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Between December 2015 and October 2018, Ovsyannikov and Timchenko were involved in operating a purported advertising network and carried out a digital advertising fraud scheme, referred to in the advertising industry as “3ve.2 Template A.” In this scheme, the defendants used a global “botnet” a network of malware-infected computers operated without the true owner’s knowledge or consent to perpetrate their fraud. The defendants developed an intricate infrastructure of command-and-control servers to direct and monitor the infected computers, and to detect whether a particular infected computer had been flagged by cybersecurity companies as being associated with fraud. By using this infrastructure, the defendants accessed more than 1.7 million infected computers belonging to individuals and businesses in the United States and elsewhere, and used hidden browsers on those infected computers to download fabricated webpages and load advertisements onto those fabricated webpages. Meanwhile, the owners of the infected computers were unaware that this process was running in the background on their computers. As a result of this scheme, the defendants falsified billions of advertisement views and caused businesses to pay more than $29 million for advertisements that were never actually viewed by human internet users.