning in action research is constructive and arises during discussion by the participants. The plan must cover critically examined action by each of participants and included the method of evaluating the changes implemented to solve the problem situation and concern.
  14. 14. 2. Acting Acting is the implementation of the planning which consists of some achievable steps that the researcher has to do in the research.
  15. 15. 3. Observation Observation in action research is portion of action research where the changes outlined in the plan are observed and determined their effects on the context of situation. Here the instrument to collect the data should be used.
  16. 16. 4. Reflecting After carrying out the teaching and learning activities, the researcher in this stage evaluates the result to see the effectiveness of the action program. By conducting the reflection, the researcher will find whether it is necessary to conduct another cycle.
  17. 17. H. Data Collection Strategies based on Ary, Jacobs, Sorenson & Razavieh (2010) Experiencing • Field notes • Observations • Other Collection Strategies Enquiring • Interviews • Written Responses • Performance measure • Other collection strategies Examining • Student Information • Teacher records • Teaching materials • District/school artifact • Other archival sources
  18. 18. I. Data Analysis Based on Spector Merrill, Elen & Bishop (2014): Quantitative data analysis Using Software programs Creating Charts Creating Table Running Statistical operations
  19. 19. • Qualitative data analysis Qualitative data analysis can provide a rich descriptions of the subject under study. To manage the amount of data, field notes and audio or video recordings should be transcribed into a workable format for data analysis.
  20. 20. I. Advantages of Classroom Action ` Research Gay and Airasian (as cited in Hien, 2009) • Teachers investigate their own practice in new ways, looking deeper in what they and their students actually do and fail to do. • Teachers develop a deeper understanding of students, the teacher learning process and their role in the education of both teachers and students. • Teachers are viewed as equal partners in deciding what works best and what needs improvement in their classroom or classrooms. • In most cases, solutions for identified problems are arrived cooperatively among teachers.
  21. 21. • Teachers are often more committed to action research because they identify the areas they view as problematical and in need of change. • Action research is an ongoing process and its strategies can be widely applied. • Professional development and school improvement are core aspects for any teacher who engages in action research. • Teacher refelection can be conducted individually or in a school-based team composed of students, teachers and admistrators.
  22. 22. J. Disadvantages of Classroom Action Research 1. Lack of knowledge and skills in basic engineering research on the part of researchers. 2. Action research requires a commitment of researchers to engage in the process, this time factor can be a big obstacle. 3. The weakness of the conception of the group process. 4. Difficulty getting people to make changes.
  23. 23. K. References • Ferrance, Eileen. (2000). Themes in Education; Action Research. USA: Northeast and islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University. • Hien, T. T. (2009). Why is action research suitable for education?. Vietnam: VNU Journal of Science. • Spector J. M., Merrill M. D., Elen J., Bishop M. J., (2014). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (4th ed.). USA: Springer . • Burns R. B., (2000). Introduction to Research Methods (4th ed.). Australia, Pearson Education Australia. • Creswell J. W. (2012). Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Educating Quantitative and Qualitative Research (4rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. • Cohen L., Manion L., and Morrison K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th ed.). New York: Routledge. • Anne Burns. (2010). Doing Action Research in English Language Teaching : A Guide for Practitioner. New York: Routledge. • Ary D., Jacobs L. C., Sorenson & Razavieh. (2010). Introduction to Research in Education. USA: Wadsworth cengage learning. • Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2010). Prosedur Penelitian. Jakarta: P.T Rineka Cipta.
  25. 25. Name: Rafika Nurhidayah F2201151006 Class A e-mail: rafika_nurhidayah@yahoo. com
  26. 26. Name: Jazilatul Adawiyah F2201151011 Class A e-mail: