Geography Teacher en Hope Haven Rwanda
8 de Feb de 2023

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  2. The word geography is derived from two Greek words; • Geo which means “the Earth” and • Graphein or grapho which means to “write, draw, or describe.” Origin of the word “Geography”
  3. The two words are joined form one word “geographia”, which stands for “writing about the Earth.” It also means describing the Earth, Earth description or to draw about the Earth.”
  4. Origin of the word “Geography” The term geography was first used in 240 B.C. It was introduced by a Greek philosopher known as Eratosthenes. He published a book about the earth and named it geography. According to this Greek scholar, geography is defined as writing about the planet Earth Eratosthenes is regarded as “the father of geography”
  5. Definitions of Geography 1. Geography is the study of humans and their surroundings 2. Geography is the study of the relationships existing between human beings and the environment. 3. Geography is a science that studies and describes the surface of the earth. 4. Geography is the scientific study of the Earth’s elements such as climate, countries, people and natural resources 5. Geography is the study of the Earth and its features and the distribution of life on it 6. Geography is the study of the physical characteristics of the Earth and their influence on human life and activities.
  6. Task 1.1 1. Briefly define the term geography. 2. Explain the meaning of the following i. Geo ii. Graphein iii. Geographia 3. Giving specific reasons, explain why Eratosthenes is very important in geography. 4. Identify the relationship that exists between man and the following physical features. i. Lakes ii. Forests iii. Land and soils iv. Atmosphere v. Rivers
  7. Branches of geography Physical Geography Biogeography Climatology Lithology Geomorphology Hydrography Human and Economic Geography Tourism Agriculture Industrialization Power and energy Pollution Population Settlement Urbanisation
  8. 1. Physical geography Physical geography is a branch of geography that deals with the study of the physical environment of humans
  9. Subdivision of physical geography 1. Biogeography: This is the study of the animals and plants found on the earth’s surface and their relationship with mankind 2. Climatology: This is the study that is concerned with climate and all its associated geographical aspect 3. Hydrography: This is the study of landforms – their formation and influence on humans’ way of living 4. Lithology: This is the study that deals with rocks and soils. It looks at their type, characteristics, formation 5. Geomorphology: This is the study of rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, swamps – their features, formation and types and their role in landform formation
  10. 2. Human and economic geography This is a branch of geography that deals with the study of human beings and their activities on the earth’s surface. Human and economic geography includes the following geographical aspects: • Mining • Forestry • Agriculture • Trade and commerce • Power and energy • Pollution • Population • Settlement • Urbanisation • Industrialisation
  11. Practical geography This is a minor branch of geography that deals with scientific approaches that are aimed towards collecting, studying, analysing, recording and interpreting geographical data.
  12. Practical geography is done in a practical way hence the name practical geography. This includes the following. • Fieldwork studies • Maps and map work • Statistical methods such as divided circles and graphs. • Photographic interpretation, where various physical and human features are recorded in the form of photographs for further interpretation
  13. Importance of geography Studying geography as a subject is very important in the following ways: ❖It creates platform for learners to research on different topics ❖It assists learners to know outside world as they do research ❖It gives learners knowledge and skills that enable them to understand their surroundings (environment) ❖It enables humans to understand problems that face their community and find possible solutions ❖It helps learners to put into practice what they theoretically learnt in class ❖It equips individual knowledge of the relationship with people from different communities
  14. ❖It informs the attitudes that countries and individuals have towards other countries ❖It equips people with problem solving skills ❖It provides learners with knowledge on the available resources that humans can utilize for survival. ❖It provides guidance to leaders on how to allocate national resources to all parts of the country. ❖It enables the government and related agencies during the formulation of policies through geographical studies and findings ❖It provides learners with a strong foundation in understanding other subjects of equal importance such as physics, mathematics, and economics.
  15. Sources of geographical information Sources of geographical information: these are different materials that a geographer uses to obtain information. They include the following: ❖Textbooks: these are documents that have a lot of information concerning specific geographical aspects ❖Atlases: these are collections of maps that present geographical features, political boundaries, geopolitical, social, religion etc… ❖Mass media: this refers to all means of public communication that reach large audiences. for example: radios, TV, newspapers, etc…. ❖Maps: these are as diagrammatic representation of an area of land or sea. They show physical and man made features ❖Internet: is a technological way used to research for information from different sites. Such as Google, Facebook etc….
  16. ❖Libraries: a library is place where books, documents, documentaries and films are stored. It is a reliable source of geographical information ❖Billboards: these are large outdoors advertising structure that present advertisement to pedestrians and motorists ❖Museums: these are places selected for storing a variety of historical and geographical information and artefacts. Examples: natural History museum (Kandt house) located at Nyarugenge in Kigali, Ethnographic mnuseum located at Huye, Presidential Palace museum located at Kanombe in Kigali, King’s Palace museum located at Rukari in Nyanza, and National Liberation Park museum located in Gicumbi.
  17. Sources of geographical information Textbook Maps
  18. Graphs Billboards People Library
  19. Internet Field Physical environment Museums
  20. Relationship between geography and other subjects a) Geography and Mathematics Geography involves mathematical principles such as calculations and statistical figures in calculating distance, length of a road, and presenting statistical data b) Geography and Chemistry Geography involves chemical principles to study certain chemical aspects such as rock composition, rock weathering, air composition etc. c) Geography and Physics Geography involves physical principles to study certain physical concepts such as waves, mass wasting that are found in earthquakes and influence of gravity in mass wasting
  21. d) Geography and Biology Geography studies living and non living things by using biological principles such as their characteristics, way of living etc…. e) Geography and Economics Geography involves economic principles to study production distribution, and consumption. f) Geography and History Geography involves History to record the events of past and present to study the population, origin of tribes, and groups.
  22. Techniques/tools used by a geographer Geographers use a set of specialized tools to describe, understand and explain the structure of the Earth. They include: ❖ Maps: such as topographical maps showing physical features of an area, administrative structure, etc.. ❖ Compass: such as compass rose (wind rose) providing directions from one place to another. ❖ Surveying equipment such as tap measure, and a plumb line to accurately assess even small details of an area. camera, the theodolite which is consisting of a small mounted telescope that helps measure relative distance and elevation (horizontal and vertical angles). ❖ Modern tools: such as Global Positioning Systems (G.P.S) guiding ships across the ocean, positioning astronauts in space, and feeding the detailed information about position and the geographical context nearby.
  23. Notice: Global Positioning Systems help you navigate by feeding you detailed information about your position and the geographical context nearby. Global Information Systems (GIS) and Global Directional Systems (GDS) are similar tools. GIS is a database of geographic information consistently updated by academic, business and military sources, while Global Directional Systems help navigate from a database rather than live satellite feed. Geographers use all three systems to help them access what is already known about the Earth to help with ongoing research.
  24. Wind rose
  25. Tape measure
  26. Theodolite